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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 1권 0호 (1996)

발간사 ( President`s Message ) ( 한국현대영미사학회 현대영미시연구 1996 년 1 호 )

이영걸(Yong Gol Lee)
1,000
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N/A

홉킨즈의 ( G. M. Hopkins ) 의 자연시와 에너지

신원철(Won Chul Shin)
6,900
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The vitality and dynamic energy which are central to G. M. Hopkins` poetry are expressed with the skillful use of poetic language and rhythm. In this article I have studied the poetic vitality of his nature poems in particular. Lifeless things, animals, human beings--all these are full of vitality and move energetically in his nature poems. In Hopkins` early nature poems Keats` influence is apparent. There are rich expressions of color in "Vision of Mermaids" and "Pied Beauty". This praise of color is soon changed into movement. In "Spring" we can see all kind of creatures moving delightfully and energetically. Even the lifeless things such as clouds or water are moving vitally in Hopkins` nature poems. The cloud in "That Nature is Heraclitean Fire" is walking through the air like a marching army. And the bird in "The Windhover" flies in well controlled movements like that of a skater. All creatures in the world are moving delightfully under the grace of God. Human beings in his poems are naive and strong rather than refined and handsome. The blacksmith in "Felix Randal", the farmer in "Harry Ploughman" and the laborers in "Tom`s Garland" are all men of simplicity from the lower class and full of vitality. In his nature poems, all creatures, lifeless things, human beings are full of energy. This is related to `inscape`, his unique term and it most vividly appeares in movement. This movement is also well expressed by his distinguished rhythm and imagery. In reading his poems, we can feel the movement of the poem itself. Al poetic devices (dixon, rhythm, syntax and imagery) were used to achieve this effect. Hopkins` poems are all successful in their poetic inscape.

라깡의 사학과 홉킨스의 " 황조롱이 "

김영민(Young Min Kim)
6,600
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Is psychoanalytic theory useful for the study of literature? If so, from what position we, literary critics and theorists, start talking about the relation between the two? What is the nature of the relation between literature and psychoanalysis? Or what is the "proper" question that we are supposed to ask? Do we have the right questioning method? What do we see and what do we hear when we study literature? Do we see and hear what we are supposed to see and hear? Do we listen to the authorial voice or to the impersonal voice in the text? Do we gaze at the unseeable object in the text? Do we enjoy the text we are listening to and gaze at? Borrowing and appropriating Lacanian insights in reading literary texts gives us pleasure and pain simultaneously. However, Lacan`s insight from his Ecrits, Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis, his Seminars, and Television "teach and delight" us, as far as we are moderately disciplined in his obscure and open style. Would it be too early to understand his "jouissance" in terms of intellectual ecstasy? The purpose of this essay is to construct a Lacanian poetics in terms of structurality and function, and to appropriate and expropriate Lacanian psychoanalytic theory in an attempt to project it into Gerard Manley Hopkins`s poem "The Windhover." First, I will synchronize Hopkins`s unconscious text from early "light sonnets" and late "dark sonnets" so that I could adumbrate a Lacanian "future anterior." Then, I want to listen to and gaze at the manifest text, I mean, the text proper, "The Windhover," so that I can exercise a Lacantan Gaze. Translation of the poem into Korean will provide such opportunity. Then, I want to enjoy myself to be indulged in interpretation and transference or countertransference while I listen to and gaze at the open text proper. In the "Dissemination of Lacanian Poetics" section, I want to open the close door to the anti-postmodern perception which results from insufficient attention to the questioning processes of our critical literary potentiality, by suggesting four kinds of questioning.

지각의 시 - G. M. 홉킨즈 ( Hopkins )

이세규(Se Gyu Lee)
11,600
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This paper is to illuminate the nature of Hopkins`s sensible poetry based on the perception. This consideration has the meaning in correlating his nature poetry with his "terrible poetry". In general, both kind of poetry have been read and discussed separately. But they are in accord with each other in materializing the organic world founded on the interrelationship between God and man, and also in grasping the universal in the particular. This fact is the very link to connect his nature poetry with his terrible sonnets. Hopkins`s intensive perception reflects his intention to apprehend reality sensually rather than rationally. His perception is based on the concepts of "inscape" and "instress". He terms the individual distinctiveness "inscape". But He uses "instress" in two senses: the energy that holds a thing together, and the force which the inscape exerts on the mind. However, it often comes dangerously near to an impression that can only be articulated in terms of subjective emotions. The element that differentiates Hopkins`s concept of instress from impression is the intensity that enables the viewer to go beyond a merely subjective impression he can sense in the object, and vice versa. But terrible sonnets portray a self that cannot escape its own taste. He is seized between his desire to attain spiritual fulfillment and his will not to surrender human identity. It is the grace that absolves this conflict. Grace is any activity on God`s part by which he carries the creature to or towards the end of its being; it usually comes down as an enormous power. This force represents God`s power overwhelming human identity. Figuratively the self is the unthreshed grain, and grace separates the wheat from the chaff. This means that to receive it is to wrestle with God. His attitude to accept suffering as a grace and endure it is identical with his action revealing his inscape through that of object in the nature poetry. Both of these actions also reflects his consistent thought that put the sensible and the spiritual on the same dimension.

프로스트의 『 이성의 가면극 』 / 신정론과 현대적 성향

신재실(Jae Sil Shin)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  1권 0호, 1996 pp. 105-146 ( 총 42 pages)
11,700
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Robert Frost`s A Masque of Reason is a significant record of a great poet`s understanding of man`s relationship with God. The significance of this masque can perhaps best be appreciated by considering it in terms of the role of modern parody. Modern parody is not just a ridiculing imitation but functions as an ideal or a norm from which the modern departs. A Masque of Reason parodies The Book of Job, which provides a profound statement on the theme of theodicy, that is, the justice of God with respect to human suffering. But for unreasonable suffering, as in the case of the innocent and righteous Job, theodicy is an enigmatic problem because the justice of an almighty God cannot be reasonably defended in the face of evil. The Book of Job solves this enigma by acknowledging the existence of the Devil, whose attack on the righteousness of man is allowed by God as a way of silencing the Devil`s evil scheme to alienate God from man. The existence of the Devil is one of God`s mysterious ways to man. The outcome of the struggle in heaven between the Devil and God is at stake in the suffering of the righteous man; thus unreasonable human suffering has a deep meaning beyond human understanding. But modern man, unlike Job in the Old Testament, has excessive confidence in his own reason, and thereby refuses to accept the mysterious and irrational ways of God. Modern man`s faith in his own reason leaves little room for any religious faith, and gives rise to such modern tendencies as substituting God with human reason, doubting God`s omnipotence and degrading Him to a human level, disregarding the reality of the Devil in God`s enterprise. Frost in his A masque of Reason no only rejects man`s reason as being insufficient to understand the mystery of God`s justice, but satirizes on modern man`s faith in reason as such; thus defending the justice of God regarding human suffering. A Masque of Reason is a successful parody of The Book of Job, satirizing the stubbornness of human reasoning as well as defending theodicy as stated in The Book of Job.

월러스 스티븐스의 " 시의 중심 " - 탈 구조 주의적 접근에 대한 한 반성

양균원(Kyoon Won Yang)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  1권 0호, 1996 pp. 147-168 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
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There is in Stevens` poetry an alternation between reality and the imagination which seems to result from `absence of definition` of poetry. With its ultimate meaning blurred, Stevens` poetry invites poststructuralist approaches. From such a critical position language cannot be thought of as having a center of meaning or `transcendental signified`. Rather, it can only be thought of as having differences that presumably represent the center. Stevens` endless elaborations of metaphor often prove that he intends to present no definite meaning. For Stevens God as ultimate source of meaning is surely dead but he instead finds another source in man. The poet is virile because he is at the center of his world and invents it. The invented world has the same structure as that of poetry. In this fictive world reality is extended by analogies and not void of imagination. Reality is create or revealed by life in which man and the world intermingles with each other. In this way the authority of meaning does not disappear but just shifts from God to man. Meaning is not given from any transcendental authority. It is created by life which man is part of. In spite of absence of definition Stevens recognizes poetry without difficulty and thus proposes `a center of poetry`. Stevens` center of poetry depends on his sense of `primordial reality` which is `uncreated` and thus ` untranslatable into human speech`. The poet knows that although he cannot define the center it surely exists and provides a position `to which all the variations of definition are peripheral`. The function of this center is to prepare for a `collective interpretation of the world` which mates one life to another. The function is fulfilled when people have lived in a region long enough to share a common way of life. Stevens` supreme fiction is another word for this sort of culture. Stevens` center of poetry is this center of life. Stevens is not an exemplary poststructuralist in that he sustains his sense of the center based on reality, although his language shows typical aspects of decreation and endlessly defers revealing any ultimate meaning.

윌리암즈의 시어와 시학 - 『 패터슨 』 을 중심으로

박현수(Hyun Soo Park)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  1권 0호, 1996 pp. 169-212 ( 총 44 pages)
11,900
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Few poems have ever priced as high as William Carlos Williams`s Paterson, if one may closely review the conceptual framework of the whole component. The setting for this drama of giants is given in a spirit of local pride. He has searched the world about him for the focal symbol that Paterson is not only the hero but also the heroine, not only a city but also cliffs and a waterfall. Judging the total merit of Paterson, one must realize that "a dispersal and a metamorphosis" are particularly prominent in the methods Williams uses to interchange man and certain aspects of his environment in order to compel a new awareness in the horizen of the new mode of poetic diction. Williams intended Paterson to be this poem which would aerticulate his entire environment. He sought to make the poem inclusive of both the local realities of this environment and of their universal implications. He felt that his task as a poet was to write particularly upon the thing before him, as physician works upon a patient, in the particular to discover the universal(Auto. 301). Williams throughout his poem has given the city a life organic as a man`s life. Thus he has much to say, mostly about language, things, women, divorce, poetic language and the poem as a field of action. For his own pious effort to the actual, Williams has required a practical kind of language, a language to reveal the realities between subject and object, clearing up the distorting blur between language and reality. The language he is seeking is to be the one he speaks everyday, in other words, his own daily language. It is time-consuming that Williams has been wasting fifty years in a one-sided battle with Europe. What he has been fighting is not Europe herself but America`s reluctance to see her own true image. To look at what it is in his environment around him is required his own language to observe and draw what is real behind day-to-day living.

T. S. 엘리엇의 비개성 시론과 탈 / 관념주의

박경일(Kyung Il Park)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  1권 0호, 1996 pp. 213-233 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
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T.S Eliot`s Impersonal theory of poetry expounded in his first seminal literary essay "Tradition and the Individual Talent" focuses on "the relation of the poem to other poems by other authors" and the relation of the poem to its author, developing "the conception of poetry as a living whole of all the poetry that has everbeen written". Its main ideas may be summed up: 1) "No poet, no artist of any art, has his complete meaning alone. His significance...is the appreciation of his relation to the dead poets and artists." and 2) "Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotion; ...not the expression of personality, but an escape fro, personality". The first of the two, it is assumed in this essay, is closely related with Bradleyan idealist theories of degrees of truth and reality and the theory of interdependence of facts; while the second with Eliot`s epistemological concepts of soul, personality, finite center, and self. This essay postulates these views reflect and retain traces of Eliot`s philosophical disciplines. In the concluding chapter of his doctoral dissertation, Eliot prudently proposes that "certain inferences as to the nature of reality...forbid us to accept either an idealist or a realistic philosophy at its full value, "even though he believes that all the conclusions he has reached through his intellectual discipline are in substantial agreement with the idealist philosophy of Bradley`s Appearance and Reality. He suggests that we mat retain the most important doctrines of idealism such as Degrees of Truth and Reality, but he also admonishes us that we had better not rely on Bradley`s rash conception of "consciousness" or "the work of the mind" as a principle of explanation. And indeed, he deconstructs Bradley`s absolutist idealism as "an act of faith" in an essay on Leibniz. Eliot`s attitude toward Bradley and idealism may be said to be double-faced and self-conflicing.

엘리엇의 영국국교로의 개종에 관한 소고

최희섭(Hie Sup Choi)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  1권 0호, 1996 pp. 235-259 ( 총 25 pages)
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Eliot said "the general point of view may be described as classicist in literature, royalist in politics, and anglo-catholic in religion" in the preface to For Lancelot Andrewes. He was converted to Anglo-Catholicism in 1927. His declaration of viewpoints aroused many comments, for though he had been a unitarian, most readers and critics had believed that he had been interested in Eastern thoughts or unconcerned with religion, as is shown in his poetry. He, therefore, explained why he said so. But his explanation does not suffice to make us believe his reason of conversion. I tried to examine the causes of his conversion to Anglo-Catholicism through his prose and general attitude in his poetry. First, he showed much interest in such Eastern thoughts as Buddhism and Hinduism since he was a student of Harvard`s graduate school. His interest in Buddhism began somewhat earlier. He was on the verge of becoming a Buddhist when he was writing The Waste Land, as Partridge and Spender witnessed. The Waste Land contains much of Buddhistic and Hindu elements, not to say that its ending is one of the formal closing phrase of Upanishad, a kind of Hindu scripture. He avowed there remained much of the influence of early Buddhist scripture in his poetry. It is, therefore, very difficult to think of his declaration of conversion as a candid confession. Second, we can surmise that the hardship of living would have made him to accept Anglo-Catholicism. After he married and settled down in London he lived a very hard life, because he could not earn enough money by teaching in the day and public speaking at night. Moreover his wife Vivienne was taken ill just after they were married and suffered a serious illness in the winter of 1927 and 1925. At first he determined to divorce but he accepted the marriage as a doom. He couldn`t publish any important works since The Waste Land. We can think that he took refuge in Angle-Catholicism, that is to say, he wanted to take advantage of the power, order and organization of the church, and he felt some attraction to the intellectual and artistic tradition of the church. Third, his friendship lead him to join in Anglo-Catholicism. His wife Vivienne was a born Anglo-Catholic, and one of his friends, William Force Stead, was a priest. One of his life-long friends, Robert Sencourt had a similar interest in Eastern thoughts, but was an Anglo-Catholic. He introduced Eliot to Francis Underhill, Who later became a Bishop of Bath and Wells. We can guess these friendships influenced him to make up his mind to follow the life of high sanctity and service, for he thought that was a way to a new life. Fourth, because he had settled down in England he wanted to observe the tradition of his ancestors. He thought the tradition and orthodox of England was Anglo-Catholicism. He wanted to succeed socially by following the tradition and orthodox and one way to become a success in England was to become an Anglo-Catholic. We can, therefore, suppose it was an act of compromise with the society. Fifth, the Anglo-Catholic church is an established church in England. In England Anglo-Catholicism is supported by the nation socially and organizationally, so it would be very difficult to diminish to a sect. When Eliot chose his religion, he must have taken this into account. We can say that he chose the church which seemed to remain as the powerful church in England. As we surveyed, Eliot`s conversion to Anglo-Catholicism was caused by many reasons, except for his belief in God. Perhaps it was certain he was attracted to Anglo-Catholicism emotionally. But as he was an intelligent man, he must have taken other things into account when he decided to join the church. It would not be too excessive to say that his conversion was a strategic action caused by some realistic factors, included with his belief in God.

실비아 플라스의 『 생일을 위한 시 』 / 자아 탐색의 여정

윤준(Joon Yoon)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  1권 0호, 1996 pp. 261-284 ( 총 24 pages)
6,400
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Sylvia Plath`s "Poem for a Birthday"(1959), a sequence of seven dramatic monologues, has not attracted enough attention from readers and scholars because of its "absence of a tightly reasoned and rhythmed logic" (Plath`s words). Indeed, its surrealistic atmosphere, seemingly extravagant stream of consciousness, and abrupt transition of images give itself an unfavorable impression of confusion and obscurity. The aim of this paper is to examine the poem as a whole by bringing into focus the theme of the persona`s self-exploration toward a rebirth and, as a result, to demonstrate the richness and meaningfulness veiled by its deceptively confused appearance. The poem embodies in diverse modes the persona`s unceasing efforts to explore her identity in order to attain the desired rebirth. Whereas "Who" portrays the persona as a tiny inhabitant of a tool shed that explores the possibility of her rebirth, "Dark House" represents her as an underground mole-like creature groping for the roots of her identity. Unlike these, "Maenad" and "The Beast," centering on the persona`s complicated feelings in her childhood toward her parents, address the problem of her identity. "Flute Notes from a Reedy Pond," having an underwater creature as its persona, affirms the possibility of rebirth, while "Witch Burning" dramatizes the persona`s efforts to attain a spiritual rebirth through the ordeal of fire. "The Stones," the last of the sequence, based on Plath`s own experiences of a suicide attempt and the following electro-shock therapy, tackles the problem of the physical reconstruction of the persona`s shattered self. Having begun as "an exercise" and turned into "a fine, new thing" which "frees" Plath herself, "Poem for a Birthday" is placed at the end of the Birtish edition of The Colossus(1960). Most poem in this first collection of her poetry objectively depict the poet`s self in an oppressive and hostile environment. "Poem for a Birthday," with its dramatic voices and allusive images which are later to be developed in Plath`s later poetry, by successfully enacting a drama of the persona`s self-exploration toward a rebirth, paves the very way for Ariel. Therefore, the poem might justly represent at once the transitional period of Plath`s poetic career and the oeuvre itself.
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