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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치


Studies in Modern British and American Poetry

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
수록 범위 : 12권 2호 (2006)

"시가 그 도시에 도착했다": 셰이머스 히니의 탈신화화와 균열적 글쓰기

강민건 ( Min Gun Kang )
The main object of this essay is to investigate Seamus Heaney`s texts in terms of the decolonial discourse and the anti-textuality, and to demonstrate how Heaney`s realistic writing against the established romantic poems has been revealed in his poetic and theoretical texts. My contention is that Heaney`s realistic writing against colonial lives has been arresting critical attention among the critics, discovering that Heaney`s approach in dealing with real world has become more and more decolonial than any other established contemporary Irish poets. Seamus Heaney has been witnessing the historical moments of the death of his motherland, Ireland, as well as of the Irish people, as was manifested by the history of Ireland. Heaney accepted the humiliating colonial history under the colonial situation in Ireland and the humble Irish people of the present in their ordinary lives. To overcome this devastating circumstance, the poet Heaney has explored the traditional myth which was bracketed and traumatized by the colonized experience and the intellectual and spiritual deprivation. Nevertheless, Heaney has rejected the too much mythical representation by such established Irish poets as Yeats. Heaney reinterpreted the romantically-exaggerated heroism in the myth of the Irish literary tendency as the self-defence mechanism of the colonialized and the dispossessed people. Finally my major focus in my analysis is in his realistic writing as well as in how Heaney appropriates language in his poetry. In this regard, I try to search for the true Irishness which Heaney has made every effort to materialize in his poetry.

A. R. 애몬즈의 과학적 상상력

김은성 ( Eun Seong Kim )
This paper aims to investigate how Ammons internalizes the facts and realities of nature into his mind. He appears as a poet of mind as well as a poet of nature in his works. Much of Ammons` poetry is based on his scientific observations and awareness of the natural world. His poems, therefore, include many objective descriptions of its facts and the descriptions often become a poetic discourse itself in his works. Ammons, however, makes use of the observations and awareness to discover and reveal correspondences between nature and the human mind or between scientific facts and moral truths. Thus, the observations of nature are internalized in the process of contemplation to build terrains for the human mind. Ammons always moves beyond the merely factual to contemplate some greater truth. For him, the truth points to the laws of nature or nature`s organic orders and process. This truth or fact is what he wants to learn from nature to dismantle the closed human thought or rigidity in thought and perception. In addition, the scientific realities serve as a medium for imagination and are transformed into a metaphor for humans` internal experiences. In other words, Ammons transforms the facts of science into the testimony of his poetry.

『바다와 거울』에 나타난 W. H. 오든의 예술관

박연성 ( Yeon Seong Park )
Auden (1907-1973)`s The Sea and the Mirror raises questions about the value of art in the context of Auden`s Christian beliefs and Kierkegaard`s Christian existentialist philosophy. It considers whether art has a moral responsibility or it is a play. In this article I trace Auden`s view of art within the context of The Sea and the Mirror and weigh the critics` comments regarding this topic. Auden used various metaphor to represent art including circus, mirror, magic and shadow. In the preface the stage manager uses the metaphor of a circus to show what art is. Through the metaphor of a circus he points out how the world of art is different from reality. In Part I, Prospero discards his magic by throwing out his magic books and breaking his magic wand. His actions show his resolution to give up art and to choose instead the religious existence. In Part II, supporting cast stands outside of the magic circle, however its members still pursue romantic love, wine and dreams. In Part III, Caliban regards the art as a mirror which reflects life. He articulates the difficulties within which that artist is situated to show reality through the medium of art. Later Auden rebukes the view which regards art as a serious work. He believes that writing poetry is something frivolous, for enjoyment only. This view of art is represented in the Sea and the Mirror.

윌리엄 칼로스 윌리엄즈와 스페인 문학

심진호 ( Jin Ho Shim )
Through his poetry and prose, William Carlos Williams incessantly shows that his life and literature are closely related to Spanish heritage. The names "William" and "Carlos" reflect his mixed bloodline of British and Spanish. They lead Williams toward much more multi-faceted literary writings. In a sense, Williams` Spanish half, signifying his private and covert life, plays an important role in making him a genuine American poet compared with his contemporary Anglophile poets such as Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot. Above all, his Puerto Rican mother Elena has had much influence on Williams` preoccupation with Spanish language and literature. Williams emphasizes that he has been greatly influenced by Spanish writers such as Luis de Gongora, Don Francisco Quevedo, and Federico Garcia Lorca as well as his mother. Therefore, Williams can accept the Spanish lineage as his own literary lineage. Investigating these Spanish writers, Williams wants to find a genuine American cultural and literary identity as opposed to the British literary traditions. Through Spanish language and literature, Williams can develop authentic American poetic forms and measures, so that he points the way toward the new American poetry.

데릭 월콧의 예술가의 초상: 제임스 조이스의 『젊은 예술가의 초상』에 대한 변용

이영철 ( Young Cheol Lee )
In his youth, Derek Walcott was interested in James Joyce so much that he acted the same way as Joyce`s hero, Stephen Dedalus, when a Catholic archbishop criticized his debut poem, "The Voice of St. Lucia". Thus, the poet`s biographical experience may influence the reader`s perception of the poem as an imitation of Joyce`s novel. However, despite the biographical sympathy between the two writers, this study discusses Walcott`s portrait of an artist in Another Life in terms of his variation of that of Joyce`s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Walcott`s artistical portrait is a variation of that of Joyce`s novel, even though it is developed in the process of self-exploration, self-discipline, and self-confidence. While Joyce`s hero is isolated from his family, school, and church, and then from himself for the sake of his artistic dream, Walcott`s poetic self is among those with whom he lives. He shares the sufferings that his mother, an artistic teacher, and a peer go through, namely poverty, loss of sovereignty, and inner conflict between politically opposite sides. And his artistic dream reflects his sturdy will to overcome the hardships common to Caribbeans. More specifically, even though criticizing the place for its absurdities and contradictions, the poetic self makes a decision to strengthen his artistic life and dream, keeping track of those who live with their self-overcoming will. In other words, the poet`s artistic dream is formed on the basis of his Caribbean life and its sensibility. Therefore, it is obvious that not all of the poet`s artistic portrait is similar to Joyce`s, even though the poet was sympathetic to Joyce`s hero throughout his youth.

"가능성들의 장"으로서의 시 -자기반영적인 시의 한 가지 유형-

최문수 ( Moon Soo Choi )
The structurally self-reflexive poetry may hold local meanings but does not allow them to be synthesized into an overarching meaning, conceptual or perceptual; it lacks any necessary integrating rule. The parts are organized so that they have multiple and undeterminable relationships with each other. This state or compositional principle can be described as the multiple and equally valid polarity of the field of possibilities. A number of 20th century`s poetic texts belong to this mode of the field of possibilities, which embraces any non-mimetic poems, whether they retain the discursive system or not, including John Ashbery, Gertrude Stein, Ray Dipalma, Charles Bernstein and Bruce Andrews. This poetic mode however differentiates itself not only from the traditional illusion-making poetry but the poems whose self-reflexiveness is simply achieved by directly and coherently narrating their own compositional principle. When it comes to discursive poetry, the field of possibilities requires the narrative incoherency, which relies on the disruption of the discursive level. Unlike the common misconception, however, the device of juxtaposition does not guarantee an inconsistent narrative because the disjunctive operation of juxtaposition is confined to the surface of the text. A poetic text may have a deep, say, connotative level, at which seemingly disconnected denotative meanings can be connected with each other. And these hidden connections can make possible a full narrative consistency. For non-discursive poetry, the field of possibilities is produced when perceptual meanings claim their own semantic value without being subject to a certain conceptual topic, hence without being mimetic as in pattern poetry or shaped poetry.

로버트 프로스트의 실용주의적 모더니즘과 「가족묘」

한지희 ( Ji Hee Han )
Generally, Robert Frost is known as a nature poet who described rural landscapes of New England province, a folk poet who represented lives of ordinary American people with a simple, vernacular language, and a popular poet who offered readers the message of hope and courage, sugar-coated with simple folk wisdom. Nonetheless, the popularity of Frost has also drawn some negative critical responses from literary scholars. Comparing him with other modernist poets such as Ezra Pound, W. B. Yeats, T. S. Eliot, and Wallace Stevens, they have indicated that Frost lacked a serious philosophical and religious meditation of life. Therefore, in this essay I will discuss Frost`s "Sound of Sense" poetics in terms of Henry Bergson and William James and try to examine his discrete poetic search to reflect the human consciousness that is constantly in flux. Then, reading "Home Burial," I will look into how realistically Frost controls the `sound` of the simple, ordinary dialogue in order for readers to engage the `sense,` that is, the deeper and more dynamic psychological realities of modern Americans. Re-examining Frost`s "Sound of Sense" poetics by way of discussing the very tricky issue of `when and how to talk about death,` I hope to illuminate Frost as a serious modernist poet, who maintained a mature critique of the deep chasm between the appearance of the way the people exist and the real nature of their existence.

「죽은 연방군을 위하여」에 나타난 로버트 로월의 자아와 타자간 거리 인식

황준호 ( Joon Ho Hwang )
During his lifetime, Robert Lowell was willing to publicize and poeticize his liberalism in his activities and poems, where he often identifies himself with the socially marginalized. Lowell`s expression of his political stance in close association with his personal life deserves our attention, for many so-called "canonical" poets are politically conservative or hesitant to present their political positions. Nevertheless, Lowell`s liberalism has often been questioned as well because of the way he positions himself in relation to others. Thus, it has been argued that Lowell, highly educated and "aristocratic" in Boston, appropriates the narratives of minorities in order to deal with his own personal issues. In this sense, "For the Union Dead" is worth our close reading in that the poem registers his different attitude toward others. At first, the poem seems to present common characteristic features of Lowell`s poetry such as the recalling of his personal life in the past and his liberal perspective. Yet, the poem is more historical and social than personal, and the protagonist of the poem is not Lowell or his autobiographical speaker but Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and his African American soldiers. More importantly, the conclusion of the poem implies that Lowell seems to acknowledge the distance that others (African Americans) might have toward him, "Boston Brahmin," despite his attempt to take their perspective on racism. Given these elements, "For the Union Dead" demonstrates Lowell`s mature poetics that enables him to reconsider his position in dealing with the complexity of social issues.

Robert Lowell`s Sense of History in History

( Kyoon Won Yang )
Lowell was such a confessional poet to speak about his own and familial experiences, while not so solipsistic as to hide himself from the world. His "impersonal personalism," which "synthesizes the inclination to personalism and consciousness building of the nineteenth century with the elaborate masking techniques and objectifications of the twentieth," reaches the climax when his personal memory is connected to that of humankind, that is, "social, political, and cultural historiography" (Hoffman 688). His journey into the past is to see the linkage of his personal past to that of all the related others in history. Thus, history turns into a place where, or a time when, the personal interacts with the historical. This essay aimed to show how subtle Lowell`s perception of, or reaction to, the past is. To do this, three poems from History were closely examined among others. The examination was not made to define what history is for Lowell but to reveal the way his sense of history works out. As shown in such poems as "History," "The Nihilist as Hero" and "Reading Myself," Lowell`s sense of history is too complicated to be pinned down in the linear way. History has both sides of darkness and brightness. Actually, the bright side is almost always overshadowed by the other. However, Lowell is no more a pure pessimist than he is an optimist. Lowell`s nihilistic quality goes abreast with his stoic, puritan endurance, and his existentialistic acceptance of the realities of life. This acceptance in turn qualifies somehow Lowell as a little hero.