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“有+V”結構在南方方言中的功能考察

A Study on the Grammartical Functions of ‘有(YOU)+V’ in the Southern Chinese Dialect

최재영 , 장빈

- 발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회

- 발행년도 : 2018

- 간행물 : 중국언어연구, 76권 0호

- 페이지 : pp.153-183 ( 총 31 페이지 )


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초록(한국어)
目前,學界對于漢語南方方言中“有+V”結構的硏究還主要是以單個方言里語法現象的描述爲主,對于“有”的類型學角度的對比硏究還不勾深入。而且對于南方方言中“有”字所表示的義項的討論結果尙未統一,分岐主要集中在“‘有+V’中‘有’用不用作體標記”的問題上。 本稿具體考察結果如下: 第一,根据“空間向時間投射”、“隱喩的轉移”以及跨語言中存在領有動詞語法化爲體標記的大量事實作出判斷,漢語南方方言中的“有+V”結構內的“有”是一種體標記。 第二,根据前人硏究梳理出“有+V”在漢語方言中的八種功能,具體如下: A:完整體、完成體(“了₁、了₂”) B:經歷體(“過”) C:持續體(“着”) D:進行體(“在/正/正在”) E:卽將體(“將要/要~了”) F:表示行爲動作達到的程度或說明狀態、性質的程度副詞(“很”) G:情態助動詞:認識情態(等同于“會”)或動力情態(意志)(等同于“要/想”) H:表示條件的關聯副詞(如果/要是~的話) 第三,闽方言中使用“有+V”的地區最多。 第四,跨語言中的領有動詞“有”可以變化成表示“存在、將來時、强制(語氣)、完成體”的功能,這些功能的變化可以看作是典型的變化,而表示“將來、完成”的功能也見于漢語南方方言中。 第五,漢語中“有+V”與“沒(有)+V”在南方方言和普通話中呈現出對稱與不對稱的對立關系,人們在語言的使用過程中會无意識地去尋找一種與“沒有+V”對稱的“有+V”來使用, 從而借用這種對稱的結構來塡補“沒有+V”與“V+了”的不對稱性。
초록(외국어)
Currently, the study of ‘有(YOU)+V’ in the Southern Chinese dialect was mostly concentrated on the description of grammatical phenomena of individual dialect. The contrastive study of ‘有(YOU)’ from the perspective of Typological Linguistics was not as good as expected. Moreover, the discussion results on the meaning of the word ‘有(YOU)’ in the Southern Chinese dialect have not been unified. Major disagreement was focused on the question of whether was the ‘有(YOU)’ used as Aspect-marker(體標記) or not. Bases on the large number of literatures reviews and relative discussion, this problem was studied in this paper and the following results were concluded. Firstly, according to the methods of ‘Space to time projection’ and ‘Metaphorical transfer’ and the judgements based on a large number of possessive verb involving the grammaticalisation(詞語法) of linguistic signs in the cross-language, the ‘有(YOU)’ in the ‘有(YOU)+V’ structure in Southern Chinese dialect is characterized as a Aspect-marker. Secondly, Eight functions of the ‘有(YOU)+V’ in Chinese dialect have been summarized according to the investigation on former researches, including A:perfective, perfect(‘了₁(LE1),了₂(LE2)’) B:experiential(‘過(GUO)’) C:continuous(‘着(ZHE)’) D:progressive(‘在/正/正在(ZAI/ZHENG/ZHENGZAI)’) E:future (‘將要/要~了(JIANGYAO/YAO~LE)’) F:The extent to which the behavior is reached or the adverb of degree that explains the status and nature. (‘很(HEN)’) G:Modal Auxiliary:epistemic modality(‘會(HUI)’) and dynamic modality. (volition‘要(YAO)’) H:Correlative adverbs that represent conditions. (要是/如果~的話(YAOSHI/ RUGUO~DEHUA)) Thirdly, the largest area among Chinese dialects where the ‘有(YOU)+V’ was used is the Min dialect area. Fourthly, the possessive verb ‘有(YOU)’ in cross-language, can be changed to express the function of EXIST, FUTURE, OBLIGATION OR PERFECT. And these changes in the functions can be regarded as the typical change. The functions of the FUTURE and PERFECT are also found in the Southern Chinese dialect. Finally, the ‘有(YOU)+V’ and the ‘沒有(MEIYOU)+V’ presents an opposite relationship between symmetry and asymmetry in the Southern Chinese dialect and Mandarin. People will unconsciously look for the ‘有(YOU)+V’ to use in reality, as a symmetry to ‘沒有(MEIYOU)+V’, in order to produce the asymmetry between ‘沒有(MEIYOU)+V’ and ‘V+了(LE)’.

논문정보
  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 중어중문학
  • - 발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회
  • - 간행물 : 중국언어연구, 76권 0호
  • - 발행년도 : 2018
  • - 페이지 : pp.153-183 ( 총 31 페이지 )
  • - UCI(KEPA) : I410-ECN-0102-2018-700-003732318
저널정보
  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 중어중문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기 : 격월
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-554x
  • - 수록범위 : 1991–2019
  • - 수록 논문수 : 1237