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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미소설검색

Studies in Modern Fiction


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-7232
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 5권 2호 (1998)

마마데이 , 실코 , 웰치 소설의 포스트 식민주의적 글읽기

강자모(Ja Mo Kang)
6,500
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Momaday, Silko, and Welch attempt to establish an authentic Indian identity based on American Indian spiritual inheritance and traditional values. They reveal and reevaluate a colonial history of exploitation in order to abrogate privileged white authority and recover Indian voices and life ways which have been silenced and marginalized in colonial society. Their strategies of decentring include appropriation of English and the Western literary genre of the novel, and the use of subversive imagination characteristic of a trickster. They also make it clear that modern Indian problems are the result of colonial oppression and the marginalization of Indian cultures. The study of tribal cultures and traditions is an effective means to reject the authority of the colonial center, and these authors take pains to seek after their own traditional cultural values. However, they do not elevate their tribal value systems and cultures to orthodoxy, since that would repeat a view of white colonial discourse partially based on cultural authenticity which condemns American Indians to continued marginality and eventual deterioration. For them, ethnocentrism is a starting point for discourse, not an end. The tribal cultures and values these authors try to recover change and progress with cultural exchanges and the hybridization of different cultures. As James Ruppert argues, these novels, which try to reach out of a cultural framework, are both cultural and transcultural texts. Momaday, Silko, and Welch refuse all forms of colonial/dichotomous discourses. They recognize, as Bill Ashcroft and others assert, cross-culturality as the potential termination point of a human history of conquest and annihilation justified by the myth of group purity, and as the basis on which the post-colonial world can be creatively stabilized. The major concern of these authors is to pursue the possibility of cultural reconciliation rather than confrontation through dialogues and mediation between two different cultures/discourses.

미니멀리즘 , 레이먼드 카아버 , 그리고 『 대성당 』

김주호(Joo Ho Kim)
6,300
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Raymond Carver is very successful as a short-story writer in America. In other words, as a short-story writer, Carver has been acclaimed as one of the so-called minimalist writers, whose stories have already been regarded as the masterpieces of American short-stories. Almost all of the characters of his stories are ordinary, unlucky people, not fortunate people, who are alienated and diminished from the hostile society, and are living in a dehumanizing society. They are all victims of their inability to communicate in a dehumanizing society. Cathedral, his third collection of short stories, confirms his place among short story writers of the first rank. Cathedral was chosen by The Times as one of the 13 best books of 1983. Six of the twelve stories in Cathedral are first person narrations. This title masterpiece, "Cathedral" is a lovely piece with its first person narrator trying to describe to a blind man, his wife`s old friend, what a cathedral is like in order to share the experience. And in the end, the two hands moving together-one guided by sight and the other not-the blind man, really more perceptive than the other, achieves a new dimension of perception. With deep and creative connections between humans revealed through Carver`s creatures, they are gaining an insight into the meaning of life.

「 살인자들 」 에도 작가의 흔적이 있는가 ?

김지원(Ji Won Kim)
5,900
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In fiction, there are two types of narrators: editorial narrator and neutral narrator. The latter has been generally more acceptable on the ground that commentaries tend to weaken the sense of reality. Keeping the reader entirely oblivious of the fact that the author exists, not a few modern novelists try to use the dramatic method, the lavish use of dialogue, and the restricted point of view. The slightest hint by the author of his being omniscient is enough to destroy the sense of being present, here and now, in the scene of the action. Nevertheless, the convention of the omniscient author is the commonest in fiction. Hemingway is widely known as a good example of an objective author, who usually presents or renders or shows a situation. In "The Killers," we seem to know the characters` thoughts and emotions only from their actions. Its narrator seems to relay his tale to us primarily by means of scene instead of summary scene rather than as summary. However, "The Killers" is based actually on the principle of the third-person omniscient viewpoint. We can find the personal narrator who will not refrain from obtruding himself or his comments into his work. The omniscient author`s voice is distinctly audible in such statements as "Henry`s had been made over from a saloon into a lunch-counter," "He had never had a towel in his mouth before," and "He had been a heavyweight prizefighter." After all, the author`s voice is distinctly heard throughout "The Killers," whose narrator has been usually considered as purely neutral. So we believe firmly that the author`s traces in any narrative are always evident to anyone who knows how to look for it. Even though the author can to some extent choose his disguises, he can never choose to lie in hiding.

버지니아 울프의 여성적 글쓰기 : 『 파도 』 와 『 막간 』 의 두 겹 언어

김희정(Hee Chung Kim)
6,200
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The narrative methods of The Waves and Beween the Acts tell us that Virginia Woolf reaches for a condition of poetry and her texts are literary equivalent of Kristeva`s poetic revolution in language. Pointing out the danger of being `this or that` in both life and narrative, she praises the concept of `difference` and embraces everything in life-men and women, presence and absence, stasis and flux, language and silence. That is why the recent idea of deconstruction is helpful to understand Woolf`s texts. Woolf`s style is marked with alternating rhythm. She defines a two-beat rhythm of `in and out`, `up and down`, and `one, two; one, two` as a women`s linguistic strategy. Recognizing the limit of symbolic language, Woolf tries to escape the alphabet and speaks in silence or musical rhythm. That is how she highlights `the feminine` which has been considered as something absent in male-centered culture and claims that female way of expression involves more silence than words. Women`s silence in The Waves and Beween the Acts is not viewed as a sign of personal or social oppression, but as a feminine space with a new psychic and narrative life in which women think and dream. Though Woolf finds the female voice in silence, however, she is never fixed in the choraic space without words. She never completely leaves the boundary of the symbolic and continues the rhythm of `coming` and `going.` As her feminism is something beyond the inverted sexism finding a desirable mode of being and writing in androgyny, she always comes back to the symbolic and writes in the in-between. Woolf`s l`ecriture feminine, therefore, has to be read as a kind of strategy to emphasize the `feminine` now silenced and repressed in our patriarchal society.

헨리 제임스와 자연주의적 글쓰기 : 실재 , 관찰 , 묘사

나희경(Hee Kyung Nah)
6,000
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Henry James had a great interest in French Naturalism for more than two decades. In his ambivalent attitude toward naturalistic writing, James, on the one hand, found a clue to the future of novel from the experimental spirit of the Naturalist writers who emphasized the form and style of novel. On the other hand, he rejected their restricted vision of individual and society. This paper studies James`s critical response to the theory and execution of the French Naturalist writers by focusing on how he modifies such naturalistic values as reality, observation, and descriptions into ones which fit his pragmatic taste of art. James`s interest in naturalistic writing bridges the gap between his concern with social manners in his early novels and that with psychological exploration of individuals in his later works.
6,400
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The crisis of the modern American family is manifested as a literary theme by the novelists, John Updike and John Cheever. Their works deal with the various symptoms of family dissolution. This thesis analyzes the major works of Updike and Cheever in terms of the theme of human alienation and family disintegration, and examines it against a backdrop of Confucianist thought. In his works such as the "Rabbit" tetralogy, Of the Farm and The Centaur, Updike shows various ills affecting American family life-divorce, child or spouse abuse, the effect of women working, etc. In his major works such as the "Wapshot" series, Bullet Park, and Falconer, Cheever reveals many of the doubts and perplexities of American society, in which family love and dependency may be corrupt, perverse, and destructive. The crisis of the family which the protagonists of Updike and Cheever experience is basically caused by an individualistic attitude in which they search only for true-self or self-reliance. In other words, the crisis of human existence they encounter results mainly from neglecting the significance of being a family member and a social being. This view of life is in sharp contrast to the principles of Confucianism, in which man finds the significance of his being through his involvement with family and society. Although they portray changing family patterns and the various aspects of family disintegration, Updike and Cheever suggest that the family affords the hope of love and companionship, order and peace, and a place where people may learn to know themselves. In conclusion, with the current trend towards globalization in Korea, it needs to be explored how the positive values of American culture regarding individualism can be effectively accepted as well as how the fundamental values of Korean family-centered Confucianism can be realistically maintained

「 바나나피쉬를 위한 완전한 하루 」 에 나타난 시모어 ( Seymour ) 의 자살의 의미

심상욱(Sang Wook Shim)
한국현대영미소설학회|현대영미소설  5권 2호, 1998 pp. 141-159 ( 총 19 pages)
5,900
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This paper is to examine the meaning of Seymour`s suicide in "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" written by J. D. Salinger. Salinger has become one of the most popular American novelists since the Second World War. He lives in seclusion in rural New Hampshire and has not published any works since 1965. However, the books he has published hold an enduring international appeal for readers. In the 1950s, America was a conformist society and religious freedom flourished. Salinger`s artistry is complex and increasingly post modern. His works from the start may be seen as a progression toward an enlightment that is artistically as well as religiously justified. A close analogue to Salinger`s religious thought is Zen Buddhism, which is essential to an understanding of Nine Stories, which includes "A Perfect Day for Bananafish". Zen explores the virtues of nonsense believing that truth simply cannot be caught by logic. Instead, Zen substitutes "logical nonsense" as a means of penetrating the heart of reality by opening the doors of the senses. In "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" Seymour and Sybil carry on a playful `question and answer` conversation that suggests the wise nonsense that is an intrigal part of the Zen master-student relationship. Seymour`s suicide is his way of allowing the true Muriel to escape from the banana hole where she has become trapped by her attitude to marriage. In other words, he dies physically in order that she may live again spiritually because his love for Muriel demands a unique and sacrificial effort. The bananafish also should be understood in its relationship to the puzzling reference of the apparent failure of the western civilization. Accordingly, we find out that Salinger expressed some of his own doubts concerning the short stories with a `koan` in Zen Buddhism as a medium that gets at the truth of life.

메타 픽션과 역사적 상상력 : 『 프랑스 중위의 여자 』 를 중심으로

이미애(Mi Ae Lee)
한국현대영미소설학회|현대영미소설  5권 2호, 1998 pp. 161-181 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
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This study examines metafictional narrative techniques of John Fowles`s The French Lieutenant`s Woman to explore the nature of historical imagination with which Fowles reconstructs the Victorian age. In this novel Fowles is concerned with challenging the conventional notions of the Victorian age, such as respectability and sexual purity, which were propagated by the representatives of the middle class. Then the question remains whether the picture of the Victorian age in the novel is tree from the author`s personal beliefs and class positioning and in what way the metafictional techniques function in the representation of the past. The authorial narrator emphasizes the autonomy of characters and the fictionality of his work in an attempt to expose and subvert the conventions of the 19th-century novels. Yet his idea is not sufficiently enacted in the novel: the narrator quite selectively exercises his omniscience, and his insistence on the fictionality of his work rather bespeaks his oversimplification of the Victorian novels. He makes numerous citations from historical, scientific and literary texts, and blends the past and the contemporary in an arbitrary and anachronistic way. In short, his metafictional techniques turn out to be the means of appropriating and reconstructing the past from the viewpoint of the present. The characterization of the protagonists also indicates the way Fowles appropriates numerous thinkers and scientists for his own purpose and writes his own version of the 19th-century intellectual history. The representation of a past may be derived from the desire to discover a meaningful pattern from the past, but historical representations are, as this novel shows, necessarily distortions of a past. This contradiction seems to be in the heart of Fowles`s historical imagination.

『 핸드메이드 이야기 』 연구 : 성 ( Sexuality ) 과 친밀성의 재현을 중심으로

이소희(So Hee Lee)
한국현대영미소설학회|현대영미소설  5권 2호, 1998 pp. 183-204 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
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This article explores the representation of sexuality and intimacy in The Handmaid`s Tale related to Anthony Giddens`s term, "plastic sexuality". As Atwood confirms that this novel is a logical extension of where we are now in terms of the contemporary culture of sexuality, Offred in the text has experienced diverse sexual relationships with Luke, Commander, and Nick. Her position as part of an official sexual triangle in Gilead replicates her previous personal position as Luke`s mistress before he divorces his first wife. Not only a historical patterning but also a sexual patterning of the way things happen are circulating even within Offred`s storytelling. Her relationship with the Commander is epitomized by the scene of The Ceremony, in which both the Bible reading and the mechanical fucking turn out to be awful and terrifying without any kind of human communication. However, through a game of Scrabble, her relationship with the Commander transforms into a kind of companionship, though without any kind of sexual feelings. They begin to look at each other as human beings, not simple objects, because the Scrabble game is eroticized as a means of psychological communication. Also, it awakens her to the enormous value of language, thoughts, and human communication, which leads her to self-respect and self-dignity. For Offred, her relationship with Nick further the search for her sexual subjectivity based on humanized communication. This process is paralleled with Offred`s language play, which illustrates her confidence and intimacy with Nick. In short, Atwood represents the diverse relationships of sexuality and intimacy and provides for us the invaluable opportunity to think about our contemporary culture of sexuality.

아이리스 머독의 『 상당히 명예로운 패배 』 에 나타난 선과 악의 투쟁

이영석(Young Suk Lee)
한국현대영미소설학회|현대영미소설  5권 2호, 1998 pp. 205-231 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
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Iris Murdoch can be said a philosophical novelist. This is because many of her novels are based on her moral philosophy. Her philosophical speculation centers on the Good which Plato mentioned as the Idea of ideas. Though the Good is the central theme of her philosophy, Murdoch does not define what the Good is. She just asserts that human beings dwelling on the phenomenal world cannot reach or achieve the Good which lies in the ideal world. She puts away the task of defining the Good by referring to it as "something undefinable" and "something beyond human beings." About the Evil which is the opposite extreme of the Good, she does not define what it is, either. Instead, what she is trying to do is to show how the Good and the Evil are reflected in the phenomenal world. In this respect, her approach to the Good is not noumenal but phenomenal. In A Fairly Honorable Defeat, Murdoch shows how the Good and the Evil are reflected in the human world, and why the human effort to reach the Good inevitably fails. Through Tallis Browne and Julius King we can see what Murdoch considers as the characteristics of the Good and the Evil. In this work, Julius King represents the Evil. He is described as a demonic figure because he is a rational cynicist and pursues power and magic. With these power and magic, he spreads suffering around. Tallis Browne is the incarnation of the Good. He does not seek power, nor magic. And he never transfers his suffering to others; rather he transforms it into love. This amounts to what Murdoch regards as the qualities of the Good. In the battle between the Good and the Evil, the Good is defeated by the Evil. This is not because the Good is incompetent to cope with the Evil but because human beings whom the Good tries to save from the Evil are egocentric and could not perceive the Good. Somewhere in her philosophical writings Murdoch warns that the solipsism of human beings is the greatest obstacle for human beings to reach the Good. A Fairly honorable Defeat is an attempt to convey this idea through a novelistic form, and in this respect Murdoch is a philosophical novelist.
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