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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 4권 0호 (1999)

차알스 올슨의 포스트모더니즘 시론

김준환(Joon Hwan Kim)
6,500
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Since the early 1950s, Charles Olson(1910~1970) had used the term "postmodern", "post-humanist" and "post-historic" along with "post-Darwinian" or "post-essential". By the "postmodern", what does Charles Olson mean? This essay discusses Olson`s postmodernism, looking in particular at its political implications. Previous readings of Olson, which have been concerned primarily with his "literary" achievements, especially with "projectivism", often leave the political implications out of their analysis. Yet, during the 1950s and the 1960s, Olson proposed his postmodernism not only to criticize high modernists` poetry but to deconstruct U. S. Empire`s expansionist imperialist culture after the second World War. According to him, from post-Socratic Greece to post-war America the West had exploited the Other through its anthropo-centric and logo-centric world-view. Olson intended his postmodernism to be a "cultural revolution" to overturn the West`s imperialist world-view.

딜런 토마스와 웨일즈의 음영시 ( 吟詠詩 ) 전통

김철수(Chul Soo Kim)
6,200
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Dylan Thomas began to write poetry with the assumption that we start to die from the moment we are burn, even from the moment we are conceived in the mother`s womb. This continual process of conceiving, living and dying links us with everything else in the world. The death of a flower is felt as the poet`s own death under the same force, because the forces of destruction work through all things at the same time. This is the whole burden of his best-known poem, `The force that through the green fuse drives the flower`, and continues throughout his poetic career. To Thomas, the poet`s consciousness, his body, and the world around him are one. And the language which expresses this interpenetration and totality calls attention to itself as language. He tries to create structures of words that can be understood only by a single leap which carries the reader into meaning. Sometimes the meaning of his poem grows slowly as something which enters through the powerful impression of sound and feeling the poem makes even when it is not understood. The poems that express the merging and the interpenetration of consciousness, body, and cosmos are peculiar in their breeding and making of images. The poet lets an image be made in him. It is not a matter of volition or reasoning. The center is "a host of images", that is, at once the possibility of a vast number of images and the negation of each one. It both contains and denies all the images which may come from it. In such processes the poet struggles to bring the "overclothed blindness" into the "naked vision", to come "from darkness towards some measure of light", and approaches "that momentary peace" in such poems as `Fern Hill` and `Poem in October`. Such qualities of Thomas` poetry derives from the tradition of Welsh bardic poetry. To this tradition may be attributed his confidence in the romantic and apocalyptic manner. So the Welsh bardic tradition that had been melted into his blood from his childhood through the protestant religious festival might naturally have fostered the sensibility that is both primitive and religious in the modern world.

에머슨과 프로스트 / 신비주의자와 시인

신재실(Jae Sil Shin)
7,400
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Harold Bloom says that "Frost`s religion, as a poet, was the American religion that Emerson founded," the credo of which is "Everything that can be broken should be broken." And Poirier tells us that "Frost was fond of saying...that Emerson was the great poet of rebellion." Both Frost and Emerson were the representative writers of the American spirit of rebellion. This paper is to compare Ralph Waldo Emerson and Robert Frost in terms of their definitions of poetry and the poet, their visions and consciousness of the world and common experiences, and their views of the poetic ways of expression. Emerson says in "The Poet" that poetry is "God`s wine," and that poets are "liberating gods". Emerson believes that "the Universe is the externisation of the soul", which is poetry itself, all written in the will of God, and that "The poet is the sayer, the namer," that is, the discoverer of the "God`s wine" and its distributor for the world to taste it and exhilarate themselves. But Frost says in "The Figure a Poem Makes" that a poem makes "the figure" that "begins in delight and ends in wisdom... a clarification of life-not necessarily a great clarification, such as sects and cults are founded, but in an momentary stay against confusion." Frost`s world is not like an Emersonian "round" circle, but like an oval which has two centers--Good and Evil, that is, the world of confusion. For Frost the poet is not the discoverer of God`s will in nature, but the maker of the poetic "figure", which can be "a momentary stay against confusion." For Emerson nature is fundamentally the words of God, who loves man, and the symbolic scene in which God`s design and intention can be ascertained. For Frost nature is valuable as the metaphoric particulars of the world in which good and evil are competing against each other. Emerson maintains to the last the tenet of his mystic idealism of the final unity of man and nature, but in his later essays, such as "Experience," "Fate", he shows his awareness of the harsh real world and emphasizes the power of human will of freedom, of human soul, and of human thinking which stand against the cruel fate. Frost shares, from first to last, the views and attitudes of later Emerson, praises the human beings` struggling soul against the "fate" of nature, and accepts the limitations of time, fate, death, and man`s limited power and frailty, without hating life. But there is a difference between the two writers in that Frost willingly expresses this awareness of the human limitations, while Emerson is not willing to. This difference is reflected in their views of poetic symbols or metaphors, to whose values as a necessary way of poetic expression both Emerson and Frost agree. Emerson, who is fundamentally a mystic, emphasizes the absoluteness of symbols. For Emerson, nature as the symbol of spirit preexists human time and experience, but whoever has the poetic talents can find the symbols of spiritual facts inherent in the natural facts, and express them in permanent language. On the other hand, Frost, who is a poet, emphasizes the temporariness of metaphors. Frost, who is basically a phenomenal realist, emphasizes the importance of analogy, as Emerson does, and defines poetry as "one permissible way of saying one thing and meaning another". He does not insist, however, on the absoluteness of the metaphors, but warns against the danger of absolute metaphors. Metaphors, for Frost, exist as possibilities in nature, and they are abstracted experientially by those who have poetic talents. Emerson is a mystic who "nails a symbol to one sense," while Frost is a poet who "makes the same objects exponents of his new thought."

농민항의 시인들의 시 / 미국 남부의 세 시인들의 시를 중심으로

심인보(In Bo Shim)
7,300
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This study deals with the poetry of the southern agrarian protesters-John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate, and Robert Penn Warren. These three southerners emerged as the most important poets from among the Fugitives, a group composed of some professors and students of Vanderbilt University from 1911 to 1925. These poets were very different as to the background of their birth-place, their educational level, and their religion, but they shared the wish to conserve the Old South and they all protested against the modern industrialization. They had a profound sense of the past and the history, as well as of the new situation in the American South. They are the Fugitive poets and contributors to the agrarian symposium I`ll Take My Stand. Industrialism may be the American way of life, and agrarianism may be the Southern way of work, but the way of work and the way of life are different. These agrarian protesters are for the way of work, but they are against the way of life of New Southerners. John Crowe Ransom believes that the agrarian way of life was the sole economic base of the Old South and offers it as the only way out of the present difficulties by picturing the happiness and innocent joys of the small farmers in the Old South. His two poems, "Old Mansion" and "Antique Harvesters" illustrate his point. Allen Tate is a profound and subtle critic, whose essays deal not with the idea but with the matters related to the deep illness of the modern mind. He suggests that dissociation of sensibility leads to the two extremes of scientism and symbolism, and he stresses the diagnostic evidence of the dissociation of sensibility. However, there is a lack of communicative effect of his poems on a sensitive reader. One of his better-known poems is the "Ode to the Confederate Dead." The title is ironic since it is not really an ode at all, but a devastating commentary on the alienation of modern humanity from its past. Robert Penn Warren had a great deal of admiration for Red and his unlimited literary skills in 1930`s. Warren has been the most open in texture and personal in the tone of the Fugitive poets. He also contributed an essay on the racial segregation in the South to I`ll Take My Stand, defending Southern and agrarian principles. His "History among the Rocks" describes the Civil War dead in the mountain. The dead are in the valley of rocks, but the orchards continue to bear their fruit without reference to human time. In this poem he is recollection the war, but he is not acting upon his own mind. This article is divided into three main chapters: dualism of Agrarian protesters, economics of the agrarianism, and the literary view of the Fugitives. Each chapter providers evidence and quotations from the main text.

T. S. 엘리엇 / 시의 사회적 기능으로서의 감수성의 조정

양균원(Kyoon Won Yang)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  4권 0호, 1999 pp. 121-148 ( 총 28 pages)
6,800
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In his Clark Lectures on the Metaphysical poets, Eliot implied that a new unified sensibility could be a condition for better living as well as for good poetry. His interest in sensibility is apparent in his dissertation on F. H. Bradley`s philosophy and much of his other literary criticism regarding tradition, culture and the social function of poetry. In his ideas of `immediate experience`, `objective correlative`, `art emotion`, etc., feeling and thought are associated and united with the world. The world is an ideal constriction which is equivalent to what we perceive through a unified sensibility. Eliot said that people had never recovered from a dissociation of thought and feeling which started in the 17th century (SE 287~288). Culture was thought to deteriorate unless constantly changing sensibility was fused into the language by great poets (OPP 10~11). This was the reason why he considered poetry in its social function. Poetry may accomplish revolutions in collective sensibility and put an end to the `conventional modes of perception and valuation` (UPUC 155). For Eliot sensibility was not a mere faculty of individual receptivity but a condition with which people could not keep a healthy civilization. In the refined sensibility of a poet with `historical sense`, the world can be perceived in its pastness as well as its presence of the past. In Eliot`s ideal society a few great poets comprehend the world in its complexity and significant history; their new sensibility may effect minor authors and ordinary people until it is settled in the language and fused unconsciously into tradition and culture. This world may be an homogeneous background in which people, some of whom don`t even know the poets` names, have something in common with them. This vision of an homogeneous world, Eliot thinks, is a social function of poetry. Poetry can give pleasure and a new experience to an individual reader. But in addition it can give collectively to all members of a society a refined sensibility. The collective sensibility comprehends the world in its complexity and diversity, and still provides an identical vision of it. The problem is that the identity of the world cannot be achieved without the intention of a few who aspire to restore it. The ideal society is valid only when all members of a society share an identical way of feeling and thinking, however vague and unconscious it may be. Eliot`s tradition and culture are significant in that they are conditions for a sense of identity among the members of a society. Eliot`s quest for a new sensibility is an effort to have a mental mechanism by which people can absorb a variety of experiences into a `whole of feeling` and even have reconciliation with the past in its pastness and presence.

언어의 생태주의적 지향성

윤희수(Hee Soo Yoon)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  4권 0호, 1999 pp. 149-173 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
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This paper aims to examine poems of five modern American poets, including Wallace Stevens, A. R. Ammons, Adrienne Rich, Charles Wright, and Gary Snyder, which pay the profound respect to the ontological autonomy of nature through reflections on the limitations of human mind and language. Words are arbitrary abstractions which erase the individual differences of things in nature; therefore they are sheer emptiness, compared with the substance of the things as they are. By revealing this essential emptiness of words, the poems examined in this paper acknowledge the ontological autonomy of the nonhuman world which exists beyond human language, which is a key factor of environmentalism and ecology. Stevens`s "The Snow Man" and "The Course of a Particular," show the mode of experiencing the dehumanized reality of nature by restraining human consciousness and pathetic fallacy. Ammons` "Corsons Inlet" also concerns the risk of imposing arbitrary order on nature when we represent ever-changing natural phenomena. In "Rural Reflections", Rich recommends "Inhuman patience" or rhetorical abstinence which enables us to see and enjoy nature as it is. Charles Wright`s "Reading Lao Tzu Again in the New Year" develops from rhetorical excess through linguistic skepticism to tight visual images which aim at the proximity to things as they are. The ecological orientation of Snyder`s "Ripples on the Surface" is determined by his understanding of elusiveness of nature and his effort not to trap it in the prison house of language.

20 세기 영미시의 전개 / 재조명

이창배(Chang Bai Lee)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  4권 0호, 1999 pp. 175-194 ( 총 20 pages)
6,000
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N/A

엄밀성의 미학 / 엘리자베스 비숍의 시

이홍필(Hong Pil Lee)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  4권 0호, 1999 pp. 195-228 ( 총 34 pages)
7,400
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This paper seeks to examine Elizabethr Bishop`s poetry in terms of its use of rigorousness. Generally speaking, rigorous, strict or austere attitudes seem to be harmful to the creation of beauty. In most of the poems dealt with in this paper, Bishop begins with a meticulous observation on ordinary, familiar things in the world or routine human behavior and yet the results of the observation are totally different from our conventional, stereotyped impression of them; that is, her scrutiny creates exhaustive epiphanic moments from the things she looks at. Equally, since she investigates the things with aloofness and expresses herself only with images, her poetry does not sound intensified or explicit, thus never falling into sentimentality. It is quite true that her relentlessly cool, rigid stance toward things in the world leads her to consider the world as harsh, confusing, and sordid. Nevertheless, she shows the possibility that she is able to find in the midst of that world beauty and love, though it may be small and fragile. The aesthetics of Bishop`s poetry is based upon such an unusual combination of rigorousness and ingenuity.

일상 현실로의 환원 / 『 올빼미 토끼풀 』 과 『 푸른 기타를 든 사람 』

진경혜(Kyoung Hye Jin)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  4권 0호, 1999 pp. 229-262 ( 총 34 pages)
7,400
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Many critics, writing on Stevens` poetry of the 1930s, assume that there is a hiatus between his poetry and the contemporary social surroundings. They think his "turning left" during the thirties has ended up in failure because it was against his grain that was for "pure poetry". Largely grown out of the thirties` polemics between realism and the new criticism, however, the assumed hiatus misses the fact that the concern with the immediate surroundings was at the heart of his poetry from the very beginning of his poetic career. Evidence found in his letters, notes, as well as in his poems and proses of this period indicates that he, like anybody else around him, was preoccupied with the events and issues of his day. His job as a surety and fidelity lawyer in an insurance company provided him a basis for "a relentless contact" with the disturbing social realities of the Depression, because the cases he mostly dealt with involved the problems of the capitalistic system at that time: money and credit. Stevens` turning toward society during the thirties was a spontaneous reaction owing to his daily experiences. It was a part of his practical search for a new and credible ideals about "How to live. What to do" in a turbulent, materialistic society, not merely a literary engagement. Acute observations on the need for reestablishing the importance of poetry as a "sanction" of life(L, 299) are found through all the three representative works of this period. The commonplace book, Sur Plusieurs Beaux Sujects is vomposed of fragmental excerpts from his readings of French and British art criticism. They constitute an inductive kind of defence of poetry, for all the quoted items centered around the question of true art`s nature and the function in society. Owl`s Clover, the longest poem of the period, comes close to the social problems of the contemporary world. Stevens looks at the intersecting arguments of Marxists, Fascists, and Socialists of his day and finds a substantial common ground: the everyday world governed by the necessity (Ananke) of suffering and consolations. Stevens puts foremost importance on the imagination, for it can provide a credible ideal that can be shared in a given community to make life`s hardships endurable. In The Man with the Blue Guitar, he sketches out an ideal rooted in the native soil: for example, in the figure of an electrician on the industrial suburb (Oxidia, which resembles the east Hartford), who can wee an Olympia in the soot of fire.

영문 논문 : 에즈라 파운드의 성별 유동성 / 남녀 양성론을 중심으로

장근영(Geun Young Jang)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  4권 0호, 1999 pp. 263-283 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
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본 논문은 모더니스트 시인 에즈라 파운드의 성별 유동성을 남녀 양성론의 논의를 통하여 밝혀보고자 함에서 출발하고 있다. 필자는 버지니아 울프의 양성론을 시작으로 하여 프랑스 페미니스트 엘렌느 식수, 루스 이리가레이, 트린 민-하의 양성론 비판과 더불어 모더니스트 시인들인, 윌리엄 카를로스 윌리엄스, 힐다 두리틀을 비롯한 모더니스트 작가들의 분석을 시도하고 있다. 페미니스트들은 기본적으로 남녀 양성론의 논의가 여성중심적인 시발점을 갖는 것이 아니라 남성중심적이라 비판하고 있다. 이점에 있어서 힐다 두리틀(에이취 디)의 은유 "해파리"(jelly-fish)는 여성성과 남성성을 동시에 수용하는 양성적인 모델을 상징하는 것으로 제시된다. 논의를 전개해 감에 있어서 필자는 파운드를 양성론적인 모델을 제시하는 작가로서 규정하지 않고 있다. 마치 윌리엄스가 그의 여성성의 긍정과 획득에도 불구하고 여전히 남성중심주의자로 남아 있는 것처럼, 파운드도 여성성의 획득에도 불구하고 남성성과 여성성의 공존을 의미하는 양성주의자로 규정하기는 다소 어려운 것으로 보인다. 차라리 파운드에 있어서 그의 유동적인 성별 표현을 주시하면서 그의 모순적인 때로는 애매모호한 성별 표현이 그의 시학과 그와 연결된 다른 관심사들에 연쇄적으로 파급되는 영향을 그의 작품 속에서 알아봄이 중요하다고 결론짓고 있다.
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