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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

중국언어연구검색

Journal of Chinese Linguistics in Korea


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 중어중문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 격월
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-554x
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 72권 0호 (2017)

상고 중국어에 보이는 -ts 현상 및 그와 관련된 몇 가지 예(例)에 관한 소고(小考)

김준수 ( Kim Jun-soo )
한국중국언어학회|중국언어연구  72권 0호, 2017 pp. 1-33 ( 총 33 pages)
6,800
초록보기
In Old Chinese, some of the Yue group (月部) originated from the He group (?部), and some of the Wu group (物部) and the Zhi group (質部) came from the Qi group (緝部). This is a phenomenon that reflects the sound change of *-ps > *-ts, where the suffix *-s, the origin of qusheng (去聲), assimilated the place of articulation of the bilabial stop and changed it to the alveolar stop. This study reviewed the preceding researches related to this phenomenon and discussed the reconstruction in some of the related examples. The conclusions of this study can be summarized as follows. First, in Old Chinese, the verb “weep” was *khrШb, and the noun “tears” derived from it with the attachment of the suffix *-s was *rШbs. While *khrШb was written with the character “泣 qi” at all times, *rШbs was written with “? ta” in the Shang-Zhou period, and with “淚 lei” in the Qin-Han period. Second, in Old Chinese, the root of the verb “reach” is presumed to have had the same word form as that of LШP. This word was written with several characters such as “戾 li”, “?(遝) ta”, “隸(逮) dai”, “及 ji” and “? ji”. Among these, the final of “戾 li” , “隸(逮) dai” and “? ji” was originally *-ps, but through its change to *-ts, they became qusheng in Middle Chinese. Third, in Old Chinese, the verb “provide” was *krub (or perhaps *krШb), and the noun “provided food” derived from it with the attachment of the suffix *-s was *qhШbs. While *krub was written with the character “給 ji” at all times, *qhШbs was written with ‘ “氣 qi”, which was replaced by “? xi” later. Fourth, in Old Chinese, the verb “inhale” was *qhrШb, and the noun “vapors” deprived from it with the attachment of the suffix *-s was *khШbs. The verb “sigh”, which was also deprived from the verb “inhale” (*qhrШb) was *khШːbs. While *qhrШb was written with the character “吸 xi” at all times, *khШbs was first written with “氣 qi” and with “氣 qi” later. In the case of *khШːbs, it was written with “愾 kai”, by adding “心 xin” to “氣 qi”. Fifth, as “旣 ji” is a phonetic element of “? ji”, as well as “? qi”, which is a variant of “氣 qi”, although its final was originally *-ps, through its change to *-ts, it became qusheng in Middle Chinese. Sixth, in Old Chinese, the verb “cast aside” was *pabs, which was first written with “? fa”, and later with “廢 fei”. This verb was originally pronounced as *pabs, so it was written with “? fa”, which was read as *pab (< *p-qab). However, as its pronunciation changed into *pads, it was written with “廢 fei”, which had “發 fa” read as *pad as its phonetic element.

『金剛經』에 나타난 중국어 붓다(Buddha) 호칭어의 화용론적 특징

이명아 , 한용수
한국중국언어학회|중국언어연구  72권 0호, 2017 pp. 35-58 ( 총 24 pages)
5,900
초록보기
This paper investigates the pragmatic features of Chinese names in the Diamond Sutra that refer to the Buddha. The following were the results. First, the Chinese names of the Buddha written in the Diamond Sutra included “shijiamouni (釋迦牟尼),” “fo (佛),” “shizun (世尊),” and “rulai (如來).” The terms were either liberal or semantic translations of the original Sanskrit words to Chinese. Second, whether the Chinese names were adopted as titles of respect, and how they were used in the sutra was examined. Whether the names were meant as being respectful was analyzed based on dictionary annotations and the usage in the Diamond Sutra. The results were that while “shijiamouni (釋迦牟尼),” “fo (佛),” and “shizun (世尊)” could be considered as titles of respect, since they imply admiration for the Buddha, there is little evidence of a link between “rulai (如來)” and reverence. However, since “ru (如)” refers to the “absolute truth” in Buddhism, “rulai (如來)” could also be classified as a title of respect from a religious perspective. Finally, one of the biggest differences among the frequently used Chinese names in the Diamond Sutra is that while “shizun (世尊)” is mainly used when addressing the Buddha, “shijiamouni (釋迦牟尼),” “fo (佛),” and “shizun (世尊)” are usually used for describing his title. Also, when categorized by the narrator, “rulai (如來)” is a third person pronoun of the Buddha. Xubuti uses “fo (佛)” and “shizun (世尊)” as second person pronouns and “rulai (如來)” as a third person pronoun. Meanwhile, Ananda employs “fo (佛)” as a third person pronoun for the Buddha.

‘정(正)’의 진행의미 재고 ― ‘재(在)’와의 비교를 통하여

박신순
한국중국언어학회|중국언어연구  72권 0호, 2017 pp. 59-87 ( 총 29 pages)
6,400
초록보기
‘Zheng’ used before the verb to show progressing meaning is not efficient to form a independent sentence, it is possible to use the state verb and semelfactive verb in the progressing sentences, and it can also used with the auxiliary verbs to show imminent situation. According to these points, this paper tries to confirm whether ‘zheng’ has the function of indicating the progressing aspect through the comparing with ‘zai’. ‘Zai’ fulfills all the basic semantic elements of progressing. That is the agent is in the middle of spatial orientation at a given time of doing something. But ‘zheng’ only fulfills the standard of a given time and satisfies other standard sometimes or can not satisfies them all. ‘Zheng’ can express the progressing aspect at a quite limited degree, because it can be explained that it is the extension of the original meaning of ‘be straight not leaning’. There is long process for ‘zheng’ to become the real aspect marker after the grammaticalization. In addition, it is appropriate to consider ‘zhengzai’ as the combination of ‘zai’ and ‘zheng’ which shows the coincidence in time.
5,900
초록보기
NSM theory(Natural Semantic Meta-language) which was proposed by the Polish Semantics as a new research methodology of semantics, advocates the use of natural language used by ordinary people and the “reductive paraphrase” method to explain concepts or words. In other words, NSM theory considers semantic primes, semantic molecules, and the simplest words and grammars which exist in almost all languages of the world as metalanguage to make semantic analyses for the relatively complex concepts or words and build their semantic templates. Through these, NSM theory can achieve the effects of simplicity, clarity and avoid the recursitivity. This paper attempts to use this methodology to make semantic analyses for the separation verbs “찢다”, “뜯다” in Korean and “?” in Chinese, and construct their respective semantic templates to confirm their similarities and differences. Through these, we can provide Korean and Chinese learners with some thinking and inspiration when they study these separation verbs.
초록보기
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the causes of frequent confusion in the field of Chinese language education and the cause of constraint of object word order. When the object is object noun, it is located behind the quantity bore. If the object is human natural ambiguity, “V + C +的 + O” structure and “V + O + C” structure in order to find the answer to the question, It can be explained and proved from cognitive view.

‘가(可)X’형 형용사의 유형과 형용사성 분석

고영란
한국중국언어학회|중국언어연구  72권 0호, 2017 pp. 141-170 ( 총 30 pages)
6,500
초록보기
The ‘keX(可X)’ type adjective is very deeply related to the diachronic transition process of ‘ke(可)’. ‘ke(可)’ comes to the stage of changing from the verb to the auxiliary verb, followed by a syllable verb and adjective morpheme. After taking the work ‘於’, it accompanies a syllable noun morpheme. The ‘keX (可X)’ type adjective started from this syntactic structure. And as this structure becomes customary, ‘ke(可)’ would gradually function similar to a kind of prefix constituting ‘keX(可X)’ type adjective. One noticeable point is that the derivation of the ‘keX(可X)’ type adjective is still underway and will possibly continue in the future. From the functional aspect of the adjective, it can be seen that the ‘keX(可X)’ type adjective has a more adjective typical adjectives with higher commercialization and customization. On the other hand, adjectives with a relatively low degree of commercialization and customization tend to exhibit such characteristics passively.

從三個平面看≪齊民要術≫連謂結構的特征

사위국
한국중국언어학회|중국언어연구  72권 0호, 2017 pp. 197-218 ( 총 22 pages)
5,700
초록보기
There are a lot of Serial Verb Constructions which are related to the historical development of the V-C-O Structure in < Qi Min Yao Shu >. Semantically, the V1 telling the behavior locates the front, the V2 as a supplementary note of some result or state locates the later, and a “action - result” semantic relation is formed between V1 and V2. This semantic relation fulfills the principle of the Chinese Time Order. Syntactically, the proportion of the V1V2 structure is most, the combination forms with O(object) include V1OV2、 V1V2O、V1O1V2O2. The location of the object in the combination forms and other insertion components can prove the density degree of the semantic relation, syntactic relation between V1 and V2. It can fulfil the distribution principle of the sentence stems and the supplementary component. Pragmatically, V1 lays particular stress on the structural focus, V2 lays particular stress on the expression focus. And a pragmatic structure “Structural focus - Expression focus” can be formed between V1 and V2, this structure can fulfill the arrangement principle of the Chinese information structure. So through the analysis of the existence characteristic of the Serial Verb Construction in semantic, syntactic and pragmatic, we can master the development feature of the V-C-O structure in the Medieval Chinese period.

現代漢語語氣副詞的分布與句子信息結構的關系探討

송소맹
한국중국언어학회|중국언어연구  72권 0호, 2017 pp. 219-244 ( 총 26 pages)
6,100
초록보기
본고에서는 어기부사의 위치에 따른 문장의 정보구조 특성을 살펴보았다. 본고에서는 어기부사의 일반적인 분포와 구어에서 두 종류의 특수한 분포 현상을 통해서 다른 분포에 상응하는 정보구조를 분석하였다. 분석을 통해서 다른 분포 특성을 가지는 어기부사가 문장 정보구조에서 다른 역할을 한다는 것을 알게 되었다. 어기부사의 위치는 문장의 정보구조에 영향을 미친다. 일반적으로 어기부사가 문두에 갈수록 그 뒤의 초점영역이 확대된다. 일반적으로 어기부사가 기본위치에 위치할 때 문장은 전형적인 화제-평언 구조이다. 어기부사 앞의 NP가 화제이고 그 뒤의 성분은 서술어 초점이다. 어기부사가 문두에 위치할 때는 NP가 초점일 수도 있고 화제일 수도 있으며 문장전체가 하나의 초점일 수도 있다. 그리고 어기부사가 뒤에 휴지를 부가하면 그 뒤에 화제문이나 문장-초점문만을 나타날 수밖에 없다. 袁毓林(1990)은 논리적인 시각을 출발점으로 삼는다면 부사를 어떤 연산자(operator) 로 볼 수 있다고 하였고 많은 부사가 초점 민감 연산자라고 하였다. 일부의 어기부사가 초점표지 “是”를 벗어날 수 없고 일부의 어기부사 뒤에 항상 화제를 덧붙여 초점에 대한 두드러짐에 명확한 작용을 하지 못했다. 따라서 부사는 총체적으로 초점표지라고 할 수 없다. 다만 초점 민감 연산자라고는 볼 수 있다. 그러나 어기부사 내부의 분포 특성은 다르기 때문에 초점에 대한 민감 정도가 다르다. 주어 뒤에만 위치할 수 있는 ‘必定’, ‘確實’류 부사는 일반적으로 서술어-초점을 표시할 때 쓰인다. 또한 주어 뒤에 나타나고 주어를 초점으로 표시할 때 주어 앞으로 이동할 수 있는 ‘居然’류 어기부사의 초점 표시 기능은 매우 강하다. 이 때 그 뒤의 성분은 일반적으로 초점이다. 자주 주어 뒤에도 나타날 수 있고 주어 앞에도 나타날 수 있는 ‘好像’류 부사가 항상 화제를 도입할 수도 있고 초점을 도입할 수도 있다. 이 부사들이 문두에서 멀수록 초점을 표시하는 기능은 강하다. 마지막으로 항상 문두에 위치하는 ‘難怪’류 어기부사는 일반적으로 화제를 도입한다. 그들의 초점 표시기능은 매우 약하다. 결론적으로 분포가 다른 어기부사는 다른 정보구조를 나타낸다고 할 수 있다.

情態助動詞“難”的語法化硏究

강몽 , 최재송
한국중국언어학회|중국언어연구  72권 0호, 2017 pp. 245-273 ( 총 29 pages)
6,400
초록보기
漢語難易結構“S+難+V”中的?价類情態助動詞“難”産生于先秦時期,來源于形容詞“難”的意動用法。最初,形容詞“難”表意動帶上動詞性賓語時,構成“A+V”結構,可看作不穩定的連動結構,此時“難”的語義特征爲[+感到困難],表示“某人認爲做某事困難”。當“難”前面主語S由施事擴展到當事或空缺時,“難+V”具有重新分析的可能性,旣可以分析爲“(某人)認爲某事難做”,也可以分析爲“(某事)不容易做”或“不容易與某人做某事”。“難”開始向情態助動詞演變。當主語S進一步擴展到受事時,“難+V”的結構特点與現代漢語難易結構一致,“難”的語義特征爲[+費力],“難+V”由形容詞表意動語法化爲情態助動詞短語,語義上由“感到做某事困難”演變爲“某事做起來困難”。“難”的語法化過程完成后,在典型結構“S受事+AV+V”的基礎上産生了不同形式的非典型結構。這些情態助動詞短語結構經過后世的發展一直沿用至今。

중국어 관계절의 유형 변천

박향란
한국중국언어학회|중국언어연구  72권 0호, 2017 pp. 275-295 ( 총 21 pages)
5,600
초록보기
關系從句是類型學重要參項之一,但不管OV型語言還是VO型語言,絶大多數是後置於核心名詞的,而漢語是極少數VO語序而關系從句前置於核心名詞的語言之一,因此漢語關系從句具有?大的硏究價値。尤其是古代漢語關系從句的發展情況更加複雜,存在幾種關系從句標記,如“所”,“者”,“之”。本論文全面考察上古時期這些關系從句的類型,以及其三個關系從句統一的過程與中古時期“底”關系從句的來源,幷且探討這些關系從句發展的動因與機制。
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