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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치


Studies in Modern British and American Poetry

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
수록 범위 : 16권 2호 (2010)

에즈라 파운드 초기시의 현대성-언어의 궁핍

권승혁 ( Seung Hyeok Kweon )
This paper aims to illuminate the ways in which Ezra Pound revitalized English poetry with the various poetic experiments that he learned from the Provencal masters in the Middle Ages as well as his contemporary writers, such as F. T. Marinetti, T. E. Hulme, F. M. Ford and formulated the disruptive, elliptical and antithetical modernist poetics in his early poems. Excluding figurative language or fancy rhetoric of Classical poetry, he came to believe in the sanctity of the plain word. He strove to project every word as an isolated object and used it as the modernists` only poetic medium, which rises straight, concrete, and dense like a monolithic. Rejecting any attempt to coordinate words, phrases, clauses, and sentences found in Classical poetry, he employed the discrete and disparate word that breaks down the syntactic relations between words and phrases, and crumbles the structure of meaning accordingly. With respect to the ways in which he employed the disparate and separate words, his early poems realize the most distinctive feature of modern poetry: "Hunger of the Word."

드니스 레버토프의 생태시 읽기

김은성 ( Eun Seong Kim )
Denise Levertov is well known as a political poet or an important activist-writer who protests wars and nuclear arms. She, therefore, has written many poems and essays protesting government policy on the nuclear arms, the Vietnam war, women`s rights and also environmental issues, which she said herself are based on her social conscience and conviction. She selected 60 poems on ecological themes from her books of poems into The Life Around Us. This book, which mainly reflects her environmental issues and ecological perspectives, can be divided into four parts in terms of thematic order: travel poems, creature poems, protest poems, and the Rainier mountain poems. As the thematic grouping indicates, Levertov shares with our contemporary ecological poets some ecological principles that in nature each object exists in its own right and with its inherent value, but the existence is fulfilled in the interdependent relation with other objects. And her political issues and environmental concerns are combined to produce protest poems on the environmental crisis. Many poems of The Life Around Us act upon the process of observation, meditation, reflection of nature and the process, which is initiated from and in a distance or what Levertov calls "a middle distance," is internalized into the poet`s mind. The distance enables the poet to discern repetitions of mountain`s presence and absence. The presence and absence, Levertov believes, is various but genuine figure(s) of the mountain. In this figure made possible by the repetitions of presence and absence, Levertov finds an infinite source to which she can return for her unifying vision, pure passion, and creativity.
Pound, as an eminent catalyst of modernism, promoted radical and experimental literary movements, especially imagism and vorticism, but he revealed some self-contradictions because he still sought to adhere to great traditions. Accordingly, his works show considerable tension and conflict between centering and decentering. Although Pound was very agile in propagating new literary experiments and appeared to be revolutionary, he was also concerned with evoking the best traditions of the East and the West and establishing strong social order. That is, he pursued the fixing of the symbolic phallus in society in terms of Lacan. On the other hand, Pound makes significant contributions to the disorganization of structural thinking or the centered mind. Above all, his decentering motif is presented as the subjugation of syntax to parataxis, and he continually inserts intertextual relationships in the gap made by the collage technique. Basically, he employs innumerable quotations from ancient times to modern times, and from authority figures to common people probably more than he shares his own ideas. His intertextuality breeds not only parody but also indiscriminate hybridity, in which supernatural and historical time are confused and ancient time is intermingled with the daily life of today. Also, various spaces such as DTC, French villages, New York streets, and Chinese mountains are mentioned simultaneously. Another decentering motif in Pound`s works is Deleuzian desire or Deleuzian schizophrenia, which is immanently productive and reproductive as a process and interconnective without repression or Oedipal hierarchy. In general, Pound`s text is so fragmented and disseminated that it lacks the power to cohere all the contents, which makes any structural and linear intervention difficult so that any partial discourse will be excluded and included beyond any limit in it. The movement of text as a desiring machine of Deleuze has all the probabilities that it can be discontinued anywhere and that it can begin and generate anything everywhere. In conclusion, Pound`s yearning for both order and dispersal forms an irresolvable conflict between the vertical and the latitudinal. It offers him some peculiar duality and some uncomfortable tension as well. In general, it represents the self-contradiction and confusion of many modernists. Thus, in a sense, this taut strain can hinder more diverse meanings although the metamorphosis of desire is operating very strongly in the text.

엘리엇의 흄

봉준수 ( Joon Soo Bong )
This paper explores the relationship between T. E. Hulme (1883-1917) and T. S. Eliot (1888-1965), focussing on their intellectual affinities and the ways in which Eliot exploited them in his campaign for `Classicism.` Eliot consistently quoted or made references to Hulme`s texts, thus generating one or another textual network, which was, in the first place, made possible through the remarkable similarities between their intellectual trajectories: they both struggled against the mechanistic world-view at the turn of the century and embraced Henri Bergson`s life philosophy enthusiastically; however, their enthusiasm did not last long mainly because the French philosopher`s Romantic outlook was ultimately incompatible with their Classicist view. In a nutshell, Classicism stresses man`s extremely fixed nature and relies on external authorities as is fully indicated in Hulme`s and Eliot`s unreserved endorsement of royalism and Anglo-Catholicism. Eliot`s radical distrust of self or "individual talent" led him to search for something outside himself and the figure of allusion represents a literary manifestation of such a philosophical temper. Eliot repeatedly expressed his admiration for Hulme, but as I have tried to show in this paper, Old Possum also continued to invoke Hulme the poet-philosopher to promote and bolster his own cultural and literary position in deliberately strategic ways.

로버트 펜 워렌의 『오더본의 비전』

윤석임 ( Suk Im Yun )
Robert Penn Warren`s Audubon: Vision seems to declare that it is poet`s privilege to look at a subject from two opposite standpoints as if viewed from over a watershed. He believes that life can be fully comprehended only through full knowledge of the contraries. Consequently, the situational or emotional states in Warren`s poems are rarely overpowered by one sensation; instead, they present a mixture of contradictory forces. The heart of Audubon, the main character, "shook in the tension of the world." The crucial episode in this poem is about an incident in the frontier which is an arena of constant battle between the forces of wilderness and dream, and the forces of civilization and reality. After all, Warren views the dialectics of existence as necessary components to the whole of life. Warren seems to argue that the poetic process is a kind of personal connection of very disparate elements under the fusing heat of the poem`s necessity, so that they create the illusion of belonging together and illuminate each other by providing an insight by association, from which joy and delight are ultimately derived.
This study discusses Derek Walcott`s satiric poetics echoing from the critical voice on the Caribbean elites` corruption, injustice, racism, separatism, oppression and failure. Walcott`s voice is different from that of an idealist whose genuine goal is to change society, eliminate vice, purge away corruption and establish the tyranny of virtue. It is also far away from that of a revolutionist who attempts to cut off the currency of established ideas and replace them with his own ideal notions. Instead, it has a remedial purpose, such as the exposure, censure and punishment of corruption, racism, separatism, and failure. Yet on closer investigation it doesn`t ask for change but for grumbling acquiescence. Walcott`s satiric imagery is direct. The poet doesn`t make relatively little use of irony and writes in a style closer to that of direct satire. Therefore, the poet`s raillery and rage may echo the low satire of Samuel Butler, one of John Dryden`s principal masters in the art of satire rather than the Horatian style of John Wilmot and Alexander Pope. But the poet`s direct imagery is far closer to Dryden`s Juvenalian one. The poet mingles irony with direct raillery as Dryden did in "MacFlecknoe". And his mingling is more effective than pure irony. Yet the poet`s satirist is different from the Augustan satirists. The poet`s satirist seeks after justice, conscience, equality and unity as the Augustan satirists did. But the satirist is a humble, ugly, unfavorable and isolated artist while the Augustan satirists are highly intellectual, moral, philosophical guides or teachers. This imagery of the poet`s satirist reflects that of the artist who has been oppressed by the Western colonists, isolated by racism and religious prejudice.

딜런 토머스와 시적 언어의 불확정성-시적 아나키즘과 재현체계의 전복

조성경 ( Sung Gyung Jo )
This study explores Dylan Thomas` poems in terms of his creating process as an anarchic writing, in which words through images represent some meanings while constantly subverting these meanings at the same time. Despite some critics dealing with the poly-vocal meanings in his poetic words, there are few of those who connect the poly-vocality of these poems to their possibilities of deferring the violence of representation system. This paper addresses such voids by attempting to enlarge the issue of language in Thomas` poems to the language in general as an institution of hierarchical social norms. Common approaches of his poems indicate that Thomas` poetic words keep transforming themselves mostly between life and death, unity and destruction, body and soul. Those transformations can be considered free-plays of signifiers in the system of sign language. Despite consistent threats from the system of representation that limit words to have either this or that meaning, Thomas` words are hardly captured because of their constant transformations. Therefore, this paper reads from Thomas` poems the possibilities of poetic words to subvert the categorization of language, and sees his texts as "becoming."

현실 인식의 계기들-『가을의 오로라들』

진경혜 ( Kyoung Hye Jin )
Wallace Stevens` "The Auroras of Autumn" has been generally understood as one of his representative poems describing the process of "decreation," in which pre-imagined notions of the world have to be abandoned or decreated in front of new experiences or the "otherness" of the world. However, what has been silenced, or misunderstood, I think, is about the ultimate significance or the result of such a decreation in Stevens` poetry. Many critics assume that the decreative process leads to reveal "the nothing that is" underneath all the imaginative creation, which they claim to be the nihilistic abyss or the philosophical zero point existing separately from our actual world. These deconstructive or philosophical perspectives, in spite of their consistently insightful interpretations, might, I`m afraid to say, contribute to giving some false notion that there exists only a very monotonous mechanical movement between meaningfulness and nothingness, usually represented as the seasonal cycle at the center of Stevens` poetry. However, one of Stevens` essays written in his later years clearly indicates that the ultimate reality after all the decreation is the fact that man`s truth is the final resolution of everything (NA 175), which means the world is composed of what the human imagination has found out from the "totally other" world. Reading in terms of this essay, it is clear that "The Auroras of Autumn" is not about the cosmic process of decreation revealing the nothing as the ultimate reality, but about some of the dramatic occasions in which we vividly realize how our reality is "humanly" composed out of its endless possibilities. The keen observations of the ever-changing lights of the aurora borealis in late autumn described at the beginning of this poem enable us to illuminate the multi-layered flux of our reality: we realize that retrospectively, we inherited it from our former generation as an established, historical, cultural reality; and that prospectively, we have to renew and recreate it in face of new experiences and changes, here and now being "the always innocent beginning."

Wendell Berry`s Marriage Theme and His Prophetic Vision

( Ok Hee Jeong )
Wendell Berry, a prophetic poet and farmer in Kentucky, raises his voice against the modern deprivation of nature by machines and human greed. He writes poems and novels as well as essays and letters. Among his various writings, this paper deals with his personal essays and poems to examine his concerns and views about nature. With his love of rural nature and farming, he stands upon the pastoral tradition. While cultivating his own native land, more than any other American poet, he is concerned with the problem of how to protect nature and prohibit man-made convenient devices from destroying the earth and the natural law. Berry`s view on environmental problems reflects the spirit of the times. Especially his poems about marriage theme explain the necessity of intimate relationship between man and nature. This metaphor of marriage is used to denote the close relationship humans have with the land as a natural element and express his vision as a regional agrarian. He proclaims that the land needs to be protected because it retains historical inheritances as well as an importance for both the present and future generations. He believes that through our understanding of this intimate relationship, we can lower ourselves to the universal order of Creation and be subjected to the law of nature. Thus we can build our future life on a safe, healthy ground.