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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 16권 1호 (2010)

코즈모폴리턴 "생물지역주의" -게리 스나이더의 경우

구자광 ( Ja Kwang Gu )
6,800
초록보기
This paper aims to look for a possibility of contradictory combination of region-centered bioregionalism and cosmopolitanism in Gary Snyder`s ecology through Immanuel Kant and Jacques Derrida. Snyder`s worries about regionalism implicit in bioregionalism urge him to introduce cosmopolitanism. Snyder proposes to keep a balance between cosmopolitanism and bioregionalism. In his essay on cosmopolitanism, Kant presents the idea of `a common right to the surface of the earth.` The earth is a common land to all. All are `natives` to the earth. According to Jacques Derrida`s interpretation of Kantian cosmopolitanism, Kant acknowledges the common right to the surface of the earth but Kant would like to reserve an exclusive right for what is `erected` or `constructed` on the surface of the earth. But Derrida says that when an exclusive right is secured, an `initial violence` is done to the common right to the surface of the earth. Derrida argues that any `habitat` is just an `illegally` and `violently` `constructed` one that interferes with `the common right to the surface of the earth.` All `habitats` are `illegals.` Any regionalism or even bioregionalism is one of `illegals` in the light of the cosmopolitan right to the surface of the earth. With Kantian idea of cosmopolitanism and Derrida`s interpretation of Kantian cosmopolitanism, this paper shows that Snyder`s bioregionalism can be acceptable only if it is based on cosmopolitanism since even bioregions can be thought to be `constructed` or `erected` on `the surface of the earth` that `originally` belongs to all on the earth without any discrimination, animals, humans, plants, mountains, predators, enemies, etc. Any `re-inhabitation` in land and `becoming natives` to land which Snyder suggests in his ecological projects should begin with the idea of `pure land` on which nothing has been `constructed,` like `the surface of the earth.` The common right to the surface of the earth should be given priority to. After this right is guaranteed, an ecological community can be `constructed` or `erected` on the surface of the earth regionally and temporarily, and only then, cosmopolitan bioregionalism can be put into practice.

"구르는 돌멩이처럼" -1960년대 밥 딜런 노래에 대한 시학적 접근

손광수 ( Kwang Soo Son )
6,500
초록보기
This study is intended to construct the poetics of Bob Dylan`s songs by demonstrating what poetic effects his songs and lyrics in the 1960s have. First of all, I look into the frequently raised question, `Can Bob Dylan be called a poet?` To answer it, we need to take it into account that his poetic medium is a song. The uniqueness of his art lies in a new way of fusing poetry, voice and music and it contributes to the creation of poetic spaces crossing between high and popular(or mass) cultures. To illuminate these arguments, I point to the peculiar total effects stemming from the aspects that language, voice and music as his three key elements intermingle, strain or contradict with each other. It turns out that we can`t approach Dylan`s works of art in the same way as when approaching other print-based poetry. So approaches towards his art have to be more holistic by going over the processes and ranges of his compositions and performances. In addition, both his poetic and musical elements have to be focused on as the same important ones. This leads us to the possibility of a new poetics with no boundaries between poems and songs, while pointing to an aesthetic democracy.

홉킨즈와 디킨슨 -고독의 시편들

신원철 ( Won Chul Shin )
6,600
초록보기
We can compare Hopkins and Dickinson, interestingly from the view point of their being called pioneers of modern poetry. We can find an important common point in their loneliness; both of them had felt deep solitude in their whole lives. Hopkins was a Catholic priest which caused loneliness and separation from other people in the Victorian English society. In that society, it was a great accident to convert to Catholicism, which means separation even from his family and friends. For the last 5 years in Ireland, Hopkins had fallen in deep dejection because of his ill health and spiritual conflict on all subjects and it expressed even his resentment to God. How vulgar and greedy people were flourishing so much while he, who had devoted his whole life to God`s purpose, was defeated and fallen in deep depression? Dickinson is different in the character of the loneliness. She decided herself to be a solitary being. She strongly refused to follow the strict Puritan tradition, which has been the spirit of her family. She did not avoid love without marriage, and even fell in love with her father`s friend. Briefly speaking, she rejected all custom and tradition of New England in the 19th century. Thus in her poems we can read her private love and solitary seclusion and resentment to the secular society. And she rejected all the traditional poetic skill and emotion, even imagined the death of herself and sneered at the affectation of other people. These two poets were alone in their whole life and they refused the easy life of ordinary people. In this article I suggest the loneliness, which is well expressed in their poems, is one of the causes that made them called a pioneer of modern poetry.

잡종의 세상에서 쓰는 시 -조리 그레이엄

양균원 ( Kyoon Won Yang )
6,400
초록보기
This article aims to examine Jorie Graham`s Hybrids of Plants and of Ghosts, the first of her more than ten poetry books, to show how she started to come over the "perfected argument" of language. She obtained critical attention in that she developed her own way of responding to "the gap" or "the long sleep of resemblance" between language and what it refers to, the issue of which was raised by many contemporary American poets in the 1960s and early 1970s. Hybrids is the starting point from which Graham continues to develop such eccentric ways as silence, "white spaces," and "ellipses" to confront what language fails to produce, while every book of hers is intended to find a better access to it. In "THE WAY THINGS WORK" things are considered to be open to one another and give rise to hybrids. The poet is called upon to be keen to the points where nothing essential is allowed and only relations remain. Thus, in "HYBRIDS OF PLANTS AND OF GHOSTS," the "only perfection" of things is their "weave" and "knot" through "grafting." In "THE GEESE" the speaker is attracted to the "astonishing delay" of spiders as well as to the "code" of geese. The poet seems to be somewhat away from Language poets in that she still makes an effort to reach something inexpressible while using the limitations of language. Although her next books show "sea change" in words of silence, Hybrids is exemplary enough to point to the "accurate failures [of language]" where Graham`s creative energies are all devoted to the confrontation with the gap between language and experience.

월러스 스티븐스의 장소의식

전득주 ( Deuk Ju Jeon )
6,600
초록보기
Even though Wallace Stevens says, "It is life that we are trying to get at in poetry," and "for me life is an affair of places," Steven`s inclination of epistemological approach toward nature leads to the realization that "we live in a place that is not our own, and much more not ourselves." Bryson positively interprets this as the consciousness of space which completes the consciousness of place by understanding the human limitations. When Stevens shows his consciousness of place in "The Anecdote of Jar," and "Snow Man," which are examples to transform the "space" of wilderness into a "place" with the help of organic imagination, his consciousness of space leads him to "an awakened place-awareness," the understanding that the inner mind of human beings including imagination is made of his own place and the place molds our being. Place-making is made possible by our identification with the surrounding environment through "violence of imagination" but not by exploitation based on ownership. By our identification with it, nature (or the surrounding environment) reveals itself, through our culture (in case of "The Anecdote of Jar"), and ourselves (in case of "Snow Man"). Organic imagination here means the force of nature and a part of our being. Stevens` long and changing inquiries of the relationship between reality and imagination find a restful port in his consciousness of place without any sacrifice of either.

루이스 주콥스키의 푸가형식

최문수 ( Moon Soo Choi )
6,200
초록보기
For Zukofsky, a poem is an object in that it is objectified by embodying a dynamic structure corresponding to the order of interacting things in nature. Being an object, it is a `rested totality,` a perfect thing like a thing in the creative process of nature. He finds the poetic model of nature`s dynamic order in music because to him musical movement is in line with the dynamic order of nature. A poem is then a musical thing that affects our mind not with the tonal features of words but with the movement of meanings corresponding to the movement of the sounds of a musical work. "A"-1`s fugal form is a good example that shows how a poem can acquire the order of nature by adopting a musical form. The fugue is not a fixed form but an organic structure that develops a subject into different motifs through its contrapuntal repetitions and allows new material to be brought into complement. Likewise, "A"-1`s structure is not confined to a narrative frame: it enables its elements to reoccur in amplified and metamorphosed forms and interplay with each other through the interactive relations that transcend the logic of a narrative. The interplay of repeated particulars begets a dynamic movement among them like the movement of sounds in a fugue.
7,200
초록보기
The Vietnam War has rarely been remembered by literary critics of modern American poetry. It is mainly because of the persistent assumption that too much engagement in politics will inevitably sacrifice aesthetics of poetry. However, Adrienne Rich has never stood outside history, and her poetry of social engagement has never been outside artistic merits. Thus recasting three of her Vietnam war poems in the discursive frame of feminism, this paper tries to illuminate Rich`s feminist gaze that maintains lyrical aesthetics while reflecting the tensions between patriotism and civil right and between humanism and individualism in the times of war. In the process it emphasizes that she has made earnest efforts to match her feminist desire with her strong sense of civic duty and that she has realized her wish to become a tool that captures the other frames of war and translates the pulses of the nation. Truly, she has created a poetic space that invites readers to remember their country`s cultural amnesia and to meditate on the unavoidable reality that being a citizen involves being responsible for the history and politics of his/her motherland. Finally, this essay tries to point it out as her poetic achievement that by transforming art into an artifact that bears the specific history it was produced, she has fulfilled her political as well as artistic vision of `poetry in life.`

드니스 레버토프의 베트남 전쟁시

허현숙 ( Hyun Sook Huh )
6,900
초록보기
Denise Levertov took up the task to hold the poetic stance to oppose to the Vietnam War from the middle of the 1960s through the end of the War. Even with the harsh criticism and assessment that her Vietnam war poetry declined to the level of propaganda, she did keep her poetics that a poet should concentrate on the poetic subject and his/her inner response or meditative process toward it, which would be her experience in the world as a poet. It is her judgment and her attitude on Vietnam war revealed in her poems with which this essay concerned. Denise Levertov`s Vietnam war poetry transcends the traditional assumption that art and politics cannot be compatible. She actively involves readers in the poetic process by stimulating their imagination with striking descriptions of the war field with reality and by raising their consciousness to her arguments that 1)the war itself would be the trigger of meditation on human beings, 2)the war is the incarnation of human evil, 3)the defeated people seems to be destroyed, but the will to live among them is enlivened stronger than among the victorious one, whom death prevails on. With these Denise Levertov shows her profound emotions and convictions armed with substance, content, and intellectual richness in her Vietnam war poems.

Articles : A Poetics of Diaspora in Myung Mi Kim`s Dura

( Joo Young Park )
5,900
초록보기
This paper aims to explore how Dura describes transnational capitalism, colonialism and human experience under the largest possible terms through sociopolitical engagement with the diasporic landscape, focused on the expansiveness, openness, and non-sequential continuity of the hybridization of language and culture. Kim`s poetry writes on the historical moments of diaspora, evoking that the speaker dwells in the diasporic experience, displacement, exile, and suffering. Kim`s theory about poetic form as "interplay of mobile elements" opens up new possibilities for reading Dura as a salient example of how she moves beyond fixed subjectivity and finds an adequate assemble in heterogeneity, through an innovative poetics of diaspora. Portraying the transformations and dislocations created by the diasporic reality, Kim`s fragmented and disjunctive poetic lines bring out diasporic language which is irreducible to or uncontainable by any totality.

Articles : T. S. Eliot`s Poems of Satire Written in the 1910s: Transition in the Narrative Structure

( Kyung Sim Chung )
5,900
초록보기
We tend to think Eliot`s satirical poems were written along with his interest in Gautier and followed the dramatic monologues. However, Eliot`s experimentation with satire, his use of satirical tone and understatement on narrative stance, had started much earlier. In "Preludes" and other shorter poems written before 1915 he had already portrayed the so-called omniscient "I" as a distanced narrator, started to zoom out his narrative angles, and brought satirical strains to the poem by suddenly subjecting the narrator to an irony. In the quatrain poems Eliot further experimented and extended narrative scope further. As the narrative scope turns more comprehensive, the major tools to keep satirical strains are the personal pronouns: the first and the second persons are drastically reduced, and "they" as the collective mass dominates, telescoped under the satirical eyes. After the quatrain poems, Eliot returns to the earlier "I," resuming the old effort to bridge "I" with the collective "they." Just as the foundation of his satire was the partial sympathy Prufrock`s "I" has reached, so the foundation of new sympathy is the "I" narrator`s and "their" limitedness in perspective. Eliot`s satirical poems in the 1910s are transitional in restructuring the narrative stance, which prepares for the new fusion.
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