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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 12권 1호 (2006)

게리 스나이더의 생태학적 삶을 위한 논의에 대한 연구

구자광 ( Ja Kwang Gu )
6,400
초록보기
문명과 자연이 충돌하는 지점은 문명과 자연이 상호침투하면서도 공존할 수 있는 가능성을 탐색할 수 있는 곳이다. 문명과 자연의 평화로운 공존이란 불가능하며 둘 사이에는 항상 긴장과 갈등이 존재한다. 문명과 자연 사이에 발생하는 긴장과 갈등은 생태 지역을 공유하는 인간과 동물 사이에서 좀 더 분명하게 드러난다. 인간과 동물의 관계는 다른 생태계 구성원들과의 관계보다 더 복잡하지만 인간과 생태계의 관계를 가장 극명하게 보여주는 경우가 된다. 구체적인 생존의 현장에서는, 인간과 동물은 존재의 영역이 겹치는 경우가 많고 서로 다른 생존의 방식은 갈등을 일으킨다. 동물과 인간이 생존의 장을 공유함으로써 필수불가결하게 발생할 수밖에 없는 긴장과 갈등은 경계를 중심으로 발생한다. 인간과 동물의 경계 짓기와 경계 가로지르기 사이에는 피할 수 없는 갈등과 긴장이 발생하기 때문이다. 인간의 이 긴장과 갈등에 대응하는 방식을 통하여 생태 공동체의 삶의 방식에 대한 구체적인 인간의 태도를 점검할 수 있다. 구체적인 현장에서는 관념적인 반응보다는 즉각적인 반응이 발생하기 때문이다. 갈등에 대한 즉각적인 반응에서 인간의 자연에 대한 태도가 가식 없이 분명하게 표출될 것이다. 인간은 동물에게 생태 공동체의 구성원으로 동등한 권리를 인정 하는 것인지 아니면, 인간은 관대하게 동물을 구성원으로 인정은 하지만 인간보다는 못한 존재로-그러므로 동물에 대한 관대한 태도는 언제든지 철회 가능한 것이다-또는 인간의 배려가 필요한 존재로 인식하는지는 구체적인 현장에서 표출되는 장면들을 통하여 드러날 것이다. 생태 공동체적 삶에 대한 구체적인 프로그램은 이 지점에서 발생하는 인간의 동물에 대한 태도와 행동을 사색하고 반성함으로써 발견될 수 있을 것이다. 스나이더(Gary Snyder)의 시에서, 동물은 이상화되어 인간보다 더 우월하여 인간에게 가르침을 주는 존재로 제시되기도 하고 인간보다 열등하여 인간의 배려와 훈육이 필요한 존재로 제시되기도 한다. 전자의 이상화되어 있는 동물들은 구체적인 삶의 현장으로부터 떨어져 있는 것 같다. 구체적인 생존의 현장에서 인간과 갈등과 긴장 관계를 형성하는 동물들은 인간의 훈육과 배려가 필요한 존재로 묘사되고 있다. 어느 쪽이든 동물 자체에 대한 인식과 그것에 바탕을 한 동물을 대하는 인간의 태도에 대한 반성이 필요한 것 같다. 동물에 대한 즉각적인 인간의 반응을 제 삼자의 시각으로 살펴볼 필요가 있다. 즉, 스나이더의 동물에 대한 태도를 동물의 관점에서 또는 제 삼자의 관점에서 보자는 것이다. 이 경우에만 스나이더의 생태학적 입장을 좀 더 정확하게 이해할 수 있다. 이는 생태학적 삶을 위한 추상적이고 반복적인 주장의 나열에서 구체적인 현장으로 시선을 돌리려는 것이다. 이를 위하여 이 논문은 인간과 동물 사이에 갈등이 일어나는 구체적인 장면을 다룬 시를 분석해보고자 한다. 이 논문에서는, 구체적으로 인간과 동물의 조우에 대한 세 개의 시, 「진정한 밤」("True Night") 「야생의 부름」("The Call of the Wild") 「바로 오솔길 위에서」("Right in the Trail")를 중심으로 인간-동물의 관계를 분석하여, 인간과 동물의 상호침투에 대한 스나이더의 주장들을 재검점하고자 한다. 먼저 인간의 경계에 대한 사고를 반성하는 것으로부터 논문의 논의가 시작될 것이다. 그리고 이 논문은 경계 선상에서 발생하는 긴장과 갈등을 중심으로 인간의 동물에 대한 태도를 분석하고 반성하는 방향으로 나아갈 것이다.

"숭고"에서 "정신분열"로: 스티븐스와 애쉬베리

구태헌 ( Tae Hun Ku )
6,000
초록보기
`숭고`(sublime)에 대한 칸트(Immanuel Kant)의 정의는, 인간의 재현 행위 너머에 있는 이념이 감지되는 순간을 다음과 같이 묘사하고 있다. "숭고한 것은 자연 속의 어떤 대상인데, 그것을 재현하려던 마음은 자연 속의 그 불가해한 것을 이념들의 제시로 받아들이기로 결정하게 된다"(Kant 109). 칸트의 숭고가 흔히 `부정적 숭고`(negative sublime)라 불려지는 것은 이런 이유에서인데, "자연 속의 불가해한 것"과의 대면으로 인간의 인식 행위가 실패하는 부정적인 순간은 오히려 초월적 이념의 존재를 깨닫는 숭고한 순간이 되는 것이다. 다시 말해, 칸트에게 이념은 부정적으로만 인간에게 제시될 수 있는 것이다. 의미 부재의 순간이 절대적 의미를 획득하는 순간이 되는 이 모순적인 숭고의 드라마의 주인공은 물론 이념이다. 이념을 통한 숭고화 과정을 통해 대양이나 폭풍 같은 "절대적으로 큰"(absolutely great) 것과의 대면이 일으키는 인식론적 위기의 순간이 극복되고, 세계는 다시 일관된 논리 체계 안에 얌전히 자리 잡게 되는 것이다. 그러나 부정적으로만 제시된다는 것은 그 존재가 완전히 부정될 수도 있다는 것을 의미한다. 칸트의 이념은 신에 대한 근대의 허구적 대체물에 다름 아닌 것이다. 따라서 이념의 허구적 지배 아래 묶여 있던 세계는, 순식간에 요동치고 모든 것을 삼키는 심연이 곳곳에서 어두운 입을 벌리게 된다. "자연의 불가해한 것"이 더 이상 "이념의 제시"로 이해되지 않고, 이제 프로이드(Sigmund Freud)의 "기괴한 것"(the uncanny) 또는 모더니즘의 "황무지"(the waste land)가 도처에 출몰하게 되는 것이다. 가령, "자연 속의 불가해한 것"이 더 이상 숭고한 대상으로 제시될 수 없는 현대적 상황에 대해, 월러스 스티븐스(Wallace Stevens)는 다음과 같이 "대상이 없는 욕망"이라는 말로 표현하고 있다.

현대 미국 시에서 언어와 존재의 문제 -W. C. 윌리엄즈와 E. E. 커밍즈의 경우-

김병옥 ( Byung Ok Kim )
6,900
초록보기
This article consists of four parts. The first part is a brief introduction to how Heidegger`s hermeneutics can manage textual understanding and interpretation. He says that it is in language that things first come into being and are. In the second part I examine W. C. Williams` two poems: "Young Sycamore" and "The Thing." In "Young Sycamore" Williams` own formulation of the idea of language and Being is that the word for saying is the word for Being, or for the presence of Being. Things overlap with the poet`s mind in "Young Sycamore." On the other hand William discloses a renewed orientation toward language. His renewed formulation is that man is a servant of language. Man`s position as a servant of language brings about a change in the aspect of man`s experience with language. In "The Thing" Williams attempt to reveal what it means to undergo an experience with language. In the third part I examine E. E. Cummings` "l (a)." "l (a)" implies that language may become soiled or corrupted. Then it will no longer affirm Being as reality, but hide it. Language fails Cummings. The failure of language, however, means necessarily a failure of his power to open up Being to view. He destroys words and performs an experiment with the visual shape in which a letter composition is presented on the page. Unexpected Being emerges through his letter composition. The fourth part is the conclusion. I examine briefly how Heidegger`s hermeneutics was introduced into the American literary world.

스펜더가 김기림의 모더니즘에 끼친 영향 연구

김준환 ( Joon Hwan Kim )
7,000
초록보기
전후의 영국의 시에서는 「엘리엇」의 작품에서 보는 것처럼 일관해서 현실의 반영이 농후한 것은 오래전부터의 일이었다. 드디어 30년대에 들어서부터 「뉴·시그내튜어」·「뉴·컨튜리」에서 출발한 젊은 시인들[오든, 데이 루이스, 스펜더]은 이러한 현실의 수동적 반영에조차 불만을 품고 보다 더 적극적인 관심을 가지고 대전 이후의 영시에 제2의 변혁을 가져오면서 있었던 것이다. 새로운 문화는 바로 이러한 새로운 의도와 설계를 통해서 내일로 발전할 것이었다. 왜 그러냐 하면 언제든지 비판자·초극자만이 내일에 참여할 권리를 가질 수 있는 까닭이다. (김기림 「시와 현실」 1936, 2권 102)

예이츠의 민족 정체성 탐구와 글쓰기: 비극적 영웅주의

박미정 ( Mee Jung Park )
7,100
초록보기
This paper examines the relation between W. B. Yeats`s search for national identity and his writing presented in the discourse of tragic heroism. Yeats, as an Anglo-Irish, tries to solve the problem of the split identity through the ideal of the unified Ireland. Thus, to overcome the conflict between the Catholic and the Protestant Irish, he places England as their common enemy and emphasizes a pure spirit and emotionalism inherited from Irish tradition in contrast with the English materialism and logocentrism. This tradition constitutes the national discourse of tragic heroism. This discourse is characterized by a romantic heroism in which the Irish hero wins a spiritually higher victory even though he is defeated or dies in reality. It is true that the motivation behind this tragic heroism was to justify the crisis and isolation of the Anglo-Irish. Nonetheless, by dint of this tragic heroism, Yeats aims to create the national subject in the active search for life and to realize the ideal unifying art with life in the new Irish community. Although most of Yeats`s early poems are tinged with an escape melancholy due to his recognition of the dissociation of the ideal and real world, they can be understood as a process of exploring the possibility of tragic heroism of the ideal competing the real. Yeats tries to maximize human desire/longing for the ideal world by exploiting the real. As a way of creating a unified nation, Yeats`s writing is based on his symbolism which is said to be "a means to a narrative of desire." But as shown in the conflicts surrounding his play, The Countess Cathleen and Synge`s play, The Playboy of the Western world, he fails to achieve the Unity of Nation and Culture through his poetics. The achievement and limitation of his tragic heroism provides a good example to the current problems of national identity.

게리 스나이더의 『끝없는 산하』 -구법의 서사시-

신원철 ( Won Chul Shin )
6,800
초록보기
Gary Snyder(1930- ) is a kind of wanderer who walked or hiked all over western America. He climbed and walked all over the western mountain peaks, valleys and forests. His poems are a kind of record of his travelling and wanderings. The best examples of his wanderings were published in his anthology Mountains and Rivers without End in 1996 and he was awarded the Bolingen Prize. This anthology was started in 1956 when his new styled poems, including "Rip Raps", were well received by the public and he became interested in Zen Buddhism. The poems in this anthology were inspired by an oriental painting which describes travellers and the endless road. He was much shocked by it, and the labour and trial to complete this anthology continued for 40 years. He began to think about this and at last, went to Japan to train in Buddhist Zen. He had stayed in Daeduksa temple, Kyoto, as a Zen trainee for 10 years or so. The accumulation of all these experiences, this anthology was born like a brilliant pearl. But his traveling, in these poems, is not mere wandering but a kind of pilgrimage. He went to the Eastern world to experience their spiritual training. The ideal personages he admired were the Buddhist monks, Hyunjang of China and Dogen of Japan. Both of them traveled foreign lands to search the truth, Bub. As the two Buddhist monks traveled over deserts and rough cliffs searching the truth, Snyder traveled the Eastern world and even experienced their spiritual world. This is not a mere travelling but spiritual pilgrimage as Snyder himself said. And these poems are not separated ones but a chained epic: these poems are like a flowing epic, Epic of Pilgrimage.

로버트 로월과 가족

이홍필 ( Hong Pil Lee )
7,100
초록보기
In his early poetry, Robert Lowell expresses his dissatisfaction with the conflicts among family members, particularly those who belong to his maternal family, including his own mother. This paper examines the origin of Lowell`s friction with his family, the process of forgiveness, and reconciliation with his family members under conflicts. Like his mother, Charlotte Winslow, Lowell was born into the Boston Brahman family, American version of aristocracy, who are still very proud of their contribution to foundation of America. Nevertheless, Lowell himself abominated their choice of materialistic crusade, a manifestation of snobbery, instead of championing their faith. It was in the very respect that Lowell attacked his forefathers. Particularly, "91 Revere Street" in Life Studies is an epitome of his bitterness toward his own parents and his maternal grandfather. It looks unlikely that Lowell will make a reconciliation with those family members. But as Life Studies progresses, Lowell starts to communicate with his family members one by one, thereby breeding accommodation and forgiveness which lead to sympathy and love in the long run. Such a progress demonstrates extension of Lowell`s self, which keeps developing to the degree that he accepts the people outside his own family members as his. For example, "In Waking in the Blue," Lowell describes the two graduates of Harvard University who suffers from mental illness; finding their abnormal behaviors close to his own, he accommodates them as his family members.

월러스 스티븐스의 여성관

정성연 ( Sung Yon Chung )
6,400
초록보기
This paper concentrates on the various aspects of women shown in the works of Wallace Stevens. Aspects of women presented in the poems are not fixed to be categorized into groups according to their type, but diverse and manifold. In fact, Stevens has no rigid idea of women, and this is displayed throughout his poems. Stevens employs a variety of woman characters to explain his own poetic theory. Denying Christian God, Logos and the absolute Truth, Stevens struggles to create a human truth based on the reality. In search for a human truth, the poet should see things with no human passion, feelings or prejudice. This is the process of `abstract` and the poet can get a `true reality` as a result. Then, a true reality and the imagination are compounded to make a brand new `imagined reality,` which is a `supreme fiction` in Stevens` term. Women are mentioned in every aspect of the creative processes. Thus, a woman character symbolizes the imaginative poet himself in one poem and symbolizes varied realties in other poems. Women in the poems are hard to definitely classify because of their arbitrary aspects, and they are only meaningful when considered in the viewpoint of Stevens` own poetic theory.

윌리엄스의 서사적 텍스트에 나타난 미국의 문화 정체성

최용미 ( Yong Mi Choi )
6,900
초록보기
Williams` Paterson is an epic attempt to embody an American identity by lifting local realities to a new cultural order. The poet-persona tries to find "beauty" through the synthesis of all the binary oppositions by juxtaposing poetry and prose in various forms of collage. But the reality introduced by prose repeatedly subverts and decomposes the synthesis imagined by the poet himself. In the process of repeating compositions and decompositions, the poet comes to realize that the beauty, "radiant gist," will be unexpectedly revealed by the dissonance of poetry and prose, if it is handled by creative imagination accompanied by patience and love. This is a new kind of form or beauty defying the imposed authority, which, however, cannot insist on the finality. So the poet`s form or discovery is only a momentary accomplishment and should always be ready to open to a revision. As a result, the text fails to achieve the synthesis the poet intended, but succeeds in opening up toward the multiplicity and dynamic change of reality. The textual aesthetics of Paterson implies that the American cultural identity also cannot be fixed or unified in a final definition. The aesthetics of Paterson makes readers aware of the necessity of constant self-revisioning and tolerance of diversity, which implies pragmatic solutions for America where heated arguments are still ongoing between multicultural desires and the need for a cultural unity.

The Currency of Wordsworthian Ideals in Modern and Postmodern Poetics -Wordsworth the Anti-Romantic?-

( Kyongjoo Hong Ryou )
6,200
초록보기
The Currency of Wordsworthian Ideals in Modern and Postmodern Poetics Modernism, although any definition of it inevitably betrays the very purpose, had at its heart in general finding new ways of thinking, expressing, and living in the new world the 20(th)Century suddenly seemed to open up. The modernist injunctions against traditional mores and various forms of absolutism thus necessarily focused on undoing Victorian sensibilities and Romantic ideals. Accepting these precepts, modernism in poetry often made William Wordsworth, the ultimate Romantic poet, an easy target. A careful reading of his major poems and his "Preface to Lyrical Ballads," his "defense of poetry," reveals an entirely different figure. His constant undoing and self-erasing, and the deeply self-conscious psyche that accompanies them, in fact, form a predominant mode through which Wordsworth generates further elaboration, further apologetics and conclusions always evolving into a more comprehensive and holistic point of view. The modality that the poet gleans in the preface to modernize naively idealistic and "romantic"devotion to the public finds a similar pattern in his poetry. The much talked about issue of poetic voice, for example, has in it the prototypeof a poet whose poetic quest is inseparable from the struggle it creates: the topic of poetic voice, thus, becomes the topic of vocation in Wordsworth`s poetry. So, too, the various dilemmas and knotty issues that come up in his poems are solved within the texts where the poet`s struggle, with all its confusions, self-doubts, and faltering authority, is there for his readers to witness. The poet as a rule refuses to go outside the text to smooth out these floundering moments, resolutely content with presenting texts that are uneven and heterogeneous-quite a postmodern feat, indeed. Under his idealistic facadeof public commitment to which Wordsworth binds himself is an innovative thinker/poet who pioneered and practiced the poetics his modern, postmodern descendents were forced to adopt by modernization and its multifaceted environment, the very poetics that they often accused him of lacking.
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