Accounting for the amount of materials alone can inform some decisions that will positively affect environmental performance. After completing a materials accounting exercise, some companies are able to immediately identify a particularly wasteful process that is ripe for improvement. This study is an example of how companies effectively used materials and cost accounting in an environmental management system framework to achieve their goal of reducing the use and release of hazardous wastes. The enhancement of profit and reduction of the impact on the environment may be difficult to combine, but that compatibility is demanded today. It is very important to manage business with an environmental management accounting tool such as MFCA in order to achieve these ends. It is very meaningful and creative to share and discuss the experiences of Korea and Japan. In material flow management, material physical data in terms of environmental information is integrated with cost information (economic information) and evaluated based on the physical data. Thus MFCA offers a new set of information-different from conventional cost accounting-relevant for decision making.