Verbal culture is under the control of the collective memory since it is more dependent on the ears and memory of the popular rather on writng and written forms, and perishes if someone does not continue to speak of it. Oral literature and mythology carry in them some essential values and realities which collective mind expresses, consciously or unconsciously, of a society. For this reason, problematics and method of analysis in the study of oral literature are not quiet different from those of mythology.
The purpose of this paper is to reexamine the nature and value of the myth by reflecting mainly on Dumezil's comparative research and Levi-Strauss's structural analysis, with some important utterances argued in the realm of mythology. The concept of trifunctional ideology as a means of analysis for Dumezil and that of the structure of myth for Levi-Strauss, each of these attests in its own way a universality of human mind. While the former is a common ideology of the indo-european peoples, the latter, the unity of the logic of mental operation. But these two scholars do not content to reveal certain unity of human thingking. Their works don't miss demonstrating the regional and cultural specificities which a myth preserves in its depth. This will be affirmed by two examples of their researches presented in this paper. It will accomplish more of its object if this paper also provokes methodological reflcctions to those who studies korean oral literature.