Purpose: This study evaluates the efficacy of a Self-Care Reinforcement Program (SCRP) based on the Selection Optimization Compensation (SOC) model, in socially vulnerable elderly women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: This study adopts a pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. The participants were 64 socially vulnerable elderly Korean women with metabolic syndrome (experimental group: 31, control group: 33). Participants’ body composition analysis, nutrient intake, risk factors of metabolic syndrome, depressive symptoms, and social network were measured. Data were analyzed with an independent t-test; statistical significance levels were set at p<.05. The SCRP, including metabolic syndrome education, nutritional education, exercise, and social network, was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the experimental and control groups in terms of systolic blood pressure, diastolic pressure, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, sodium intake, depressive symptoms, and social networks. Conclusion: The SCRP is effective and can be recommended as a community health nursing intervention for socially vulnerable elderly women with metabolic syndrome.