This article examines fin-de-siecle masculinity in crisis that is visible both within a man and between men in Robert Louis Stevenson`s The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In order to understand anxious masculinity in the broader context of Victorian concepts of masculinity, I analyze the changes from a Carlylean fascination with monastery to a failure of male-bonding, on the one hand, and from a mid-Victorian exaltation of the primitive to a fin-de-siecle despairing fear of it, on the other. Celibate professional men in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde favor a male-male friendship over a heterosexual relationship, privileging male homosocial bonding that is expressed in the socially sanctioned form of professionalism. However, they only reveal the tenuous and fundamentally unstable boundary between homosociality and homosexuality. Furthermore, the cohabitation of divinity and bestiality within a male body, which Kingsley saw as the very source of masculine vitality, turns out to be disastrous in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Whereas Carlyle and Kingsley were confident in managing male sexuality and primitive forces, Stevenson`s professional men can neither contain nor elevate them.