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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치


Studies in Modern British and American Poetry

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
수록 범위 : 3권 0호 (1998)

월러스 스티븐스 ( Wallace Stevens ) 시의 현상학적 접근

김병옥(Byung Ok Kim)
This study is an examination of the way how Stevens`s poetry approaches Husserl`s phenomenological procedure. Stevens searches for a new understanding of what modern poetry should be. The nature of this search is expressed in the poems that carry his ideas about poetry and imagination. His search is, in one sense, an investigation of the power of the mind and the relation of the mind to reality. But unlike the philosopher whose interests are directed toward the discovery of a system of theory of knowledge, Stevens directs his investigations toward a better understanding of the processes of the mind that lead to a new poetry. In other words, Stevens`s interests are philosophical in nature but the intended result is aesthetic. Stevens`s slogan of a new poetry is "Let`s see the very thing and nothing else"(CP, 323, in Husserl`s terms, "to things themselves"). The return to things themselves mean that the only basis for certainty is the objects perceived by the mind. For Stevens, the rejection of all presuppositions is the only way to assure that perception can take place without distorting the conceptions of reality. Naturally it becomes necessary for Stevens to place in abeyance our cultural habits of thoughts so as first to see and think purely in poetic terms. In short, what is called for is a poetic practice similar to the methodological procedure Husserl labeled epoche, that is, the suspension of what is held to be true "objectively" and of what is known conceptually, in order to focus attention on what is intended in an unmediated act of awareness. Husserl, we recall, was concerned to refine this notion and establish it as a first methodological principle of phenomenology. So a number of surface similarities between Stevens and Husserl are recognized in discussions of Stevens`s poetry.

개리 스나이더의 자연시와 생태시학

최병현(Byong Hyon Choi)
Ecocriticism, put simply, is a study of the relationship between literature and the ecological environment. It starts from the fundamental premise that human culture is closely connected to the nonhuman world or what is known as nature, affecting it and being affected by it. As a critical discourse, it takes as its main subject the interconnections between nature and culture, utilizing various concepts from ecology and biology. Naturally, therefore, ecocritics and ecopoets are very concerned about the aspects of the human culture and community which are destructive to the natural community. From the perspective of ecocriticism, Snyder`s poetry perfectly exemplifies the fundamental ethos of ecocriticism. His works are deeply concerned about the ecological crisis and the destruction of nature. Snyder indicates that the current environmental crisis is the natural results of the Western civilization, especially the Judeo-Christian culture that has consistently advocated the domination and exploitation of nature and other non-human beings. Thus he believes that the true mission or function of poetry should be able to represent the voice of the non-human world. Snyder is an American original, an heir of James Fenimore Cooper or Mark Twain who were deeply attached to the love of primitive nature. They rejected the repressive man-made civilization and advocated cultural diversity based on the equal and peaceful coexistence of all human beings including Indians and blacks. From Snyder`s point of view, "the destruction of cultural diversity goes hand in hand with ecological destruction." Snyder`s interest in the oriental cultures is also in the tradition of Emerson and Thoreau whose transcendental philosophy was inspired by Buddhism and Hindu philosophy. However, Snyder`s poetry, compared to his predecessors, is more focused on nature and emphasizes its importance for the survival of humanity.

라킨시에 나타난 성의 심상

김광선(Kwang Sun Kim)
This paper aims to prove the nature of Larkin`s poetic view of sexuality. Larkin`s images on women produce a real girl in a real place rather than poetic myth or popular folklore. In his poem, the `bosomy English girl rose`, and the `friend in specs` replace Helen of Tory and Dante`s Beatrice. His view of sexuality is very different from that of his great twentieth-century predecessors, Yeats and Eliot. Larkin is constantly encountering difficulties in his relations with girls. Women in his poems, such as "Lines on a Young Lady`s Photograph Album," "Sunny Prestatyn," "Wild Oats," and "Love Again," are enshrined in fiction or in photographs. This photography becomes a metaphor for not being able to communicate with or touch a woman. This photographic image of woman is violent in part because she is unattainable in the flesh, and men resent her attempts to use sex as power. For Larkin, sexual intercourse requires not only a change in the social system, but creates a complicated situation. As he admires the sexual revolution in "Annus Mirabilis," he perceives the advantages of free sex. But sex is something that he cannot enjoy in a normal way, and he mocks himself for his own inadequacy. Thus, he has a strong belief that sex and women are separated from each other in his mind, and he evokes the demanding, and biological nature of male sexual desire. This proves to be a problematic issue in his poetry. In "Deceptions" and "Dry-Point," sex is violent and miserably disillusioning, and men are too selfish as shown in "Wild Oats" and "Self`s the Man." In "Love Again," love means clearly an illness, a sickness and is unable to produce pleasure. The beautiful woman in "Sunny Prestatyn" was raped by men as the poem "Deception" suggests. So women in his poetry are disappointed at being loved or unloved, and suffer from bearing the burden of expressing this disappointment and bitterness. Through the disappointment of sex, Larkin suggests that man`s desire is transcended by sorrow at the triumph of sordid reality over beautiful dream, and a good poem about failure is a success.

Articles : Epistemological and Metamorphic Progress of Nature in Wallace Stevens`s Poetry

이한묵(Han Mook Lee)

라킨 ( Larkin ) 시 (詩) 의 포스트 모던적 읽기에 대한 비판

권영탁(Young Tak Kwon)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  3권 0호, 1998 pp. 113-137 ( 총 25 pages)
Larkin may share a great many of the techniques of postmodern writers. As in their works, Larkin`s so-called "performance" can be said to be the only way of accomplishing an aesthetic goal in the modern or postmodern culture of relativism. In an ate stripped of certainties--the exitence of God, the benevolence of science, the perfectability of mankind--we are left with human individuals and what they do with their lives. But, unlike the postmodern writers who contract into silence after failing to widen their actions into a general truth, Larkin never "scuttles his story in its last line." The reason why he always takes double-sided attitude and uses many kinds of intricate devices is not to complicate meaning of the text, as in many modernist of postmodernist writers, but to enhance the reader`s participation in the author`s neutrally presented interpretation of life`s experiences. Therefore, the silence which comes at the end of "High Windows" should be interpreted as a truth beyond human understanding, not as "a kind of eclipse of meaning in the face of the void". Larkin is too traditional and too value-oriented poet to be a postmodern nihilist. He is a poet "to whom technique seems to matter less than contents", a poet who accepts the forms he has inherited but uses them to express his own content. It is true that Larkin makes use of pessimistic or melancholy substance. But he thinks that a poem, is it is a good one, must be a positive and joyful thing, and that, through poetry, we are able to go on in our sorrowful lives. Larkin`s pessimism, as such, is not a passive surrender to time. It is a faithful understanding of the true condition of our human life.

젠더 ( gender ) 와 세이머스 히니의 시

이세규(Se Gyu Lee)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  3권 0호, 1998 pp. 139-173 ( 총 35 pages)
For Heaney, the end of art is peace. His concern about gender is naturally linked with the problem to harmonize the Catholic community and the Protestant`s in Northern Ireland. The best poetry, he proclaims, is achieved by a balance of the two characteristics, the feminine and the masculine. We have witnessed that the prose of the poet and his poetry are often incongruous with each other. The case of Heaney seems not to be exceptional. If we can see the emotional and the mysterious, the mystical as the feminine principle, the rational, and the realistic, the inteelectual as the masculine one, his poetry mist be masculine. Though he is referring to both langrage and theme as the feminine elements, they are not impressive enough to change our conviction that his poetry is masculine. What is important is not language and theme but his attitude dealing with them. We can confirm in his poetry that the feminine elements are strictly under controled by his masculine will. This paper is to expose his androcentric attitude secretly covered in his gesture of harmony or peace. His androcentric tendency can be revealed only by close reading. First of all, it is reflected in his looking down the Irish as the irrational and the emotional nation. We can decide this is very reason why he attaches feminity to the Ireland. This tendency must be the common feature founded in the backward nation. He ought to have assumed their emotional tendency must be overcome as the principle cause to bring about social disorder. That the feminine principle is restrained throughly in his poetry can be estimated on this ground. Here, we can see through his two faces, insisting a wedding the feminine and the masculine on the one hand, repressing the feminine in his poetry on the other hand. We can attribute his phenomenon to his androcentric ego.

시각예술의 혁명과 시 공간의 해체구성 / 윌리엄 칼로스 윌리엄스의 시

김철수(Chul Soo Kim)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  3권 0호, 1998 pp. 175-202 ( 총 28 pages)
William Carlos Williams began his poetic career, reacting violently against the European literary tradition of Pound and Eliot. Believing that poems composed of the literary allusions cannot arrive at the essence of the thing itself, he attempted to appose the familiar ordinary things in phenomenological word order. In `Red Wheelbarrow`, for example, three details are arranged into their component parts such as "wheel / barrow", "rain / water" and "white chickens." The result is that our perception of the appositional things is not only that vivid but also beyond the stereotyped level. Williams` style and technique went hand in hand with the avant-garde movement of 1920s and 1930s in Europe an America. He associated with such artists as Charles Demuth, Alfred Stieglitz, Walter Arensberg, Alfred Kreimborg, Louis Zukofsky, Juan Gris through their little magazines such as Others and Contact. For Williams the innovation in the visual arts promised to overcome the deadness of copied forms and shatter the tyrannies of the past. It also promised to open up whole new spheres, such as the world he knew from his private life and daily work as a doctor. In such poems as `The Great Figure` and "Between Walls`, he catches the energy and beauty of a thing or a situation in an instant of time. In revealing the dynamics of reality he was also committed to the natural process of things. We can feel the growing process of a tree in the natural environment in `Young Sycamore`, and `Spring and All` excellently reveals the nature`s changing process, along with the rebirth of the things and the man who perceives them. For Williams art is not only imitation but also creation, and these two dimensions together create the revelation that leads the reader back to the mystery of both the poem and the world it refers to. Thus Williams` successful poems are both audible and visible presences which can be arranged into sound patterns and visual designs as well.

『 패터슨 』 에 나타난 시론을 중심으로

박현수(Hyon Soo Park)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  3권 0호, 1998 pp. 235-263 ( 총 29 pages)
William Carlos Williams ha recently come to be recognized as one of the important American poets. His works registers a change in perceptibility which puts him beyond the romantic tradition of English poetry. There is a significant relation between his ideologies and modern philosophy. Williams` assumptions about poetry and human existence are a unique type of a new horizon. His presuppositions and the way they are implicit in each of his poems can only be recognizable in his literary universe which can not possibly understood by any part of his works. The poet says that no symbolism is acceptable. The avoidance of symbolism in Williams` poetry provides more meaning beyond any symbolism. The things in his poetry stand lonely but side by side in the world, "here and now." In his poetry things of this world stand to show themselves what they are in reality, while in the romantic tradition, things in one way or another stand for any other things of the distant place. Like the red wheelbarrow, or the young sycamore and the sea-trout in the poems by Williams, the red wheelbarrow means nothing but just the wheelbarrow, which carries no particular meaning except the thing itself. A reader, looking at the red wheelbarrow, may interpret the red wheelbarrow with his particular view so unique that he could attach the meaning to it. It might be at the similar occasion that we often have different meaning in our mind, looking at the moon. In assuming such a mode of imaginative process, his work joins modern arts in which connects the fact of immediate experience. And the new technique discovered in Williams` poems may be identified in painters from Ce`zanne through cubism to abstract expressionism. What we can come across in his poetry may be traced in the preassumption of Derrida. His poetry attempts to establish his poetic diction as the sphere of a `dream language` with its total meaning.