Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify factors affecting elders` intention to participate in healthcare programs. Methods: This secondary data analysis used data of 390 elderly people who lived alone and were enrolled in the Visiting Health Care Center of H-city. In 2014, questionnaires were used to collect data about demographics, social activity, depression, frailty, and intention to participate in healthcare programs. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions. Results: Among the participants, 51.8% intended to participate in the offered healthcare programs. The strongest factor affecting the intention was gender. Women were 4.85 times more likely to participate in the programs than men. The women`s intention was associated positively with increased levels of frailty. The men tended to participate in the program as they got older and as the level of frailty and the number of chronic diseases increased. Conclusion: Gender-specific public healthcare programs for vulnerable elders living alone should be developed to maximize their participation in the programs and to promote good health. The healthcare programs must be tailored to the levels of the patients` physical functions.