Goddess is one of the most powerful symbols that challenges the power of the patriarchal male God, and the effort to resurrect her image parallels Luce Irigaray`s attempt to establish a new symbolic order for female representation. This paper investigates how studies on Goddess are inextricably bound with the questions of maternity and sexuality and argues that, in spite of her gradual suppression, the Paleolithic Great Goddess, or Earth Mother, has remained in our subconscious, her traces being found in figures such as Gaia and the Virgin Mary. Archaeological evidence of the prehistoric Goddess not only helps to free women and artists from a deeply rooted Judeo-Christian ethos that portrays female sexuality as evil, but also inspires them to affirm the female body as a source of pleasure and power. Serving as a muse for the arts, the image of Goddess is reclaimed as sacred iconography, and her revival in our culture lies at the core of an attempt to establish a new symbolic order for women. The paper also attempts at a contemporary reinterpretation of classical mythic goddesses by claiming that goddesses such as Artemis and Athena are representatives of independent and highly educated contemporary women.