Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating and moderating effects of fall-related efficacy and social support on the relationship between frailty and health-related quality of life among rural community-dwelling elderly. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenient sampling method, and data of 438 elderly residents living in a rural community was used. The structured questionnaire included items from the Euro Quality of life-5 Dimensions (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/ depression), fall-related efficacy and social support. Results: Analysis of the mediating effect of fall-related efficacy and social support showed that there was significant mediating influence of fall-related efficacy on the relationship between frailty and health-related quality of life. There were no moderating effects of fall-related efficacy and social support. Conclusion: The findings suggest that fall-related efficacy may play a role in reducing the effect of frailty on health-related quality of life and underscore the need to consider ways of enhancing fall-related efficacy in interventions for rural community-dwelling frail elderly.