본고는 조선 후기의 산림처사로 추앙받았던 梅山 洪直弼이 젊은 시절에 지은 시를 중심으로, 첫째, 闢邪衛道의 의지, 둘째, 尊明排淸義理의 추구, 셋째, 山居를 통한 自靖의 실천으로 나누어 살펴보아서 홍직필의 문학세계를 이해 하는데 일조하였다.
첫째, `闢邪衛道의 의지`를 드러내고 있다. 홍직필은 조선이 末世가 된 것은 斯道가 洛論과 湖論으로 나뉘어져서 서로 자신들의 의론이 옳다고 다투는 사이 천주교와 같은 異端이 闖入한 것이 원인이라고 여겼다. 그는 사도의 부흥은 분열된 학파의 통합과 함께 선현들을 ?揚하고, 제자들을 독려하여 사도에 귀감이 되는 인재를 양성하며, 풍속을 바로잡고 기강을 바로 세워야한다고 하였다.
둘째, `尊明背淸義理의 추구`를 드러내고 있다. 홍직필이 살았던 18세기 전반은 일부 老論 집권층을 제외하고 백성들은 명나라의 再造之恩에 대한 의식이 거의 퇴색되어 있었다. 그러나 그는 가문적 자부심과 학문적 배경으로 尊明義理가 남달라서 명나라가 망했어도 그 은혜를 잊지 않아야 된다고 주장 하였다. 그의 존명의리는 排淸意識으로 확대되어 청나라를 `개`라고 비하하는 등 적개심을 드러내고, 이를 물리쳐서 문명화된 중화세계를 회복시키는 일을 자임 하였다.
셋째, `山居를 통한 自靖의 실천`을 드러내고 있다. 홍직필은 아버지의 강권으로 과거에 응시하였으나 낙방을 한 이후 과거공부를 단념하였다. 그는 39세에 世子洗馬로 8일간 出仕를 했다가 사퇴한 이후 여러 벼슬이 제수되었으나 평생 출사하지 않았다. 그는 당대의 현실이 세도정치로 인한 정치의 파행과 斯道가 점점 쇠퇴해지고 여기에 더하여 서구에서 전래된 천주교가 나날이 성행하는 현실을 말세라고 인식하고 守身安分을 위해 산림에 거처하면서, 학문을 연마하고 후학을 기르겠다는 自靖의 의지를 드러냈다.
앞으로의 연구과제는 홍직필의 중후반기 이후에 주로 지어진 일상의 시들의 분석하고, 그의 시문학에 대한 전반적인 연구를 하여 19세기 한문학사에서 그가 차지하는 문학사적 위상을 찾아보는 연구는 추후 과제로 남긴다.
Maesan Hong Jik-pil was excellent in academics to be praised by his mentor, Park Yun-won, for "We entrust our Do to you." He as a Nakron School scholar who abandoned the preparation of the civil service examination devoted himself to scholarship by living in scholar living in the forest, and produced numerous students. He wrote a vast number of poems reaching 3,555 poems at leisure from studies and cultivation of junior scholars, and his poems were evaluated as profound.
This study focusing on the poems that Hong Jik-pil wrote during his youth, explore s first, the will of defeating the evil and defending the discipline, second, the pursuit of just as human beings, and third, his practicing living in retirement (自靖) through abandoning the government and living in the mountains, to help understand his literary world.
First, this study examined the poems that revealed the will of `the defeating the evil and defending the discipline.` Hong Jik-pil believed that the end of Joseon was caused by the fact that heresy such as Catholic came into the gap while Confucianism was divided into Nakron and Horon, fighting each other with their alleged arguments. He said that the revival of Confucianism, together with the consolidation of divided schools, should enhance ancient sages, encourage the scholastic disciples to cultivate talents who will become paragons, correct the customs, and establish the discipline.
Second, this study looked at the `poems` pursued by just as human beings. In the first half of the 18th century when Hong Jik-pil lived, with the exception of some Noron ruling classes, the people had almost no sense of Ming`s grace that saved the dying. However, his fidelity of respecting Ming was in the background of family pride and academic background, so that he argued that the grace should not be forgotten even if Ming was ruined. His fidelity of respecting Ming has expanded to the will to defeat Qing, and the spirit of coping with national affairs, which praises a person who gave his life as the fidelity to one`s principle among the historical figures of our country on the extension line of protecting justice.
Third, this study explored the `poems` of practicing a life in retirement through self -discipline and living in the mountains. Hong Jik-pil took the civil service examination as a compulsory solicitation of his father, but gave up his study of the civil service examination after he failed. After his resignation at Sejasema for eight days at the age of 39, he had been appointed to several public posts, but he did not enter on an official career for the rest of his life. He perceived that the reality of the present day was the end of politics caused by Sedo politics and the decline of Confucianism, and the fact that Catholic, which was introduced from the West, became more and more popular every day. Living in the forest for keeping one`s body and chastity (守身安分), he showed his willingness to living in retirement (自靖) to cultivate his academy and to cultivate junior scholars.
Future research is to analyze his poems of everyday life which were mainly written after the middle and later period of Hong Jik-pil, and review his poetry as a whole in order to identify his position in the history of Sino-Korean literature in the 19th century.