汉语是世界上使用人数最多的语言, 具有悠久的文化历史。因此汉语中存在着大量语义相近的同义词, 如何准确地理解他们之间的细微差异并恰当使用, 对于汉语非本族学习者而言一直是一大难题。一般的同义词辨析大都通过字典等工具, 依靠直觉经验和内省的方式。而使用字典辨析, 虽具有权威性, 但受其编撰方式的限制, 往往无法达到准确辨析的目的；以往依靠直觉经验和内省的方式, 又因受研究者所处地区方言及语言习惯的影像, 其研究结果往往不够客观。大型语料库极其先进地检索工具以其特有的优势为同义词辨析提供了新的方法。语料库语言学是普通语言学的一个分支, 用特的文本分析软件工具对大型机读文本库进行分析。
语料库语言学途径的同义词辨析主要通过考察同义词在不同语域中的词频分布差异。统计各搭配词与关键词共现的显著程度, 观察检索行中所呈现的同义词搭配特征, 揭示出它们不同的类联结、搭配关系和语义韵等语言特征。得益于巨大库容的语料库所提供的翔实的证据, 语料库索引可对同义词群提供丰富的用法和语境, 使研究者能够比较和掌握同义词之间细微的语义语用差异, 实现对同义词的细微差异进行客观和全面的描述。
本文通过介绍同义词的定义和分类, 利用BCC语料库, 辨析同义词的词频分布差异, 单词搭配差异和语义韵的差异等方面的特征, 进一步探讨汉语同义词的细微差异, 以助于恰当使用同义词, 进而更好的发挥汉语交际功能。
This article tried to grasp the similarities and differences between synonyms “預定” and “預訂” and the complementarity of collocation objects in order to better understand and use them through empirical research. Most of the general synonyms are identified by tools such as dictionaries, relying on intuitional experience and introspection. Although the dictionary is authoritative, it has many shortcomings to distinguish the synonym by only the dictionary. Large corpus and advanced retrieval tools provide a new method for the discrimination of synonyms with their unique advantages. In this paper, Beijing Language and Culture University advanced big data and Language Education Institute based on BCC corpus, adopting the research method of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, the synonym of “預定” and “預訂” as an example, from the register distribution, colligation, collocation and semantic prosody features aspects of the empirical research of synonyms. Constant expansion of corpus and complete retrieval technology has perfected gradually, based on linguistic corpus collected individually by widely used, and attaches great importance to the English vocabulary teaching and research methods would gradually to compile a dictionary is of great significance. This paper introduces the synonym of the definitions and classification, using BCC corpus semantic rhymes and words with differences, differences in distribution, paper discusses the synonym discrimination of the characteristics of difference, etc., and further explore the Chinese as well as the synonym of nuances, to helps See also Synonyms at using appropriate, and better as to give full play to the Chinese social functions.