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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 2권 0호 (1997)

Articles : From Cardiff to Canaan / R. S. Thomas and Geoffrey Hill

안선재(Son Jae An)
6,500
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N/A
7,100
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N/A

Articles : Epic Structure in Walcott`s Omeros

노저용(Jeo Yong Noh)
6,300
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N/A

1990 년 이후의 미국시와 21 세기 미국시 방향 / 연속성과 불연속성

이한묵(Han Mook Lee)
7,000
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This paper aims to evaluate the continuity and the discontinuity of American poetry toward 21st century in modern American poetry since 1990. In the evaluation of important modern American poetry since 1990, many reputable award programs, anthologies, critical reviews, and annual bibliographies are used; for example, Associated Writing Programs, A New American Poetry(1994), Yale Younger Poets Series, and The Best American Poetry. About 120 poets who actively publish poems since 1990 get serious attention from professional critics and the public. These poets can be divided into two groups: the progressive and the conservative. While the conservative poets stick to continuity of traditional American poetics, the progressive keep exploring new poetics. In particular, the progressive poets dominate the world of modern American poetry by breaking traditional ideas, methods, and forms. Unlike the traditional poets who follow romantic notion of typical American lyric poetry, the progressive poets deal with such new experimental themes and subject matters as "realityless reality" and cinematic poetry. Therefore, modern American poetry since 1990 becomes more theoretic and complex than ever. In the specific analysis, some representing poems of A. R. Ammons, John Ashbery, Adrienne Rich, Allen Ginsberg, Carolyn Forche, Gary Snyder, Kenneth Koch, David Ignatow, Denise Levertov, Donald Hall, Diane Wakoski, W. S. Merwin, Mark Strand, James Merrill, Maxine Kumin, Bob Perelman, and Robert Long are discussed to exemplify the continuity and the discontinuity of American poetics toward 21st century in modern American poetry since 1990. In conclusion, modern American poetry since 1990 is heading for the deeper sophisticated and organic conflicts between continuity and discontinuity, reality and imagination, self and others, human and God, sound and silence, art and life toward the 21st century.

프로스트의 『 자비의 가면극 』 / 불확실의 변증법

신재질(Jae Sil Shin)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  2권 0호, 1997 pp. 117-150 ( 총 34 pages)
7,400
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In Robert Frost`s A Masque of Mercy we find strong continuity of his A Masque of Reason in its forms and themes. While A Masque of Reason focuses on God`s justice, the dominant discourse of the Old Testament, A Masque of Mercy centers on God`s mercy, the prevalent discourse of the New Testament. The two masques pursue to resolve or clarify the oppositions or conflicts between the good and the evil, God`s justice and His mercy, through the dialectical dialogues among the characters, but end in uncertainty without leading to a certain synthesis. This uncertainty is more than enough to draw the unfavorable responses from the critics who have sought to find a final resolution in the masques. The uncertain conclusions of both plays are the natural outcome of Frost`s belief in the limitations of man`s reason and language as a means to explain life`s moral as well as religious mystery. Frost maintains that metaphor is a particular system of language through which we perceive what we know as reality, but it is subject to an easy breakdown and needs to be continuously renewed. This belief goes with the post-modern doubt of the ability of language to represent reality. Frost`s theory of metaphor leads to his assertion that the whole of human thinking is limited to metaphoric constructions and there can be no certain answers in the world. Christianity, which is based on proto-language, does not permit the pluraity of language. For the critics and readers who are oriented to the Christian monistic thought, it is very natural that Frost`s two masques seem to be frivolous, loose, or inconclusive in their conclusions. Just as A Masque of Reason betrays the expectation that, in the dialectics of the good and the evil, the good should prevail over the evil and establish once and for all the justice of God, so A Masque of Mercy does not meet the undeserving human wish that man`s salvation be guaranteed by God`s mercy alone. Thus we live in eternal uncertainty of God`s judgment of our deeds or sacrifices. In A Masque of Mercy, however, Frost does not remain in uncertainty, but stresses through the mouths of Keeper and Jesse Bel the necessity of faith. Faith leads to courage to overcome the deep "fear of within the soul / And go ahead to any accomplishment". Frost knows better than to believe that "any accomplishment" is enough to secure man`s final salvation, and therefore he suggests that we have no other way than to depend on God`s mercy for our final salvation, but we cannot sit passively waiting for God`s mercy. After accomplishing something to our best through faith and courage, that is, after "doing Justice justice" , we deserve to plead for God`s mercy. This is the best way for man to live in the world of uncertainty.
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Many critics have claimed that there is a sharp contrast between the linguistic richness and the poverty of content in the poverty of Wallace Stevens. Most Stevens scholars have been content to comment on the philosophical profundity and the difficulty of meaning of Stevens`s poems and have largely ignored the political and ideological dimension in his poetry. However, recent critical theories have taught us that literary texts are not autonomous artifacts but enjoy an intimate relationship with the historical and social contexts in which they have their being. Even though it is more difficult to historicize Stevens`s poetry than of other writers, such enterprise is ultimately rewarding and should be encouraged. In this essay I challenge the idea that Stevens`s poems are mainly ahistorical and attempt to uncover the ideological and historical implications of his poetic enterprise. My essay is basically composed of readings of two Stevens poems: "Sunday Morning" and "The Idea of Order at Key West". My main argument is that these poems show Steven`s uneasy attitude toward, and reaction to, the dominant capitalist ideology of the times. A deeper reading of "Sunday Morning" uncovers Stevens`s genuine anxieties about the growing feminization and idealization of literature and, particularly, poetry, Stevens`s predecessors had reacted to the prevalent social atmosphere of the period, which was inimical toward poetry in general, by idealizing and sentimentalizing it. They misinterpreted Keats by converting him into a purely idealist poet. In many respects, "Sunday Morning" is a "decreation" of the artistic concepts of Stevens`s predecessors--the "defenders of ideality"--and the culturally popular image of Keats. It also shows Stevens`s "schizophrenia" cause by the dominant ideology. On the one hand, Stevens wanted to create a private atmosphere where he would be safe from the intrusion of bourgeois ideology. On the other, he wanted to affirm poetry`s significance and prove that it was not insignificant, trivial or "feminine" in 20th-century society. Thus the poem both shows the process of interiorization through which the poet hopes to escape from the constraints of capitalism and the celebration of "male utopia" which is an antithesis of the capitalist society. In "The Idea of Order at Key West" and other "Florida poems", Florida becomes an exotic place which seems at first sight to stand in an opposite relation to the metropolitan centers of the capitalist order. But Stevens`s use of place-names and topography reveals that the socio-political contexts of the poems can never be erased. In addition, the performative act of the woman in "The Idea of Order at Key West" has distinctively ideological implications. On a certain level, the poem serves as an imperialist discourse. Like most Modernists, Stevens`s often ambiguous relationship with capitalism provided a consistent motive for the composition of his poems. More than anything else, his poems were "the cry of its occasion". The social and political reality of 20th-century America offered him a chance to reflect and criticize the cultural problems that were produced by it. Therefore, Stevens scholarship must not limit itself to a purely textual approach toward Stevens but should attempt to reconstruct the historicity of his poems.

존 애쉬베리 / 보이지 않는 아방가르드 그리고 그의 Misrepresentation 의 시학

최병현(Byong Hyon Choi)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  2권 0호, 1997 pp. 175-199 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
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애쉬베리의 작품에는 유달리 자화상 내지 초상화가 많이 등장한다. 그럼에도 불구하고 독자들은 애쉬베리의 초상화를 그리기가 결코 쉽지 않다. 스타일과 표현에 있어 다양하고 복합적인 요소들을 가진 데다가 시인 스스로 어떤 일정한 이미지에 정착하는 것을 꺼리기 때문이다. 어쩌면 이러한 태도야 말로 시인 애쉬베리의 특성을 가장 잘 나타내주는 것이 아닐는지? 어떻게 보면 애쉬베리는 자신에 대한 이미지를 끓임 없이 왜곡시키고 있다. 물론 그의 이 같은 습관 어디까지나 예술적인 허구에 대한 혐오와 새로운 이미지의 추구에 대한 열정에서 비롯되었다고 할 수 잇다. 정도의 차이는 있겠지만 예술가들은 대체로 이 같은 경향을 가지고 있다. 그러나 애쉬베리의 경우, 새로움에 대한 열정은 부단한 실험정신과 직결되고, 그의 실험정신은 아방가르드의 급진적인 경향과 톱니바퀴를 함께하고 있다. 애쉬베리의 아방가르드적인 실험정신은 회화와 음악으로부터 자극과 영감을 얻고 있다. 리듬이 의미를 대치하고, 음악의 선율과 흐름이 논리나 주장을 대신하는 것부터 시작해서 문자를 회화적으로 나열하거나 배치하는 콜라주기법, 추상화적인 언어표현에 이르기까지 애쉬베리의 스타일은 충격적이고 난해하며 진보적인 면을 보여주고 있는 것이다. 그러나 동시에, 애쉬베리는 자신의 이 같은 예술적 개성을 가꾸기 위해 일반 대중의 이목으로부터 벗어나 보이지 않는 창작활동을 고집한다. 예술가가 세간의 주목을 받고 대중 한가운데 위치하게 되면 그는 그것으로써 아방가르드 작가로써의 위치를 상실한다고 보는 것이 애쉬베리의 시각이다. 진정한 예술가는, 애쉬베리에 의하면, 세상을 받아 들지도 거부하지도 않는다. 다만 그는 세상으로부터 완전한 독립을 추구한다. 따라서 세상에 대한 무관심 아닌 무관심을 예술로 전환시키는 것이야말로, 그리하여 바로 그 무관심이 모든 이들의 관심사가 되는 것이야말로, 애쉬베리의 시가 추구하는 중요한 가치일는지 모른다.

차알스 올슨의 ( Charles Olson ) 의 에즈라 파운드 ( Ezra Pound ) 읽기

김준환(Joon Hwan Kim)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  2권 0호, 1997 pp. 201-222 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
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포드 매독스 포드 / 현대시의 선구자

김영민(Young Min Kim)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  2권 0호, 1997 pp. 223-243 ( 총 21 pages)
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지칠줄 모르는 작가이자 비평가인 포드 매독스 포드는 대부분의 모더니즘 작가들이 문학적 대부로 간주하는 묘한 위치를 차지한다. 1908년 『잉글리쉬 리뷰』지의 창간자로서 포드는 그 당시 빅토리아조의 문학적 취향에 반대하는 젊은 시인들에게 지대한 영향을 끼쳤다. 포드의 영향은 C.H. 시슨이나 바실 번팅과 같은 그 당시 젊은 시인들이 지적한 바대로 산문과 운문의 발달이 별도로 고려되지 말아야 한다는 주장에 있다. 특히 에즈라 파운드와 같이 "시는 산문과 같이 쓰여져야 한다" 고 하는 주장은 결국 포드의 영향이라는 점을 파운드 자신도 인정하고 있다. 이렇듯 현대시의 선구자인 포드 자신은 그의 1914년『시 전집』에서 당시 시인들에게 " 나 자신의 시대를 나 자신의 시간으로 기록하라"는 경고문과 세가지 원칙을 제시한다. 첫째, 효율적인 언어로 자신을 표현할 서, 둘째, 자신의 시대에 중요성을 띤 소재를 선택할 것, 셋째, 효과를 기록하듯 하기보다는 투여하고 창조할 것을 촉구한다. 이와 같은 맥락에서 포드는 시인들이 말하는 대로 쓸 수 있어야 하고, 일상언어를 사용해야 하고, 일상 경험이 소재가 되어야 한다고 주장했다. 포드가 주장한 원칙의 핵심은 결국 인생자체에 대한 꼼꼼한 관심으로 구체적인 세부사항을 분명하고 정확한 언어로 표현해야 한다는 것이며, 훌륭한 스타일은 추상보다는 병치된 구체적인 이미지로 정서적인 반응을 환기시키는 것에 있다는 것이다. 이와 같은 포드의 이론은 포드의 소설과 산문이론의 핵심을 이루는 동시에 자신의 시집의 서문에서도 같은 시론을 제시하고 있다. 본 논문은 이러한 맥락에서 포드의 시론을 제시하고 이미지즘으로 대표되는 모더니즘과 어떤 연관성을 지니며, 어느 정도로 포드의 이론이 자신의 시에 재현되었는가를 살피는데 그 목적을 둔다. 포드의 유기적 시론은 또한 포드 자신이 시인이 되어가는 과정의 전기적 사항을 반영하기 때문에 본 논문에서는 포드가 자신의 시론을 어떻게 발전시켜 나갔으며 또 시에는 어떻게 투영되어 있는지를 함께 살펴본다.

『 황무지 』 의 인식론적 해석

김구슬(Koo Sul Kim)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  2권 0호, 1997 pp. 245-270 ( 총 26 pages)
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In 1915 and 1916, T. S. Eliot wrote a Ph.D. dissertation on the epistemology of F. H. Bradley. As Eliot insisted in an article that Bradley had the finest philosophic style and worldly wisdom, Bradley profoundly influenced both the shape and content of Eliot`s work. And an awareness of Eliot`s early philosophical studies, especially of his work on Bradley`s epistemology is very helpful in understanding Eliot`s work and criticism. Eliot`s dissertation springs to life when it is understood in the context of the revolt against dualism. This study tries to illuminate Eliot`s The Waste Land in terms of Bradley`s philosophy. His epistemological concern centers on the study of being, an inquiry into the self, and more precisely, whether it is possible for the self to know anything outside itself. That is to say, it is fundamentally related to the problem of the isolation of the self, the starting point of Eliot`s poetry. In the hierarchy of Bradley`s epistemology, there are three different levels; Feeling or Immediate Experience at the lowest, the ordinary relational consciousness that Bradley finds so inadequate at the intermediate, and finally the supra-relational consciousness or the Absolute at the top, which transcends all relations. Immediate experience is a unity in which subject and object have not yet been separated into related entities. However, it is transcended into the relational consciousness because its own nature is unstable and inconsistent and the self becomes conscious. In the relational consciousness which is of the experienced world, self and non-self, subject and object are separated in consciousness. Though immediate experience passes beyond itself into the relational consciousness, it remains at the bottom throughout as fundamental and guides us toward the supra-relational consciousness. Here exists the possibility of a recovery of unity. Nevertheless, the supra-relational consciousness, the ultimate goal of our knowing requires "annihilation and utter night": a self-denial and self-negation. This is a dialectic of Bradley`s epistemology which is also an essential quality of Eliot`s mind, as is frequently reflected in his critical theories. Bradley`s process of experience may be applied to that of Eliot`s poetry. In his poetry, immediate experience remains as an object of memory. In The Waste Land the protagonist speaks of the crisis of the modern mind and civilization. In the relational experience, the knower is limited to a single perspective, and although the perspective changes from moment to moment, it is single in any given moment. He thus perceives the world not as a whole but as a constantly shifting pattern, which is bound to generate a feeling of disorder. In The Waste Land, Eliot proposes a way of simultaneously perceiving both disunity and unity by contriving a unifying point of view. It is mythic consciousness which is similar to Bradley`s supra-relational consciousness or transcendent experience. Mythic consciousness as well as Bradley`s supra-relational consciousness, which enables us to transcend the experienced world without swallowing up its glory, accounts for Eliot`s desire for wholeness being the basic impulse of his life and art.
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