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> 영미문학연구회 > 안과밖 > 34권 0호


In/Outside : English Studies in Korea

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-3761
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
수록 범위 : 34권 0호 (2013)

책머리에 : 봄, 봄, 봄 그리고 봄

영미문학연구회|안과밖  34권 0호, 2013 pp. 2-10 ( 총 9 pages)
Despite rigorous policing, women``s presence on the streets of early modern London was far stronger than in comparable European cities. A legion of plebeian urban females-hucksters, maidservants, prostitutes, and cutpurses- literally walked the streets and sought a viable self as well as livelihood out of their distinctively female relationship to urban space, amidst London``s changing topography. The Great Fire of London in 1666 and the subsequent urban rebuilding and expansion fundamentally altered Londoners`` perception and representation of the cityscape, with the Renaissance perspective of a walled city giving way to the post-Fire grid-like depiction of sprawling streets. The famous street scenes in Moll Flanders(1721)aptly trace the protagonist scuttling around the labyrinthine post-Fire streets, where she quickly learns to turn her “houseless” status into a fluid and flourishing existence across the extra-domestic street space. A similary “houseless” status confronts the “serviceless” woman in Isabella Whitney``s autobiographical “Wyll and Testament”(1573). But to different consequences. In Tudor London, being “serviceless” portends that on leaving the former master``s house, a transitional domestic space for single women between the father``s and the husband``s house, she may be instantly branded as a “loose” woman according to the Poor Law. In the mock-testament upon her forced departure/death, the “serviceless” woman offers a lingering “survey” of London streets she frequented as servant, which in contrast to Moll``s fleeting images, renders the sense of a vibrant but ordered urban life, in a imilar manner to John Stow``s 1598 Survey of London or Braun and Hogenberg``s 1572 London map. The ordered “survey” hides a paradox, though, for it is enabled only by the mock-testator``s willfully disembodied subject, whose last wish/will not to have a grave seals her renunciation of the l(e)ast spatial right, in the city denying her living body.

특집 : 공간의 텍스트성과 영문학 ; 현대 도시와 두 겹의 응시 -버지니아 울프의 “거대한 눈”

손영주 ( Young Joo Son )
영미문학연구회|안과밖  34권 0호, 2013 pp. 33-65 ( 총 33 pages)
Munch critical attention has been drawn to Virginia Woolf``s female narrators who walk the streets of London. As exemplified by the narrator(s) of A Room of One``s Own, they relish the newly gained sense of freedom and feel sympathy towards less privileged urban citizens, rather different-less noted or, at times, vilified-walkers in Woolf``s works. These women seem to be less aware of, or slightly suppress, their gender identities. They are not entirely blind to their class privileges and social inequities, yet they seem to be more interested in watching and enjoying London life from their insider perspectives. As a result, these narrators have been either ignored by several critics particularly interested in Woolf``s feminism, or condemned by others concerned with her upper-middle-class conservatism. In either case, these critics are generally in accord in that they identify the narrator with the author. However, the narrator``s “enormous eye” in, for example, the essay “Street Haunting: A London Adventure,” is not Woolf``s own. It is a typical middle-class gaze that is strategically dramatized. In other words, there is another gaze that looks at the narrator``s gaze at once within and without the narrator. By creating this “double-gaze,” Woolf invites the reader to look at the narrator``s-as well as their own-optical, epistemological and possibly political limits. In a similar way, Woolf``s six essays about London posthumously collected as The London Scene refuse to pander to the middle-class desire to indulge in enjoying and consuming the city by constantly disclosing the ethical and political blind spots of the narrator``s gaze lurking beneath the seemingly innocuous surface. In sum, Woolf``s self-consciousness as an insider demands as much attention as her sense of being an outsider does for a better understanding of her feminist social criticism. Far from being incompatible or inconsistent with her sense of a “critical” outsider, Woolf``s keen sense as an insider, and her concomitant self-criticism, makes her social criticism all the more convincing and powerful; it educates the middle-class readers to look at their own limits; and directs her modernist “inward turn” to negotiate with, and intervene into, rather than retreat from, the real world.
This essay follows urban wanderings of the bewildered streetwalker in Jean Rhys``s Good Morning, Midnight in order to critically examine gendered conceptions of public space in 1937 Paris. An unmarried British woman in Paris during the 1937 International Exhibition, Sasha is conspicuously peripatetic- not because she feels at home on the city streets but because she has no place to hide in. She is anxious and vulnerable streetwalker, who is extremely conscious of the hostile gaze upon her female body that is less than respectable. Sasha``s hyper-visibility distinguishes her from the male flaneur as “the man of the crowd.” Also, Rhys``s streetwalker diverges from the middle class flaneuse for whom venturing onto the streets might symbolize freedom from domesticity. However, as a marginal subject in the labyrinth-like metropolis without an exit, Sasha exposes the vilence of fascism displayed at the Exhibition and the damage it has done to the psyche of city dwellers.
This essay attempts to prove that Jennifer Toth(re)presents the tunnels beneath New York City as a real-and-imagined space and how the space is depicted as a heterotopia, a counter-site of the city on the surface. The tunnels are also the space where the capitalist system is deterritorialized and reterritorialized. In contrast with the capitalist way of life on the surface, the “mole people” choose (or, are “forced” to choose) squatting over property ownership, panhandling over wage labor, and recycling over production for their means of life.

특집 : 공간의 텍스트성과 영문학 ; 유령이 출몰하는 공간 읽기 -인문학과 관계적 공간 개념

이현재 ( Hyun Jae Lee )
영미문학연구회|안과밖  34권 0호, 2013 pp. 104-126 ( 총 23 pages)
In his article “Haunting Orpheus: Problems of Space and Time in the Desert”, Jonathan R. Wynn gives attention to ghosts of space. I show that this Kind of ghosts refers to the in-between space of being/not-being and past/presence/future. It is also the ghosts of space in order to read the diversity of space as text. Two cities described by Wynn in it, Las Vegas and Rhyolite are neither absolute nor relative space. They are not one``s own territory that has nothing to do with their residents. They are not the relative unified spaces following a certain perspective, either. I argue that they are rather close to the relational spaces, which concept David Harvey drives from Leibniz``s monadology. According to Harvey, a resident or a reader reads the diverse relations of a space through his or her experienced data, as a monad reflects the whole relation of university. With this concept of relational space, we can fail to grasp the absolute or objective rule of space. But in my view, it can make us to reveal the diverse and multiple relations which coexist, interact and occasionally crash into each other.

특집 : 공간의 텍스트성과 영문학 ; 문화지리학의 경관 연구와 경관의 텍스트성

한지은 ( Ji Eun Han )
영미문학연구회|안과밖  34권 0호, 2013 pp. 126-148 ( 총 23 pages)
Landscape is one of the “hottest” keywords in social sciences and humanities. It has long been studied in many fields such as visual art, landscape architecture, environmentology and earth sciences literature. At the same time, it has been a focus of geography``s engagement with the humanities. The term “landscape” generally means everything you can see when you look across an area of land, including mountains, rivers, buildings, and trees, But in geography it has been defined as an appearance of an area made up of a distinact association of forms. The pioneer of American cultural geography Carl Sauer, who was influenced by German geographers such as the “Landshaft School,” introduced the concept of “cultural landscape” and regarded landscape as an area composed of distinct association of forms. In the late 1970s, the “New Cultural Geographers” challenged the traditional concept of landscape. Denis Cosgrove defined “a landscape as “a cultural image, a pictorial way of representing, structuring or symbolizing surroundings.” Under this view, many cultural geographers have studied landscape as “a way of seeing” and analysed visual descriptions of landscape in painting , photography and film. On the other hand, a number of geographers have also developed a text metaphor of landscape as shown in The City as Text by James Duncan. Duncan insisted that we have to read landscape represented in various texts. Although landscape is representation of texts as he said, it also represents reality at the same time. Since the 1990s, cultural geographers have paid attention to “politics of place,” and they have emphasized that landscapes are social products. So we have to examine how some (dominant) people create, (re)present, and interpret landscape based on their own power relationships. Gillian Rose thought that traditional landscape studies in geography were involved in a masculinist way of seeing. Don Mitchell was worried that recent landscape studies were only concerned with representations in images and texts. Landscape is not only a symbolic process but also a material and ideological process. This is the reason why we have to explore this interesting concept by employing both literature and geography, the humanities and social science.
This article is aimed to work out practical alternatives to improve the liberal arts education from the perspective of a practitioner in the humanities. The liberal arts education as well as the humanities has long been said to be sidelined in the Korean higher education system due to its exclusive emphasis on the departmental structure and professional education. Recently. However, with some changes to global economy, the humanities has been called from its status of an object of crisis to become a creative source for the production of economic profits. Some scholars in the humanities welcome this resuscitation as a great chance to save their practices from a denigration of outdated impracticality, while others are more suspectful of the possibility that their hard-won truth may be capitalized on by the greedy global economic corporations. Tracing, first, more than a century of history of the humanities from Matthew Arnold, through F.R. Leavis to the current dominance of Theory, and then, the half-century history of the liberal arts education since its inception up to now in the Korean higher education, the article shows its practitioners tend to have reinforced specialization in its competition with the social and natural sciences, with a consequence that they have been increasingly secluded from the popular interests of the masses and have been increasingly secluded from the popular interests of the masses and have restricted communication only to themselves of the masses and have restricted communication only to themselves increasingly with highly abstract jargons. Arguing that specialization has been for the most large part responsible for the current crisis of the liberal arts eduction in most of the Korean universities, this article comes up with some practical, even radical, alternatives, including disbanding the college of humanities, to bring the liberal arts education onto the center of higher educational system.

쟁점 : 대학 교양교육 어떻게 할 것인가 ; 대학의 몰락과 교양교육 -미국 대학의 교양교육 현황

오길영 ( Gil Young Oh )
영미문학연구회|안과밖  34권 0호, 2013 pp. 177-199 ( 총 23 pages)
As widely acknowledged, Korean universities have been increasingly corporatised at the advent of neo-liberalism since the late 1990s. This has had a devastating effect upon Korean universities, as the institution has become little more than a business, or a sort of prep-school for the highly-paid and secured jobs after graduation. Universities are consequently dominated by bean-counting, money-hungry, crudely-asserted “pragmatic” owners, presidents and bureaucrats. The results have been the collapse of the academic soul of university, evident in the downsizing and downgrading of traditional “liberal education” or “general education” such as the humanities, social science, natural science and foreign language and culture. Traditionally, liberal education has functioned as a course of basic college education suitable for the cultivation of a free human being and critical thinking. It has been described as a philosophy of education that empowers individuals with broad knowledge and transferable skills, and a stronger sense of human values, ethics, and civic engagement, including a general curriculum which provides broad exposure to multiple disciplines and learning strategies in addition to in-depth study in at least one academic area. But Korean universities have abandoned this goal, advocating the promotion of “pragmatic” academics. This essay proposes to proffer a detailed picture featuring the liberal education system of American universities plus liberal arts colleges, which have paid a due attention to such communal learning as diverse academic disciplines, foreign languages/cultures, reading/writing, arts and music. This essay puts a special emphasis on the American system of “the core curriculum,” the set of common courses required of all undergraduates and considered the necessary general education for students, irrespective of their choice in major.

쟁점 : 대학 교양교육 어떻게 할 것인가 ; 유럽 대학의 교양교육

조효제 ( Hyo Je Cho )
영미문학연구회|안과밖  34권 0호, 2013 pp. 198-215 ( 총 18 pages)
This essay traces the origin of liberal arts and science education in European higher education. The traditional liberal arts education in Europe evolved to accommodate the critical humanistic and secular outlook through the Renaissance and Enlightenment periods. The great debate over the idea of university in the 19th century saw the emergence of specialized and research-oriented universities. The trend was further enhanced by the post-war social democratic arrangements of public funding for the higher education and the mass enrollment of university programs, effectively wiping out the liberal arts and humanities education from the university curriculum. The paper also describes the recent rise in interest in liberal arts education at some quarters of European universities and provides its reasons including the institutional changes as a result of the Bologna Process. Concluding remarks consider some lessons from the European experience that Korean universities might consider in debating their future liberal arts education.
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