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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 8권 1호 (2002)

에이드리엔 리치의 시 : 몸과 언어

박재열(Jae Yeol Park)
7,300
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When Adrienne Rich began writing poetry, her father encouraged her to read and to write. She learned how to write from predominantly male "masters", and imitated their styles and poetics. Her first book, A Change of World was chosen for the `Yale Younger Poets series` by a male poet, W. H. Auden. In the beginning of the 1960`s, however, she began to listen to her inner female voice, identifying and concentrating on feminist subjects, as in Snapshots of a Daugher-in-Law, published in 1963. Since then, a great part of Rich`s published poems strongly voice concerns such as protection of women`s rights, discrimination against women, and issues of opportunity and participation. These poems focus on the need for structural reforms rather than reflecting on the poet`s inner life or on insights concerning the interrelationship between poetry and the human body. Nevertheless, the more detached the poems seem when examining practical matters such as social ideologies and reforms, the more do they also reveal perspectives on the female physiology (what Kristeva calls `the semiotic`), the unconscious, and language. Rich`s poetry does not deal with these topics in the manner of a scientist, who studies materials from an objective point of view, but subjectively investigates the ways in which the body and physicality articulate metaphorically. The aim of this research is therefore to analyze how physical and physiological elements diversify themselves in Rich`s poetry, rather than to discuss these elements from the objective point of view. Rich suggests in her poetry that `the language of flesh` or `the language of body` should be regarded as the highest form of poetic language, contrasting with "spoiled language", which has no association with the flesh. This physiological language, which she calls "more than a symptom", is opposed to conceptual language whose meanings are normally codified. Emanating directly from the writer`s flesh, life, pulse, breath, etc., it makes immediate contact with the reader`s physicality, its words being ridden with the physical and spiritual constituents of the writer. Rich demonstrates her attempts to find the poetic language which will connect her own pulse to that of the reader`s, when she says, "I wanted to choose words that even you would have to be changed by." Rich`s language is also a living language in which vital relationships are recognized between the human physical rhythm and the cycle of nature, relationships such as that between the menstruation cycle and the lunar cycle. Saussurean arbitrary relations between the signifier and the signified tend to be absent in her work. Signifiers are bound to the pre-linguistic stage in which they cannot articulate fully but signify through the flesh the instinctual, pre-oedipal desires only metaphorically. Because her language depends on the powers and functions of the physical body, therefore, she suffers from incapacity to express symbolic meanings. Rather, it imprints `signifiance` upon our semiotic body before delivering any articulated meanings. Without such a language, Rich prefers to keep silent. Rich suggests that since language is traditionally focused on expressing abstract, moral, racial, historical facts which are regarded as significant values in a male-dominate society, it cannot appreciate or fully describe functions concerned with the body. She also believes that physical wisdom and truths have long been ignored by patriarchical societies. Despite these considerations, she hopes that the language of body will, in the final analysis, bring universal harmony and liberty to human beings, rather than opportunities and happiness only to women.

『 비잔티움으로의 항해 』 : 예이츠의 의도와 이미지

봉준수(Joon Soo Bong)
6,700
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It has been a long established critical tradition that Yeats`s "Sailing to Byzantium" is a consummate Platonic poem, which celebrates the supremacy of soul over body, of art over nature. The poem is fully equipped with the kind of rhetorical devices and poetic structures that tend to lead readers to one or another transcendental reading. The transcendental approach, in turn, has been influenced by what can be broadly termed as Yeats`s `intentions,` including his remarks on his own poem, biographical information, and the way the holy city of Byzantium becomes a symbol of Unity in his theosophy. This paper offers another look at the much celebrated poem. While the authorial intentions and the symbolic functions of Byzantium and the golden bird in the context of the poet`s private myth should be taken into consideration and carefully explored in every reading of the poem, they do not serve, I would like to argue, as the best guides to its full intellectual and emotional potential; rather, the significance of Byzantium and the golden bird should be understood in the immediate ontological context of the poem, in which the poet`s `Byzantine` symbols of transcendence and art can be given more human significance as recalcitrant, earthly images. In other words, the poem`s value derives from its failure to become a Platonic lyric.

라킨의 시와 역설

이세규(Se Gyu Lee)
7,200
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This paper aims to uncover the paradoxical response Larkin has in reaction to his transcendental desire. In spite of his longing to flee from the general public, he seems not simply to neglect them. It is remarkable that his transcendental desire tends toward esthetic pleasure. Larkin deals with the ordinary mainly in a subjective view. He is no longer concerned about the meanings and values of love and work. This tendency of his is likely to be relate with the vulgarity of the modern world. In "Self the Man" marriage is regarded as a means only of fulfilling sexual desire. However, his genuine desire is to achieve a noble and permanent feelings of pleasure rather than simply a momentary delight such as comes from sex. This is shown in "High Windows." Nevertheless, he ironically hesitates to accept the true long-term feelings when it seems they are available. This explains the reason he is only satisfied with enumerating the facts regarding why he cannot discontinue work, in "Toads" and "Toads Revisited." In these poems, while he wants to be unfettered by work, he finds it difficult to evade the fact that people generally feel a call to their work. Under this context, we can understand his intention to deny the sublimated pleasure he has taken in nature and solitary places such as a church quite empty, as indicated in "Absences," "Here," and "Church Going." He evidently doesn`t ignore the fact that the average person is not highly concerned about such pleasure. His feeling guilty for his transcendental desire reminds is of the paradoxical attitude which Coleridge poses toward poets in "Kubla Khan. "Here, Coleridge guiltily protects himself against the charge of committing himself personally to the creation of such a miraculous dome in the air. We can comprehend this self-contradiction of his as an intimation that poets share the values of logic and morality with other people. The theoretical inconsistency exposed in Larkin`s poetry can also be assumed to be caused by his paradoxical attitude from his readers, he approaches them with the ordinary materials and communal morality. This attitude of Larkin seems to be not far from that of Romantic poets who adulated his readers by dealing with common things and people. Of course, his attention to his readers is for his own benefit, not for their own. It is not too much to say that it is nothing but an esthetic device to give identity to his poetry. This opinion can be proven by the fact that other characters he positively seek out integration with in his poems, are deficient in reality. However, despite of this perceived weakness, we should admit that few poets can write works of such high tone with common materials as can Larkin.

현대 영국 번역하기 : 캐롤 안 더피의 시

허현숙(Hyun Sook Huh)
6,300
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Unlike American women poets, it is not easy to find British women poets who write experimental poetry in the tradition of Gertrude Stein, H. D. and others. But the example of Carol Ann Duffy enables us to have a look at the experimental aspects of contemporary British poetry in the way she departs from and uses traditional poetic forms. Labelled as a poet of Thatcher`s England, Duffy published her major works in the 80s and the 90s, and many of which call into question "the English" and "England", and depict the process of representation as a form of ideological work. For Duffy poetry entails a translation of the contemporary England. And by translating the English scene into poetry Duffy has a concern on the status of the self, specifically the immigrants` self, within English society. This concern often takes the form of a dramatic monologue, a poetic genre, which is strongly rooted in the tradition of English poetry. These dramatic monologues of Duffy`s explore meaning in language and the constitution of self, revealing the persona`s cultural identification of him or her as an alien. The word `alien` stresses the persona`s sense of self as an immigrant and as non-subject because the language that is spoken as his or her mother tongue is actually not as the mother tongue. The immigrants who speak as persona in Duffy`s work constantly strive to name the conscious existence of the individual, but ultimately experience the constricting medium of language, which has been argued as a dictator of the terms of subjectivity in the user`s consciousness by modern philosophers. Disclosing the troubled subjectivity of their own selves, they show that none of their way of speaking can articulate their desire.

제임스 딕키의 시 : 순환적 구조를 중심으로

윤석임(Suk Im Yun)
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  8권 1호, 2002 pp. 123-140 ( 총 18 pages)
5,800
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제임스 딕키는 인간 생사의 순환고리뿐 아니라 죽음과 재생의 끝없는 순환성에 이끌렸다. "영속적 순환"(circular infinity)이 일어나는 그의 시 세계에는 영원한 삶이나 영원한 죽음은 존재하지 않는다. 딕키에게 있어 삶은 결코 한 점에 붙들어 매어놓을 수 없는 역동적인 재형성과정이다. 또한, 그에게 있어 죽음이란 생명의 소멸을 의미하는 것이 아니라, 단지 하나의 전이 단계이며 존재 양식의 변화과정일 뿐이다. 생명력의 영속성에 대한 믿음은 딕키로 하여금 시작과 끝이 있는 일직선상의 움직임보다 뫼비우스의 띠와 같은 영속적 순환성을 그의 작품에 표현하도록 유도한다. 영속적 순환을 믿고 그것을 작품 속에서 표현하고자 하는 딕키의 바램은 시의 무대, 시간, 자아를 다루는 데 있어 순환성을 그 특징으로 부여하기에 이른다. 나아가서 서정시와 설화시 같은 형식과 문체의 사용에 있어서도 순환성을 찾아볼 수 있다. 딕키의 시 구조 역시 다음과 같은 원형적(圓形的) 흐름을 보여준다. 도입부에서 독자는 자연 혹은 물질 세계에서 화자를 대면하다. 그러나, 곧 화자는 그 자연적인 세계에 동화되고 상상적으로 반응하여 타자(the Other)와 초월적 혹은 변형적 과정을 통해 정체교환을 이룬다. 지하로의 오르페우스의 여정처럼 하강과 상승, 낙하와 비상의 순환이라는 모티프를 사용하여 정체 교환이나 환생(還生)과 같은 과정을 포착하여 표현한다. 시의 종결부에서 독자는 가시적인 세계에 대해 좀 더 강화되고 폭 넓은 이해력을 획득하고 자연 세계로 되돌아온 화자와 재회하게 된다. 딕키는 그런 과정의 재현 가능성을 시의 결말부분에서 암시함으로써 생명의 고리와 같은 끝없는 순환적 구조를 독자에게 제시하고 있다.
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