글로버메뉴 바로가기 본문 바로가기 하단메뉴 바로가기

논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 20권 1호 (2014)

찰스 번스틴의 시학 연구 -척도로서 언어

구자광 ( Ja Kwang Gu )
7,700
초록보기
This paper aims to expose performance-centered characteristics of Charles Bernstein`s poetics caused by his emphasis on materiality of language that has been ‘unheard and invisible’ under the reign of semantics. He says, in poetry, two aspects of language, ‘sound’ and ‘look,’ have been ‘insufficiently acknowledged’ because ‘semantic projection’ has ‘colonized’ materiality of language: ‘sound’ by ‘speech’ and ‘letter’ by ‘writing.’ Semantics-centered language usage along with its supporting systems has ‘automatically translated’ materiality of language into semantic meanings: ‘sound’ into ‘speech’ and ‘letter’ into ‘writing.’ Language has been ‘used’ as an instrument for delivering ‘transparent’ meanings. But by paying close attention to material aspects of language, Charles Bernstein finds out ‘opaque’ materiality underneath ‘transparent’ semantics in language. He recovers priority of materiality of language through ‘dismantling’ centralization of semantics. He recognizes an oscillation or an unsynthesizable dialectic between opaque materiality and transparent ‘references.’ His formal inventions, ‘parataxis,’ ‘constellations’ and ‘collages’ are nothing less than prosodic methods which provide opportunities for ‘encounters’ of ‘incommensurable elements’ of language liberated from the semantic factory system which can manufacture only ‘speech’ and ‘writing.’ To make ‘sound’ and ‘look’ of language heard and visible, he places great emphasis on performance in poetry. He believes, performance will lead to an active production of materiality of language rather than a passive consumption of semantic products. Stresses on performance will demand a discussion of measure in which materiality of language shows up predominantly even in the traditional metrics. Against measure based on the syntactic flow, Bernstein proposes ‘countermeasure’ through ‘syntactic scissoring’ which cuts up the syntax and words, to introduce an interruption or a disruption into the flow of measure counted according to phrasal development. ‘[D]iscrepant engagement’ between measure and countermeasure intensifies rhythms of language. Activated bodily experiences of materiality of language in performance, like aural and visual faculties, allow for subsequent changes in ideas about space from Euclidean to Non-Euclidean in which sensuous experiences through ear and eye can be enacted more fully. Bernstein`s concentration on performance and measure shifts the focus of constituting power of language to material aspects of language because language constructs the world not only with semantics but also more importantly with materiality of language. That is why measure can be not just a meter but also a measurement with which language ‘forges’ the world.

미국 원주민 구전 전통을 통한 실코의 유동적 자아쓰기

김희성 ( Hee Sung Kim )
6,600
초록보기
This article examines how Leslie Marmon Silko draws upon Native American narrative techniques to resist conventional Euro-American models of autobiography. Silko denies a single and static identity and gleans from Native American tradition a more fluid understanding of personal identity. In Storyteller, characters metamorphose themselves into other characters. In the process, consciousness is shared with not only other human beings, but also with all of the nature. In addition, Silko effaces her own authorship and places herself in a part of storytelling. Taking such a stance, she allows the community to recall and retell a story and engage in a communal process of building a meaning. She requires others to participate in constructing stories and interact each other. Her ways of writing accompanies a disregard of conventional notions of chronological order. The layout of the book and the repetition of time and events possess orality by using cyclic rather than chronological structure. In Storyteller, Silko denies a commanding narrative voice, in effect sublimanating an Anglo notion of self identity and inscribes a fluid self who speaks for and within the Native American community.

자연의 영성 -에밀리 디킨슨과 메리 올리버의 자연시

신문주 ( Moon Ju Shin )
6,700
초록보기
This essay examines the spirituality of nature evidenced in the poetry of Emily Dickinson and Mary Oliver by comparing the nature poems of both poets in terms of how they envision kinship to nature and coexistence with nature. The poems` nature spirituality reflects a complex ecological consciousness based on the balancing of kinship with and alienation from nature. On the one hand, nature and human beings are depicted as living harmoniously, as fellows, brothers, and sisters. Thereby, both poets` works resonate deeply with the spirit of St. Francis of Assisi. On the other hand, Dickinson and Oliver recognize a gap between the human and nonhuman. In their works, both poets personify nature to bridge the gap between the two entities. In this sense, both poets` nature spirituality is related to what Bryson calls “the place-spaciousness of nature,” an intermingling of “a sense of place (domesticity)” and “a sense of space(wildness)” espoused by Yi-Fu Tuan. Dickinson wrote poems about her “fellow” snakes in which she reveals familiarity with and alienation from them, echoing the Tuanian concepts of place and space. Although she often displays a greater familiarity with her “brother” snakes than does Dickinson, Oliver sometimes inadvertently discloses her uneasiness with them. Like Dickinson`s poems, Oliver`s snake poems reveal nature spirituality through the paradoxical experience of connection and separation. Both poets` awareness of nature`s otherness as well as its kinship creates a dynamic tension in their poems, which challenges the reader to forge a reconciliation in the act of reading.

아버지의 몸 -섀런 올즈의 선정성의 저쪽

양균원 ( Kyoon Won Yang )
6,500
초록보기
This study is an attempt to examine what Sharon Olds does with her provocative language and how she goes beyond sensationalism, while her popularity is sometimes suspected to come mainly from her sensual voice. Olds`s sensationalism is triggered by the use of foul language, such as cock and cunt, with which she even denotes her own parents as in “Satan Says.” It is again enriched by the way she persistently provides details about what we are not likely to make public, such as her elaborate account of her father`s salivation on his deathbed in “The Glass” or her first experience of using contraceptive device in “Diaphragm Aria.” It is also intensified when she deliberately and candidly deals with embarrassing female experiences, such as menstruation in “The Moment” or abortion in “Miscarriage.” However, among other things, Olds`s sensationalism is mostly stirred up in her presentation of bodily love with vivid images as in “Sex without Love” or “Ecstasy.” Olds is enthusiastic in the depiction of what might be realized in human bodies such as the moments during sexual intercourse, pregnancy, birth, and death. As a domestic poet, she covers all the bodies of her family, among which her father`s becomes a good example to prove how much her sensational language can be contributable to a new notion of a mortal in all of its potentialities and limits. Her father`s body speaks to her polyphonically in Olds`s poems as patriarchic, masculine, and material.

데릭 월콧의 후레자식의 귀향 과 칼립소

이영철 ( Young Cheol Lee )
6,400
초록보기
This study discusses the common elements and differences between Derek Walcott`s “The Spoiler`s Return” and Calypso. In an interview with Ted Thomas, Walcott said that his satire “The Spoiler`s Return” is based on a Calypsoinian. However, he invokes Roman and British satirists` emotion in the poem. Needless to say, these interview and invocation of his own show that the root of his satirical emotion is in both Calypsonian and Roman soils. His poetic theme, first-person narrative, and rhyme are almost the same as those of the Trinidad Calypso. His voice echoes on the Caribbeans` poverty and mocks the Caribbean elites` corruption, injustice, racism, and separatism as do that of the Calypso singers. His voice comes from the storytelling with which the Calypso singers have used to express their themes and rhythms. His lines are rhymed as those of Calypsoes. Yet his couplet, diction, rhetoric, style, and form are different from those of Calypsoes. While Calypso singers use repetitive phrases or sentences, and choruses to make their lines rhymed, he doesn`t do that. He rhymes different lines. His diction is more rhetorical than that of Calypso. It is based on metaphor, simile, and irony. Finally, his narrator is a humble, ugly, unfavorable and isolated attacker while those of Calypsoes are highly heroic.

시인의 자아와 시적 자아의 간격 -T. S. 엘리엇과 로버트 로월의 시

이홍필 ( Hong Pil Lee )
7,500
초록보기
The treatment of self in poetry has become the focal point of the poetic expression, particularly after the rise of modernist poetics, mainly directed by Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot. The two sought to minimize the emphasis on self in order to breed clarity of poetic expression, especially as a contrast to the abstraction of Victorian poetry. Such an effort was expressed in the imagist movement as well as in the use of the objective correlative by T. S. Eliot. This essay examines the achievement of their attempt to transform poets` own self into the poetic self, compared with Robert Lowell`s manifestation of his own self in his later poetry. Early twentieth-century European henomenologists such as Husserl, Sartre, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty found intentionality in human consciousness, an important working of self, thereby admitting the inescapability of the poet`s self in his poetic expression. In a different perspective, post-modernists like Derrida and Lacan also recognized the self in human consciousness, which has been shaped by the history and social environment of language; thus, they cast a great doubt on the authenticity of the self. The primary thrust of this essay is to examine the success of the imagist movement and the impersonaliztion of poetic expression. Toward this purpose, first of all, this essay deals with Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot; then, Robert Lowell, who rebelled against the dominant poetics of the early twentieth-century, thus choosing to manifest himself in his poetry. The poetic experiments of T. S. Eliot and Pound were enormously dominant in the early twentieth century, breeding a number of followers and sympathizers; nevertheless, it also came to its own limitations in the long run; they failed not merely to minimize the self, but also to transform it into their poetic self, since we find so many traces of the self in their poetry. With the advent of existentialism in popularity among European philosophers right after World War II, I think, the self in human consciousness became of huge importance among the thinkers in other fields. Particularly, American poets` reaction to the dominant poetic experiment, “the Eliot government,” was conspicuous; Robert Lowell`s Life Studies (1959) made a milestone prelude for an expression of self in poetry. With the self as the central focus of the poetic expression, however, he was also in the wake of poetic expression of “the Eliot government.” Poetry as literary work of art has to be defined in terms of the human condition, due to the absolute condition of its author`s limitations as a social being. It is indisputable that T. S. Eliot`s experiment and that of Robert Lowell were remarkable poetic projects through which they attempted to transform their own individual experience (their first materials) into shared experience. But I believe that their failure to arrive at an artistic completion should be found not only in human limitations but in the human condition as well.

윌리엄 칼로스 윌리엄즈의 작품에 나타난 재생

최희섭 ( Hie Sup Choi )
6,200
초록보기
When we talk about resurrection, we naturally think of religious concepts, whether they are those of Christianity or those of Buddhism. But in William Carlos Williams, we need not put religious concepts on the resurrection expressed in his poems. It is sure that Williams`s thought of resurrection is concerned with material, not with spirit. In the poems we examined in this paper, his thought of resurrection of material is expressed repeatedly, but rebirth of spirit is not evident. All the existing lives are visible representation of the invisible life-force and death is the transformation of the visible into the invisible. Although life-force in nature exists always, sometimes it is visible and sometimes not. Only when it enters into the material, for example, seeds, bushes etc, it becomes visible. Williams seems to think that the nature`s life-force doesn`t change and the nature keeps its life-force inside itself until water in spring spurs the life-force in natural objects to keep alive. Even though individual objects seem to live and die, their life-force remains the same whether it comes to be visible or invisible. When it comes to be visible, we call it a resurrection in William Carlos Williams`s works.
1