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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 15권 2호 (2009)

브래들리의 인식론의 관점에서 본 로버트 하스의 시

김구슬 ( Koo Seul Kim )
6,100
초록보기
Robert Hass is a living poet who represents the contemporary American poetry. Hass`s poetry reveals basically a monistic epistemology. The belief that there is "a first world" of unity beyond the divided changing world of appearance is the basis of his monistic epistemology. This poetic attitude is evoked by the nostalgic wish to recover "a first world/of undivided light" and he sometimes glimpses eternity in the world of appearance on the journey towards the recovered first world. F. H. Bradley was a leading philosopher who revolted against dualism by proclaiming a monistic epistemology where subject and object form a unity as a living whole. Hass`s poetry shows an affinity with Bradley`s epistemology which consists of the three following stages of awareness: "immediate experience," "the relational consciousness" and "the supra-relational" consciousness. This paper examines the relationships between reality and appearance, and the three stages of awareness revealed in some of Hass`s major poems including "Meditation at Lagunitas," "Natural Theology" and "Mouth Slightly Open" in the light of Bradley`s epistemology, which eventually helps to elucidate the nature of Hass`s poetry.
7,700
초록보기
Critics acknowledge that the primary theme in the works of Wallace Stevens is the relationship between imagination and reality. However, there remains more to contribute to the subject. In general, idealistic critics accentuate that Stevens seeks to evade "reality pressure" and to fabricate an interior world or a supreme and transcendental-like fiction, and substitute, it for the real world. However, some critics appreciate Stevens` pursuit of reality itself especially in his later period; they also fail to notice that he allows some leeway within reality that brings forth imagination and cognizance. In reality, the relationship between the two is more complicated than the existing perspectives as shown in his later poetry collection, The Rock, which ruminates over the scenery of autumn, winter and early spring. Stevens first observes that the extreme reality of autumn and winter which contains devastation, atrophy, and indigence, even annihilates supreme imagination: thus, "the effete vocabulary of summer no longer says anything." However, the privation as a sort of genuine nakedness makes us return to "a plain sense of things," and even sublimates us in an experience of the reception of a huge profundity. Another sublime element in the winter landscape is how frozen winter seems to be pensively contemplating things without any subjectivity, even to the extent of mechanical operation. The fixed meditation of nature nonetheless brings around another form of nature, consciousness of the subjects. The contemplative subject like a cosmic being becomes more detached from the outer world as if dominating this world when he is immersed in imagination, composition, and languages. The poetic subject continues to be allured by a syllable without any meaning and yearns for the import of a syllable adding "the whole vocabulary of the South" to the northern void. The fertile poetic world serves to emit the "first light" of the winter evening and is exalted to the ultimate good. The imagination in winter is not only a sublime essence but also a desire and momentum towards spring. Poetry as an icon can be a realization of the illusion of spring and prepare for a future "thousand things." However, purgation is necessary for the renewal of spring; thus, the winter is "washed away" when Ulysses approaches Penelope. But imagination and purification remain insufficient for perfecting real spring; Stevens confirms the material spring above human involvement in the "propelling force" of the "mere flowing" of a river in local Connecticut and in the separate insistence of exterior things of the sunrise and the cry of a thrush in early spring.

T. S. 엘리엇의 『네 사중주』에 반영된 성 어거스틴의 시간관

변채민 ( Chae Min Byun )
6,200
초록보기
Four Quartets is regarded to be one of the greatest philosophical poems of the twentieth century by many critics. Four Quartets shows the full, mature spiritual vision of Eliot. It explores the relationship between a life of bondage and suffering in temporal existence and a life of freedom and happiness in eternity. The desire to transcend time is a major impetus in the poem. Although several different conceptions of the nature of time are successively or repeatedly entertained throughout the poem, time in Four Quartets is Christian time. Eliot relies much of his conception of time on St. Augustine. He grounds time in the inner mind of humanity: time is not a phenomenon that happens outside but exists only in the inner experience of mind. Man is under the influence of past, present and future, and God is beyond time. From this perspective, in Christian time, the three divisions of time are meaningless. Past, present and future exist only as memory, intuition, and expectation in our inner mind. Eliot eventually reaches St. Augustine`s concept of Time. It is also called "Eternal Present." In this time, past, present, future coexist eternally. Eliot describes it "the point of intersection of the timeless with time." In many ways, we can conclude that much similarities exist between two. For them, time passes but eternity always stays at "present." In "Eternal Present" of God, all time and all beings are in harmonized existence.

자아의 부재에서 목소리를 내다-루이스 그릭

양균원 ( Kyoon Won Yang )
7,200
초록보기
This essay examines Louise Gluck`s unique way in which she develops a new lyric voice of her own by speaking with "no self" and by employing emotionally removed tone. From her experience of psychoanalysis, Gluck learned to give herself a voice ripped between the praises which she wants to hear from the world and the demands of her spirit with which she opposes herself to the world. The voice is the one which never existed and can issue only from "the enduring general deriving continually from the accepted individual life." It conveys the sense of speech issuing "not from the past but in the present" and "the sense of immediacy [and] volatility." Her lyric voice is so deliberately manipulated as to make Gluck distinct from the confessional mode. In her poem sequences as in Descending Figure and in The Wild Iris, the "I" is allowed to have a wide range of perception with no central self. Especially in The Wild Iris, flowers have their own individual voices, which are often intervened by the voice of a poet-gardner or by that of a gardner-god. In addition to her austere writing style and emotionally detached tone, Gluck`s unique abilities with the lyric voice contribute to her recognition as a leading American poet.

T. S. 엘리엇의 반유태주의 논쟁

이만식 ( Man Sik Lee )
6,000
초록보기
T. S. Eliot is no longer an idolized literary figure. Instead he is likely to be an easy target of recent critical and political attacks partly due to the demise of modernism and partly due to the denunciation of the anti-Semitism of T. S. Eliot by Anthony Julius`s T. S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism and Literary Form. This paper is to prove that Julius`s criticism of T. S. Eliot is a logical fallacy. The notorious phrase of "any large number of free-thinking Jews undesirable" in After Strange Gods is one of Eliot`s well-known anti-Semitic remarks. However, in his letter to J. V. Healy on May 10, 1940, Eliot clarified that he intended to emphasize its religious aspect because the unity of religious background is very important to the ideal homogeneous culture and that thus "free-thinking Jews are only a special case." Julius`s criticism is focused on the following five poems; "Gerontion," "Burbank with a Baedeker: Bleistein with a Cigar," "Sweeney Among the Nightingales," "A Cooking Egg" and "Dirge." In this paper, I tried to prove that Julius`s indictment of Eliot`s anti-Semitism is a hyperbole. Julius acts like a prosecutor bringing the case of Eliot`s anti-Semitism to the legal proceeding of felony. However, the actual case is like a misdemeanor with which a policeman can dismiss Eliot with a caution.

W. B. 예이츠의 운문극 『데어드라』 -로맨스에서 비극적 환희로-

이세순 ( Se Soon Lee )
7,400
초록보기
Yeats`s one-act verse play Deirdre is a bloody-tragedy of double revenge based on the tragic love story of Deirdre and Naoise from the ancient Irish myth. Primarily, it is a classical work strictly observing the three unities. Nevertheless, it has been regarded as the most experimental modern play which is in the act of completing itself before the audience chiefly because of the musicians adopted for the various roles throughout its development. Originally, a most beautiful fourteen-year-old girl Deirdre raised in a secluded wood was found by the High King Conchubar of Ulster and became his betrothed, but she eloped with a young warrior king Naoise one month before her marriage. After seven years` wanderings, believing Conchubar`s promise to forgive him, Naoise returned home against Deirdre`s will only to be killed by Conchubar and Deirdre killed herself. But Yeats confined the story to the final phase after the protagonists` return and entirely modified or rewrote the better part of the story to create quite a new mythology in which both his private love for Maud Gonne and his patriotic love of his country are expressed. And in Deirdre we can witness the protagonists` pure passionate love is changed into a tragic joy through their ritual murder/suicide.

"시멘트벽에 비망록 내던지기" -앤 섹스턴의 시적 공간 추구-

허현숙 ( Hyun Sook Huh )
6,400
초록보기
Anne Sexton`s poetry has almost become identified with "confessional poetry." But Sexton preferred the term `personal` to `confessional.` Although her poetry alludes to her experiences as her poetic materials, the materials are dealt into a structure of order with the poetic persona. And the persona tells a story about the poet`s own or the other people`s life toward a listener with a multitudes of voices in various states of human being. This act of telling a story to a listener Sexton compares to the slamming into the cement wall of the notebooks. In telling through the poetic persona she distances herself from the poetic material with the poetic persona in each text. The listener in the text is the reader of the poem. So the poet calls up the role of the reader to judge the persona`s messages. Through this method Sexton seems to put the other interlocutor right at the outset in each text and asks the reader to take part in exploring the struggles in her life. In this processes of participating the reader of her poetic text sympathizes with the persona`s story and the poet`s struggles to overcome the despair. Thus the poetic persona embodies the Sexton`s poetic themes and becomes the vehicle which enables the reader to project themselves into the persona`s consciousness and to understand the poet`s life and thought.
5,800
초록보기
With the poem, "For the Marriage of Faustus and Helen," which appeared in 1922-1923, Hart Crane created controversy among Gorham Munson, editor of Secession, Allen Tate, Yvor Winters, the so-called New Critics, and an editor of The Dial. The controversy between Crane and the would-be New Critics was the way Crane put poetry and life together. Crane was severely criticized when he believed that poetry is poetry and life is life. In other words, critics blamed that Crane did not try morality on his poetry, as compared to T. S. Eliot who did so in his poetry, especially in The Waste Land. Unfortunately, on April 27, 1932, Crane took his own life. The kind of literary history continued the fight between poets and critics, perhaps indicating two kinds of poetry: literature-initiative life or criticism-initiative life in poetry. Unfortunately, it is amazing to see the politics of intellectual culture from the fight. The New Criticism is believed to lose the literary history which regards creativity in poetry to be most valuable, taking morality seriously from the European tradition as we might see from New Critics: a political game in intellectual history. This paper examines a critical context for the Crane`s poem, "Faustus and Helen," which also drew from native sources: what the poet envisioned in his own voice and how he put it in the poem, not in a moral sense, yet in formalistic devices of language, such metaphors, symbols, irony, and paradox as even the New Critics favored to read poetry with care. Crane argued that a great deal of romanticism may persist even when Tate posited Crane`s long project, The Bridge, at the end of tradition of romanticism. We now assure his prophecy for 21st century poetry.

"Still Going On": The Promise of Healing in Derek Walcott`s Omeros

( Hyon Bin Choi )
6,500
초록보기
This study examines the process of indigenization in Derek Walcott`s Omeros (1990) which portrays colonial wounds metamorphosing into a healing upon the here and now of St. Lucia. The past, present, and future exist simultaneously in the time/space of Omeros, in which a collective understanding of the colonial past and its persisting legacies is possible. The present study focuses on delineating how the fragments of colonial wounds are reassembled upon this simultaneous time/space of the Caribbean. The paper first examines how the legacies of colonialism permeate the landscape of St. Lucia, metamorphosing into wounds of the island. The wounds materialize into instances of "past-in-present," which haunt the island and its inhabitants. However, Omeros refuses to entirely reject the cultural/historical legacies of colonialism or return to African origins. St. Lucia and the Caribbean islands are centralized where indigenized fragments of history have taken root in the landscape of the island. These indigenized wounds are embraced as part of St. Lucia`s present, while refuted as persisting historical pain at the same time. This simultaneous affirmation and negation creates a time/space which promises a new culture and history of the Caribbean.
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