Purpose: The purpose of this study is to construct and test a structural equation model of posttraumatic growth (PTG) of earthquake victims based on Tedeschi and Calhoun’s model (2004). Methods: Data were collected from 195 earthquake victims living in K. City. The exogenous variables include distress perception, resilience, and social support, and the endogenous variables include intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, and posttraumatic growth. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed. Results: The modified model showed a good fitness to the data. Moreover, 6 of the 9 paths of the final model were statistically significant, which include PTG affected by deliberate rumination (β=.58, p<.001), resilience (γ=.18, p=.001), and distress perception (γ=.20, p=.002). These predictors explain 51.8% of variance in posttraumatic growth. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to develop and disseminate preventive intervention programs to increase the resilience of earthquake-prone communities. In addition, after exposure to a community-scale traumatic event such as earthquake, we should provide social supports to alleviate distress perception and transition from intrusive rumination to deliberate rumination so that we can seek new meaning from the earthquake and facilitate posttraumatic growth.