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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 7권 0호 (2001)

로버트 프로스트와 노래하는 새 자연과 문화의 변증법

신재실(Jae Sil Shin)
6,600
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Robert Frost`s "Never Again Would Birds` Song Be the Same," "The Oven Bird," and "The Need of Being Versed in Country Things" include in all of them a singing bird or birds as one of the poetic characters. In the traditional nature poetry, birds and their song have had the convention of symbolizing poets and their poetry respectively. It is, therefore, expected that the birds in these nature poems of Frost will also represent pastoral poems of a poet born belatedly in the age of technology. The close examination, however, discloses Frost`s intention to re-formulate the tradition of nature poetry to befit the human consciousness of modern world. The two distinctive strategies used by Frost for the renewal of the tradition of nature poetry are the admonition against the danger of "pathetic fallacy" and the synecdochic use of his nature poems. The speakers in "Never Again Would Birds` Song Be the Same" and "The Oven Bird" seem to come close to the pathetic fallacy but distance themselves from and warn us against it by reminding us that we are living in the age of the "diminished" world. And in "The Need of Being Versed in Country Things" the speaker in turn seems to deny explicitly the pathetic fallacy but shows his implicit nostalgia for the pastoral tradition. Frost comes to the dialectic conclusion that a poet can be allowed to use the fallacy to the extent that, if the occasion demands, such creatures as birds can be anthropomorphized to project the poet`s own thoughts, feelings, beliefs, or hopes. All of the three poems are themselves good examples of the use of poetic synecdoche, in which a small thing or event comes to have a larger meaning or meanings. "Never Again Would Birds` Song Be the Same" expands Frost`s personal love into the substance of human culture, that is, the cultivation of nature, which the love of Eve and Adam brought forth into the fallen world. It is suggested in this poem that poetry is the product of the dialectical cross of human culture and nature, which are respectively represented by Eve`s and birds` voices. "The Oven Bird" uses the bird`s talky song as the synecdoche representing the kind of poetry befitting the diminished world of industry, and further asserts the necessity of the poetic creation against the unfavorable environment. And "The Need of Being Versed in Country Things," through the description of the desolate scene of a burned house and the happy song of the phoebes who are using the place as their new dwelling, admonishes us against the danger of pathetic fallacy and further reminds us of the dialectical relations between nature and human culture. These three poems show us the tradition of nature poetry newly formulated by Robert Frost, a modern poet.

제임스 딕키의 동양사상

윤석임(Suk Im Yun)
6,100
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Eastern thoughts have been a matter of interest to the greatest writers of America and England since the nineteenth century. They renew their appeal to the modern artist who wishes to do more than recultivate old western ground. James Dickey seeks beyond the usual boundaries of that tradition in order to bring to it fresh materials with which the artist may reshape and recharge the familiar, thereby investing it with new life. Dickey ranges far and wide, seeking other cultures and myths useful to his artistic ends, to borrow, to adapt, and to recombine in order to suit his purposes. The first source of Dickey`s interest in the orient comes from his experience during World War Ⅱ and the Korean conflict. It is significant that he developed his literary interest during his stay in the Far East. Later, Dickey majored in English and minored in philosophy at Vanderbilt. Dickey may have also turned to eastern thought to assuage his guilty feelings toward his dead brother and war victims. He kept on experimenting with new techniques to transcend those bonds and limitations. Dickey finds the means to liberate himself from those limitations, not in Christian religion, but in oriental philosophy which considers death as a means of transforming into another life. The third source of Dickey`s orientalism is his short but close acquaintance with Ezra Pound. Dickey acknowledged that he was greatly influenced by Pound. Pound`s Cathay poems sparked Dickey`s interest in the translation of oriental texts. Finally, Dickey is aware of the possibility that a great poem may fuse western technique with oriental feelings and sensibilities. Dickey`s work is enriched by and owes much of its complexity to oriental thoughts.

실비아 플라스의 시에 나타난 결혼 생활의 위기와 갈등

이현숙(Hyun Sook Lee)
7,000
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Sylvia Plath`s poems treating her relationship with other family members start from her own experiences with them. But they represent not the family history, but the suffering self in the family that reinterprets its own standing and reaches a deep self-awareness. She is engaged in demonstrating the way the mind deals with extreme circumstances to which it responds with excessive sensitivity. The aim of this paper is to examine her suffering self that is trapped into the alienation in her married life due to her husband`s betrayal. In a strong contrast to some of her early poems which idealized Ted Hughes as "God," "Lyonnesse," depicting the collapse of a legendary kingdom, reproaches "the big God" for his laziness and negligence. Her bitter perception of marriage which has failed to revitalize the relationship between man and woman and only leads her to go through sorrow and pain is illustrated in such poems as "The Couriers" and "The Applicant." She also upbraids resentfully her husband who ignores her suffering in "Zoo Keeper`s Wife" and "Event." These poems based on her own sense of crisis due to her husband`s betrayal, successfully embody in diverse modes a female self`s path toward self-awareness in marriage.

에이드리엔 리치의 시 / 여성성으로의 복귀

조병화(Byung Hwa Joh)
7,200
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In The Dream of a Common Language, Adrienne Rich is found borrowing heavily from archetypal psychology, especially from Erich Neumann`s premises. However, the poet has not been studied much from the perspective of what she borrows from analytical psychology for the collection and her other works in spite of her evident dependence on the school. Arguably she reveals her strong desire to reach the primordial-state freedom breaking through the distorted realities forced on her by oppressing forces. This world beyond consciousness has been one of the main fields to which analytical psychologists have devoted themselves. They have theorized that the budding consciousness of the earliest man was ruled by the unconscious the way in which the child relates to its mother. Neumann thinks that consciousness has taken on the characteristics of masculinity through long struggles for its independence against the unconscious, its matrix, while femininity parallels the unconscious in its traits. Present civilizations owe what they are to consciousness with its aggressive, and discriminating powers, but, because of the powers, they have, at the same time, developed in them destructive forces oppressing others, even other members of their own species and resultantly threatening the very existence of human civilization itself. Rich agrees to this point that the energy of patriarchy is almost depleted and what power remains in the system is harnessed only for destruction. The revival of femininity as the dominating principle of the world is required not only for the liberation of the oppressed half-world, but also for the salvation of both sexes. Unlike selfish, dominance-orienting and oppressing traits of masculinity, femininity is characterized by receptivity, equality, nourishing and self-sacrifice which are also characteristic of the unconscious. Under the sense of missions of liberating women and salvaging humanity arises the next critical problem of how to clear women of masculinity-inculcated consciousness, and how to draw out femininity buried in the depths of her psyche. The way her consciousness operates has been formed through interactions with male figures in the male-dominated world. Now Rich chooses to interact exclusively with women as she shows in the lesbian relationships depicted in "Twenty-one Love Poems." By doing so, she seems to believe, she can shake off the patriarchal way of thinking subservient to the male-dominate societal conventions, and can secure her own way of thinking through a new language with which she can perceive and define the world without patriarchal contaminations and build a new world.

엘리엇의 " 전통 " 의 형성과 발전

최희섭(Hie Sup Choi)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  7권 0호, 2001 pp. 115-143 ( 총 29 pages)
6,900
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Eliot`s use of the term "tradition" in "Tradition and the Individual Talent" published in 1919 has aroused a lot of confusion and discussion. Apparently it seems to have changed its concept radically and fundamentally, but the truth is not that. The reason why it is misunderstood so widely can be summarized as follows. First, Eliot didn`t define the concept of the term clearly. Second, the publication of his conversion to Anglo-Catholicism and conservatism is a shock to the readers who are not willing to accept the fact that the concept of the "tradition" is under change and development. Third, the discussions and presentations of the concept of the "tradition" are fragmentary and unsystematic. Last, the use of the term has been enlarged a lot from the criterion of the literary works to the criterion of ethics, morality, philosophy, way of life, and religion etc. In this paper, I examined the background which contributed to the formation of the concept of the term "tradition". As is well known he was born and bred in a Unitarian family. Unitarianism emphasizes individuality and individual divineness. Eliot, therefore, could not find any external standard to evaluate literature in Unitarianism. He was forced to establish a criterion or standard to evaluate a work of literature by himself. It seems natural that Eliot was attracted to Bradley`s monism. In Bradley`s philosophy, appearance and reality are not different from each other, and they are only different aspects of one reality. This kind of view is the same as that of Buddhism which Eliot studied in the Graduate School, and before and after that period. Eliot presented the "tradition" as the external criterion of literature. Eliot`s tradition is an organic whole which consists of all the literature created in Europe from ancient times to modern. In short, a work of literature can be thought in the relationship with other works. Eliot`s tradition emphasizes the relationship between the literary works. This view of relatedness is inherited from Bradley`s philosophy and Buddhism. After his conversion to Anglo-Catholicism, Eliot values the "orthodox" high and the view of "orthodox" is closely related with the concept of tradition and sometimes they are interchangeable. When Eliot proposed the "tradition" first, it was thought mainly as the criterion of literature, but after years went by, it was thought as the criterion of morality, ethics, philosophy and religion etc. This development/enlargement was the comprehensive and complex result of the Unitarianism, Bradley`s philosophy, Indian thoughts including Buddhism, and Anglo-Catholicism.

" 삶의 비평 " 의 관점에서 본 에드윈 알링턴 로빈슨 소네트의 인물들

허정자(Jung Ja Huh)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  7권 0호, 2001 pp. 145-172 ( 총 28 pages)
6,800
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Edwin Arlington Robinson`z interest in human beings as subject matter makes him create many characters in his poems. Especially he employs the sonnet to evaluate the individual experience as universal. In this respect, I attempt to examine the characters who are failures in his sonnets in terms of Matthew Arnold`s `criticism of life` to apprehend what the essential aspect of their existence is. Through his vivid character delineation in narrative sonnets such as "Aaron Stark". "Karma", "The Tree in Pamela`s Garden", "The Rat", "Charles Carville`s Eyes", "Inferential", and "Fleming Helphenstine", Robinson shows us how eccentricities of personality make men lonely, isolated, puzzled, and despised by hidden stories, in a friendly or sympathetic way with more or less philosophical commentaries. Also Robinson`s concern for the relations between men and women, especially the struggle of the lonely women against the selfish or disloyal male results in the dramatic portraits of women in his sonnets such as "Ben Trovato", "An Evangelist`s Wife", "The Woman and the Wife", and "The Growth of `Lorraine`". Poetry can interpret moral world. From this viewpoint, Robinson makes us think over the problem of `how to live` and strengthens the sense of life by his powerful character studies and deep concern with inward experience in his poetry.

데릭 월콧 / 혼혈의 시학

노저용(Jeo Yong Noh)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  7권 0호, 2001 pp. 173-197 ( 총 25 pages)
6,500
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데릭 월콧은 오랫동안 영국의 식민지로 있었던 카리브 해의 작은 섬인 성 루시아(St. Lucia)의 수도 캐스트리스에서 1930년에 쌍둥이 아들 중 맏아들로 태어났다. 대부분의 카리브인이 그렇듯이 월콧도 혼혈아였다. 즉 그의 어머니는 아프리카 노예 출신의 유색 할머니와 네덜란드 출신의 백인 사이에서 태어났다. 또 그의 아버지는 백인계 영국인이었다. 루시아 섬에서의 월콧가의 시작은 데릭의 할아버지 되시는 찰스(Charles Walcott)가 농장을 매입하기 위하여 바바도스 섬으로부터 이주한 이후부터이다. 찰스는 손자인 데릭의 시에 서출로 기록되어 있다. 또 그는 워드로프(Christina Wardrope)이라는 짙은 갈색 피부의 여인과 결혼하여 다섯 아이를 가졌고, 그 중 첫 아이가 바로 시인 데릭이 태어난지 1년 6개월이 되지 않아서 34세로 세상을 떠난 그의 아버지 워릭이다. 워릭은 예술에 상당한 재능이 있었고 유양돌기염으로 죽기 직전까지 공무원이었다. 또 데릭의 혈통 못지 않게 복잡한 것이 성 루시아의 복잡한 역사이다. 데릭이 태어난 루시아 섬은 약2000년 전에 최초로 아라왁 인들이 정착한 곳으로 알려졌다. 그 후 약1350년경에 원주민이었던 아라왁 족은 캐립 족에 정복을 당하여 멸종한다. 아라왁 족을 멸종시킨 캐립 족도 18세기초에 유럽인들이 정착한 이후로는 그 섬에서 사라졌다. 루시섬이 유럽 열강들의 각축장이 된 이유는 그 섬이 전세계에서 가장 훌륭한 항구 중에 하나를 가지고 있기 때문이다. 그리하여 최후로 영국과 프랑스가 열 두 번 이상 그 섬의 주도권을 주고받은 쟁탈전 이후 1803년부터 영국의 식민지가 되었다. 그러나 그 섬은 17세기 중반부터 19세기 초까지 프랑스의 통치를 받았기 때문에 언어적으로는 프랑스어와 아프리카 언어의 합성어 이루어진 프랑스어 크레올이란 방언을 주로 사용하는 곳이다. 프랑스의 세력이 약화되어 영어가 프랑스어 대하여 우위를 차지하여 캐스트리스의 시민, 공무원, 교육받은 자의 언어가 된 것은 20세기에 와서 일어난 현상이다. 성 루시아에 수많은 아프리카 노예들이 사탕수수 재배를 위한 수단으로 강제 유입된 것은 1763년 파리조약 이행으로 그 섬이 프랑스로 넘어간 직후부터 영국 정부에 의해서 노예해방이 선포된 1830년대까지로 알려졌다. 20세기에 와서 노예를 노동력을 대치하기 위하여 상당수의 계약제 노동자들이 인도로부터 이주했다. 그리하여 월콧이 태어난 1930년대에 루시아 섬의 총 인구는 8만을 헤아릴 수 있는 정도였고 그 중 백인은 2%에도 미치지 못하였으며 그들은 대부분이 공무원이었다. 본 논문은 이러한 카리브 섬의 복잡한 역사, 인종, 문화적 배경을 첨예하게 잘 보여주는 작품으로 평가되는 데릭 월콧의 대표작 『오메로스』를 통하여 그 본질을 드러내는 데 있다. 월콧은 이 작품에서 역사가 남긴 복잡한 카리브 인의 상처를 드러내고, 이를 치유하기 위해서는 카리브 인의 정체 의식의 회복이 급선무라는 것을 강조하고 있다. 그러나 정체 의식의 회복은 그 자체로 끝나는 것이 아니라 새로운 신세계를 창조하기 위한 계기로 삼아야 하고 카리브 해의 복잡한 다문화는 신세계를 창조하는 원동력이라는 것이다. 그리하여 『오메로스』에 나타난 월콧의 시학은 바로 혼혈문화의 시학이라고 할 수 있을 것이다.
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