본 연구에서는 상담회기 중에 초심상담자들과 경력상담자들이 어떤 공감유형을 하는지 그 차이를 알아보고자 하였다. 연구 대상은 초심상담자와 경력상담자 각 5명씩 모두 10명으로 하였다. 이를 위해 최근 6개월 이내에 심리상담을 진행 중인 수퍼비전경력 10학기 이하의 초심상담자와 수퍼비전학기 10학기 이상의 경력상담자의 상담 사례를 전사축어록 형태로 수집하였다. 공감 유형의 조작적 정의를 위해 연구자를 포함한 상담전문가 3인이 평정작업에 참여하였고, 또 다른 1명의 상담전문가가 감수자로서 이에 대한 타당성을 검토하였다. 상담사례를 분석한 결과 경력상담자는 초심상담자들에 비해 인지적, 표현적, 복합적 공감유형 모두에서 높은 비율의 공감 반응을 하는 것으로 나타났다. 초심상담자와 경력상담자들 모두 표현적 공감을 가장 많이 사용했고 다음으로는 인지적 공감, 정서적 공감, 복합적 공감 순으로 나타났다. 또한 상담사례의 경력별 내용분석을 통하여 깊고 정확한 공감의 중요성을 확인하였다. 연구 결과를 바탕으로 상담자, 교육 및 훈련과 수퍼비전에 대한 시사점을 논의하였다.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the frequency of empathy, empathic patterns, and comparative analysis of empathic contents in counseling session by novice and experienced counselors. According to the operant definition, the empathic patterns consist cognitive, emotive, communicative, and combinative empathy. The subjects of this study were 10 counseling cases, 5 by novice and 5 by experienced counselors. 10 cases were analysed in form of verbatim of counseling between November, 2012 to March, 2013. The selected 10 cases were analysed by domain coding, core-idea coding, cross analysis, balanced method of inspection according to consensual qualitative research. 1 assessors including the author and 2 inspectors took part in the study in this course. The results of this study were as follows. First, the experienced counselors showed higher empathic quotient as compared with novice counselors. Second, in comparison of empathic patterns, both group showed the most proportion of communicative empathy, followed by cognitive, emotive, and combinative empathy. The analysis of empathic contents was made to clarify qualitative differences of empathic responses between experienced and novice counselors. The experienced counselors improved their empathy ability through the awareness in empathy for other people`s situations. They noticed client`s meaningful arguments faster and have showed more abilities to apprehend client`s structure of cognition. This study is significant in providing experiential research about counselor`s empathic reflection in empathic patterns. The experienced counselors had to acquire practical knowledge of empathy to deal flexibly with various problematic situation in counseling. It was confirmed by that practical knowledge empathy can be acquired by constant reflection of experience of empathy. Especially, it is significant that various aspects of empathy of counselors was revealed by confirming reflections from concrete empathic pattern. Also, this study revealed positive ground of counselor`s development and suggested implications for group counselor education, by focusing on the different patterns of empathy and characteristics of empathy following the experience level of counselors. The implications of the results were discussed in terms of counselor training and supervision.