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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미소설검색

Studies in Modern Fiction


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-7232
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 18권 2호 (2011)
5,900
초록보기
Story-telling is one of the major features of Native American culture. Story-telling novels express the flexible, often paradoxical and dynamic energy of orality by crossing various borders in their text. Frances Washburn`s Elsie`s Business, one of the well-received Native American story-telling novels, invites the readers to the trans-border open sphere. Composed of episodic fragments of diverse time, space and such genres as murder mysteries, myths, legends and folk-tales, mixed at random in the present tense, Elsie`s Business draws our attention to the maltreatment a Native American female has quietly gone through. The use of ``you,`` the focal listener of all the stories told by various characters, weakens the border between the fictional individual character ``you`` and the communal readers for it reachers the deep, unconscious psyche of the reader whenever ``you`` is called. ``You,`` remaining unidentified to the readers to the end of the novel while all the fictional characters know ``your`` identity, stimulates the readers` curiosity which intensely coheres all diverse kinds of fragments, thus initiating a new aesthetic convergence of literary art. In addition, by revealing that all stories are the mere combination of factual information with fictional imagination, endlessly changing, Washburn exposes the fictionality as well as flexibility of all stories and thus satirizes all fixed myths and borders. The trans-border openness exhorts readers to embrace the planetary community including even non-human creatures as well as all sorts of mankind.

장소의 재현과 서사전략: 키플링의 『킴』과 포스터의 『인도로 가는 길』

오은영 ( Eun Young Oh )
6,000
초록보기
Although the colonial places represented by Western writers can be usually defined as "exotic landscape," they are in fact bound up with the themes and narrative structures of the text. By paying attention to the relationship between the narrative and the place presented in the novel, the paper aims to reveal the way in which the author`s sense of place and his/her presentation of it have some profound effects on conveying the theme. It seems impossible and undesirable to examine how much India presented in A Passage to India and Kim would be authentic, considering that both Forster`s India and Kipling`s are reconstructed by the perspective of the authors. These two writer`s presentation of the colonial place, India, cannot but go through their Western eyes which embody Western ideas and values. While pointing to the limit contained in their representations of India, this paper will also try to track down the spots where Forster and Kipling transcend their perspective as a European writer. In doing so, this paper will show how the representation of the colonial place can be a barometer for measuring up the author`s sense of the other.
6,000
초록보기
Simply, this paper is an attempt to examine the multiple meanings of love represented in the contemporary British writer Julian Barnes`s two love stories: Talking It Over (1991) and Love, etc. (2000). However, it also shows the word "simply" cannot be peformed just simply, not because the love relationship of the story is complicated but because the discourse of love itself refuses order, categorization, articulation, most of all, simplication. Instead, it arduously yearns to dissolve, dismantle, reconstruct and again fragment. Barnes`s novels are the very record of the meanings of love in the postmodern era. Yet, there seems to have been comparatively little consideration on love in Barnes` novels in regard to postmodern philosophy of love, not to mention the classic tradition of it. This paper begins with the notion that seemingly blatant, even blunt images of contemporary love stories in fact may be a useful and meaningful barometer of the socio-ethical, or philosophical awareness of our time. Despite the conventional themes of love and betrayal, the "hard and shimmering" images of love in Barnes`s stories, in Roland Barthes`s terms, awakens, thrusts, and ails the isolated, alienated, thus marginalized faculty of cognitive performance, punctum and its affirmative possibility. And to further the argument, I suggest that the stories, to be more specific, the books are no longer just disposable papers, but ultimately act as a punctum of the post-industrialized society through the birth of "You," the witness.

혼종성과 정체성의 서사: 폴리 마셜의 『선택된 장소, 시간너머 사람들』

이경란 ( Kyung Ran Lee )
6,000
초록보기
Paule Marshall`s The Chosen Place, the Timeless People (1969), despite its vivid characterization of major individuals like Merle, Saul, and Harriet, focuses its main attention on a certain Caribbean ``place`` and its ``people.`` Marshall analyses, with great precision, the ways in which the hybrid society of the fictional Caribbean "Bourn Island" and the poor black people of the isolated backward mountain village "Bournhills" suffer from its white-centered racial, cultural, and color hierarchies as well as its age-old colonial and postcolonial economic structures. Despite recent discourses on hybridity highlighting its potentiality as a creative and subversive site, the diverse and conflicting elements of hybrid identity and culture of the Caribbean are portrayed to still be at war with each other. Therefore, how to reconcile these opposing parts, how to make them a whole, is an urgent problem, not only for each individual, but also of the society as a whole. Marshall envisions various ways in which marginalized poor black people construct their own counter-identity against negative ones imposed from the outside. She claims not just the past itself but mythic narratives redeemed and constructed from the past are the very sources for a new identity. This focus on identity construction and negotiation makes the text itself a kind of visionary and mythical narrative. By envisioning a new Caribbean identity which crucially includes the oppressed and undervalued black people`s experiences, Marshall try to show what literary and cultural narratives can do in order to change the world within and beyond the written word. Borrowing Anzaldua`s words, creating a new mythos and narrative has the potential to change "the way we perceive reality, the way we see ourselves, and the ways we behave."

용, 어린이, 여성: 『테하누』의 가부장제 다시쓰기

한혜정 ( Hye Chung Han )
5,700
초록보기
This paper examines the critique of the oppressive patriarchy and the new visions on dragons, children, and women in Tehanu: The Last Book of Earthsea (1990) by Ursula K. Le Guin. With evolving feminist consciousness, Le Guin attempts to revise the male-oriented world of the previous Earthsea Cycle by writing Tehanu and presenting the dragon-girl Tehanu. In Tehanu, Le Guin describes the wrongdoing of "the bad fathers" mostly represented by the misogynous magical powers and seeks the ways to get over the phallogocentric universe. Therru, a girl who was raped and beaten and pushed into the fire supposedly by her father, resulting in losing one eye and one hand and falling into silence, is the vivid evidence for the brutality of patriarchy. While Tenar, who takes care of Therru and the magically deprived ex-archmage Ged, seems to take the traditional women`s role, she always asks who is a woman and what is her power. Le Guin investigates how women, children, and animals are assigned as the indiscernible, obscure others upon which patriarchical system erects itself phallologically, and of which men are afraid due to their otherness. That`s why Therru is revealed as Tehanu, the dragon-girl who called the savior-dragon Kalessin with the other eye and the other voice. As a child and a young woman and a dragon at the same time, Tehanu occupies "the emptiness which comes before power and has the potentiality" to stir up the patriarchical system. While (re)writing stories of Earthsea and the dragon people, who represent changes and otherness, Le Guin shows us how to revise our world and how to fly on "the other wind" of imagination.
5,900
초록보기
Ishmael Reed`s Flight to Canada and Toni Morrison`s Tar Baby share the theme of black liberation. Set in America under slavery, Reed`s Flight to Canada is a narrative of Raven Quickskill who runs away from his master to Canada, the land of freedom. Set in contemporary America, Morrison`s Tar Baby dramatizes the tension between Jadine Childs and Son Green who respectively designate the site of postcolonial black identity in urban white culture and ancestral black culture. However, Reed and Morrison do not envisage the vision for true emancipation through those central characters that step outside of their oppressive reality. In Reed`s Flight to Canada, Raven Quickskill never reaches the land of freedom. In Morrison`s Tar Baby, Jadine and Son fail to locate the site where black people can be culturally and spiritually decolonized and free from racial ideologies. It is through Uncle Tom-ish characters in the underlying narrative that Reed and Morrison illuminate the possibility of achieving true freedom. Uncle Robin in Flight to Canada and Sydney in Tar Baby, apparently corresponding to the Uncle Tom figure in Harriet Beecher Stowe`s Uncle Tom`s Cabin, never leave their oppressive reality and remain faithful to their master. However, they surreptitiously mock/challenge the master`s authority and transform their oppressive reality into the site of liberation by taking advantage of the colonial situation where the mastership is maintained by the service and labor of black slaves. Thus, Uncle Robin and Sydney show that black people can achieve true liberation without ever leaving the oppressive ground. Ultimately, Reed`s Flight to Canada and Morrison`s Tar Baby imply that black liberation should be sought and fought right inside their oppressive reality without totalizing the ground.

Making Indians by Making It Our Business in Frances Washburn`s Elsie`s Business

( Kyung Sook Boo )
5,600
초록보기
Frances Washburn`s novel, Elsie`s Business, seems to be a mystery novel at first glance. However, closer inspection reveals that the true project of the narrative is not to give factual answers about who murdered Elsie or who the father of her baby is or where her second child is, but what it means for Elsie`s father to claim her as his daughter, and in the process, become claimed by the Native American community represented by Oscar. Elsie`s business, or rather, legacy, becomes bringing her father into the family, and it is Oscar who makes Elsie`s father into an Indian by talking about Elsie to him. By regarding Elsie`s father as part of the family, and naming him as such, Oscar opens the way for Elsie`s father to also become Native American, regardless of his racial identity as an African American; the blood relationship of father-daughter coupled with the cultural initiation performed through Oscar`s narrative creates and legitimizes a Native American identity for Elsie`s father, who does not have "Indian blood" per se. Further, it is suggested that the readers of the novel as audience to both the narrative and Oscar`s education of Elsie`s father can also become Indian regardless of their respective racial and ethnic identities through the identification achieved via the interpellation of the conflated "you" of Washburn`s narrative, presenting a reconceptualization of Indian identity that rejects racial origins and privileges cultural performance, personal relationships, and affiliations.

"Language Is Thought": The Power of Language in Samuel R. Delany`s Babel-17

( Hye Won Shin )
5,600
초록보기
This essay discusses Samuel R. Delany`s 1966 novel Babel-17, with focus on the novel`s representation of the power of human language. Adopting the conventions of science fiction, Delany emphasizes the language`s power to dictate our perception of external realities, following the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. The novel juxtaposes the human languages and the computer languages developed in the mid-twentieth century. Babel-17 resembles the computer languages, and having no word for "I," it turns its speaker into an automaton. While this juxtaposition shows irony, paradox, and ambiguity as the strengths of human language to articulate our complex realities from multiple perspectives, Delany expresses his anxiety about the binary mode of thinking demonstrated by computers and automata. Silvan Tomkins, an American psychologist, also produced his affect theory in the period when Babel-17 was written. Like Delany, Tomkins defines complexity and diversity as the exceptional human characteristics, as opposed to machines.`` Reflecting the poststructuralist view of a human being as a complex system influenced by a social structure and external environment, their definition of humanity allows great openness and further possibilities for finding the uniqueness of an individual. Thus, Babel-17 can be read as a critique of the digital age, demonstrating the damaging impact of dichotomous logic on the human mind. In so doing, Delany warns us of our blind faith in efficiency and our obsession with analytic information.

David Mura`s Memoirs and the Transformation of "Whiteness"

( Soo Young Lee )
5,700
초록보기
In the U.S., the debate over the racial whiteness has a major role in establishing American subjectivity because of its historical connection with what it means to be Americans. Until the mid twentieth century, European Americans had become racially whites at the expense of people of color including Asian Americans. In this process, their racial differences had been morphed into "ethnicity," emphasizing cultural differences, and they stabilized their Caucasian whiteness. However, the social changes in the 1960s such as civil rights movement and the increasing immigration from Asia threatened the maintenance of Caucasian sense of white privileges. Then, the middle class Asian Americans supported the transformation of whiteness as color-blind multiculturalism. Furthermore, the last twentieth century, the diversification of Asian immigrants and increasing economic influence of Asia caused the transformation of whiteness as a global capitalist. This paper will focus on the transformation of "whiteness" in response to the ethnic identity formation of Asian Americans. Pursuant to this purpose, this paper will examine the memoirs of sansei Japanese American writer David Mura and how his identity formation as a Japanese American can be related to the maintenance and transformation of whiteness as a symbol of the privileged groups in the late twentieth century. In his memoirs, Mura reflects on the year he spent in Japan and narrates his struggle with becoming conscious of his Japanese American identity. Although his memoirs contain a number of themes and experiences generally included in Japanese American literature, such as the internment camp, the silence of Nisei and a visit to a heritage country, Mura`s identity formation is beyond the cultural identity based on the common historical experiences. Rather, Mura`s Japanese identity formation is the acknowledgement of the existence of "whiteness" which interned the Japanese Americans and resists a new face of whiteness that made his parents believe in their ethnic senses of U.S. belonging through their social mobility. He revitalized race from cultural particularities, ethnicity. Nevertheless, Mura`s identity formation as a Japanese American is not within the framework of "Asian Americans" in the U.S. Rather, he feels bonding to a new global capitalist which upholds global economic system. In this sense, Mura`s identity formation can be complicit to another transformation of whiteness, making Mura`s Japanese ethnicity as a social capital in the global society.

Exile and Creativity: A Search for Home

( Yoo Hyeok Lee )
6,700
초록보기
This paper explores the relationship between exile and creativity in order to examine pathways in which the agonizing human condition of exile can serve as a source of creativity. To this end, the paper focuses on autobiographical writings by Polish-American writer, Eva Hoffman, and Vietnamese-American writer, Andrew Lam. In their writings, both remember and represent their experiences of exile. Concurrently, they attempt to represent and reconcile the temporal and spatial distance ruptured between the present and the past, influenced by abrupt and reluctant departure from their homelands, while attempting to make sense of the exilic moments at which (times) they were forced from their homelands. Memory and writing assist them to grasp and fill such negative emotional experience of rupture in their lives. We can perceive an enduring sense of longing for home in their writings-their agonizing search for home. This longing and search becomes the source of energy of their struggle for survival and writing. For them, writing becomes a place in which to dwell, as does home, which signifies more than a physical place for life. Philosophically, home closely resembles the human condition of exile, indicated by the fact that Hoffman and Lam do not aspire for a better physical place in which to live, but rather seek answer(s) to the question of their existence as exiles. In this pursuit, they must deal with the traumatic experience of exile as those who were forced to leave their homes, against their will, and without the knowledge of events proximal to them, more so as at the time of exile, they were too young to grasp the whole picture of the situation. The paper explores how the painful experience of exile serves strongly/affectively to inspire, rather than to thwart, a creative energy of imagination. In this respect, it also considers the role/effectiveness of writing, as Hoffman and Lam struggle to recover from the traumatic experience of exile: writing as a way of representing trauma and as a way of searching for home.
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