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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 9권 1호 (2003)

로버트 펜 와런의 시: 설화,인물,시간

이영걸 ( Young Gul Lee )
7,600
초록보기

로빈슨 제퍼스의 인간관과 생태의식

김은성 ( Eun Seong Kim )
6,500
초록보기
Although Robinson jeffers declares in a circumscribed mode that his Inhumanism is "a shifting of emphasis and significance from man to not-man; the rejection of human solipsism and recognition of the transhuman magnificence," it is evident that his misanthropic opinion and despair gives rise to his Inhumanism. The leading motive for Jeffers` committing himself to Inhumanism results from his recognition that humanity and humanism involve self-destructiveness, leading to a mode of domination over both the human and non-human worlds. For Jeffers, humanity represents nothing less than egocentric selfishness, which refuses to harmonize with the outer world and concentrates on only its own concerns. He sometimes likens humanity`s obsession with inwardness to incest, finding both qualities propelled by narcissistic self-love. And Inhumanism aims at overturning the dominant traditional faith that humankind or human consciousness is always the center of creativity, meaning, and value in the universe. Jeffers wants people to turn outward to appreciate their genuine place in the universe. His Inhumanism is a radical challenge to the mainstream of Western thought. Jeffers` aversion to humanity is an expression of disgust he feels in human history and civilization. The disgust forces him to find possible alternatives in the irrevocable dichotomy between nature and humanity. His ecological vision predicated upon the dichotomy is a program for decentering humanity as well as realizing what nature really is. Thus, it can be said that his ecological vision begins with or reacts to his fundamental distrust of humanity. Taking the figure of saviors as the typical exemplar of the inevitable effect of self-consciousness, Jeffers reveals the potential danger of human self-consciousness. He contends that self-enclosed humanity brings about the illusion of both human narcissism which rejects external reality and human pride in the omnipotent power which he reveals in the figure of saviour. In many of his works, therefore, Jeffers reiterates that the only and best possible way to escape from the self-destructive humanity is to turn from humanity itself toward the outer world. With this Inhumanism, Jeffers intends us to recognize our real place in the universe and the ontological way of nature. His ecological vision strives for the objective truth of the universe. In other words, Jeffers tries to relocate human beings from self-entitling center of meaning and truth to inconsiderable beings in nature, by comprehending and teaching the ontological and self-managing principle of nature, which prefigures our contemporary ecological manifesto.

부활절 시에 나타난 예이츠의 낭만적 민족주의

김주성 ( Joo Seong Kim )
6,800
초록보기
The collected poems of W. B. Yeats was an objective correlative for the entirety of his life and thought. He yearned to unify his literature with his philosophy and nationality. Ireland was the focus of his social as well as his artistic interests. Irish nationalism is an important and comprehensive theme through all of Yeats`s poetry. In this paper, I have tried to examine Yeats`s attitudes and views toward the contemporary reality of Ireland, and to prove the poetic embodiment and development of his national vision through his poetry and prose. To verify the theme of Yeats`s nationalism, I have mainly chosen the poems from his poetic volumes Responsibilities and Michael Robartes and the Dancer, because these poems are distinguished in their relationship to social and political problems. What attitudes and view did Yeats have toward contemporary Irish affairs? Yeats regarded the situation of his time as but a bundle of fragments; there were the opposition between Irish Catholics and Protestants, and the philistinism of the middle-class that included violent journalists and radical politicians in Ireland. Thus, he emphasized that those elements must be removed to restore the perfect liberty and independence of Ireland in its true meaning. For Ireland Yeats played a role as a prominent public figure in the Irish Nationalist Movement. He was a romantic nationalist who followed the moral idealism of John O`Leary. He longed for Romantic Ireland. Because he hoped for a peaceful solution to the Irish problems, he claimed that the responsibilities of self-government and the growth of political freedom could be the most powerful solvents for sectarian animosities. Yeats`s poems in Responsibilities are expressions of his challenge to Irish politics of his times, as well as a powerful voice against the journalists of the middle-class in Ireland. In these poems, the theme of Irish public problems has a deep relation to Yeats`s view of the main three public controversies in Ireland. He considered that Romantic Ireland had died away because of the materialism of the narrow-minded middle-class and violent politicians. He detested those who wished to use literature for crude political purposes and he gradually became confident that his poetry could contribute greatly to the renewal of Romantic Ireland. The Easter poems in Michael Robartes and the Dancer show Yeats`s trying to restore Romantic Ireland. The Easter Rising of 1916 gave a great shock to Yeats. His reactions to the rising were complex: he was deeply moved by the resurgence of Romantic Nationalism which he had considered faded. He celebrated the rebels of the Rising as mythological martyrs of the fight for freedom. However, on the human level he mourned the waste of life. What were the opinions that Yeats manifested to restore order in Ireland? Yeats had a firm faith in the Irish tradition. His method for the real independence of Ireland was not to appeal for violent and armed hostilities against England, but to solve the social problems of Ireland itself in terms of the recovery of Irish tradition. He tried to solve the various Irish problems with contrasting analysis of past and present. As for Yeats, past was order and present anarchy. It was in old Celtic history and legends and in the spiritual heritage of the 18th century that he would find the traditional order, which he advocated to recreate Romantic Ireland, fundamentally was based on spiritual elements.

프로스트의 자연시와 "전략적 후퇴"

신재실 ( Jae Sil Shin )
6,000
초록보기
According to Auden, the farmer poet Frost`s nature poems are written not for urban, but for rural people. It is true that the concept of nature poetry was not necessary before the rise of industrial urbanization and the consequent decay of agricultural rurality. Robert Frost has succeeded, in the 20th-century industrial ate of urbanity, in creating the myth of a nature poet who still tills his own land. But are Frost`s nature poems really not written for urbanites but only for ruralites? John F. Lynen in his The Pastoral Art of Robert Frost(1960) defines Frost`s nature poetry as a pastoral mode in which the poet is always conscious of the contrast between the rural world and a more sophisticated urban life, so that the pastoral poem is a means of commenting on urban problems. Frost`s retreat to a less-complex rural world is neither escapism nor agrarianism, but, rather, an effort to gain the perspective needed to comment on contemporary life. Frost`s retreat to rurality is evidently strategic. As we see in his "Into My Own", his desire to escape into a rural world, represented in this poem as "those dark trees", is to withdraw into the natural, wild irresponsible area of the self to recover the self which has been eroded by contracts and obligations and the demands of contemporary life. Frost masked himself as a farmer poet to satisfy his own need to establish his own identity as a poet, to keep his own self intact from the anxiety of influence of so-called high modernism on his career as a poet, and to meet his own desire to differentiate himself from such modernist poets as T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound.

예이츠의 시에 나타난 성적 결합의 탄트리즘

조용해 ( Yong Hae Cho )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 1호, 2003 pp. 115-142 ( 총 28 pages)
6,800
초록보기
It is not important how much Yeats understood about Indian Philosophy. But he use them as a poetic metaphor or expressions. Yeats utilized the Indian thoughts in his works and he did it through his ways. Moreover, he popularized the Indians` spiritual life in his works. He tried to give an organic unity to his whole works and tried to express his efforts in his works with his desire for the spirit and its freedom. To him, it was an unavoidable thing to accept the Oriental thoughts and they affected so much in his spiritual world. Among them there were the Tantric System and Cabala from the Indian philosophy as a mystic experience of the sexual union, which means the resolve of the conflict. Yeats recognized and used the Veda and Tantra as a highly expressed poetic metaphor, also. And they were the great sources and materials for his poetic creation. Yeats intended to achieve his harmonic world, Unity of Being, in his poems from the practical human life. And he accepted Tantra because he believed that he could achieve the eternal world from the antimony through the complete sexual union of a man and a woman. He used it as a symbol of the Unity of Being and the Self. Yeats also tried to unify the Irish customs and thoughts and he found that the Self and the Soul is the same existence. His purpose in art was to establish the `Unity of Being` through the life and the conflict in it. And he concluded the God as that of the Self and `Universal Self".

이상한 참조문들: 스티븐스의 족보연구와 역사적 현실

진경혜 ( Kyoung Hye Jin )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 1호, 2003 pp. 143-163 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
초록보기
It is widely known that Stevens was devoting his time and energy in the pursuit of his family`s genealogy during the 1940s. Although many critics pay attention to the names of his ancestors and of many places in Pennsylvania frequently appearing in his later poems, they fail to disclose how this concern with his past fits into the whole framework of his poetry and thinking. This paper tries to bring to light the fact that his genealogical concern sharpens his sense of the historical reality, on which our lives are embedded in the form of a tradition or a civilization. Stevens, in on poem, illustrates that the past provides "extraordinary references" for ordinary people at the present, which enable them to lead their lives according to what has been "endured and mastered" in the past. He defines the past living in the present as a tradition, and relates it to the young Aeneas carrying his father on his back, to save him from the ruins of the past. Stevens considers a tradition as a supreme fiction, created out of the realities of the past to help people live their lives. He once said that what he was doing in his genealogical study was to "form an agreeable realization of the past." While tracing his own genealogy, he was creating and defining his own tradition out of "the usable past" he inherited from his forefathers. The most meaningful reference Stevens reads out of his 18th century Dutch predecessors` lives is their way of life, which is to live in "an accord with reality". They, whether farmers or religious fanatics, created their own community and culture according to the physical conditions of their land and to the invisible presence of God. He believes that the forms of politico-economic systems or cultural traits of a place spring from the agreement with reality, constituting a true "mythology of a region." Stevens believes poetic images are at the center of a mythology, and says they must reflect the reality of that region. "Imago" tells us the fact that as time goes by, these images form "imagoes" in the minds of the residents to give them a shared identity, and become vehicles to transmit a culture from generation to generation. The period Stevens was preoccupied with his genealogical study coincides with the period he had "a magnificent fury" over poetry and poetics. Out of his genealogical search he has realized that "the agreement with reality" lies at the base of poetic imagination creating a supreme fiction, which is nothing other than "a mythology of a region," or "the ultimate good sense we term civilization".

『원로 정치가』의 등장인물 이름 연구

최희섭 ( Hie Sup Choi )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 1호, 2003 pp. 165-187 ( 총 23 pages)
6,300
초록보기
T. S. Eliot`s last play, The Elder Statesman shows the self-realization of the main character Lord Claverton. He was a successful statesman in the past, and suffers the severe problem of identity now. He is harassed by his former friends named Gomez and Mrs. Carghill who make him recall his past. His son, Michael, makes Lord Claverton think of his past, too. This paper focuses on the names of the characters and the change of names in the play. The main character, Lord Claverton changed his name twice, one of his old friends, Gomez once and Mrs. Carghill twice. His son Michael is likely to change his name sooner or later, after he goes abroad. The reason to examine the change of the names is that the change reflects Lord Claverton`s self-realization. Eliot declare that naming is not an easy thing in the poem `The Naming of Cats`. Eliot`s friend Browne told that Eliot was very careful of naming characters in The Elder Stateman. Furthermore, the original name of this play was The Rest Cure and the other alternative was The Man Who Changed His Name. This is enough evidence that Eliot was very conscious of the names of the characters in the play. This play shows the recovery of Lord Claverton`s self through the implication of changing names. His old friends help him to recover his self by calling him by his old names. His son Michael gives him final stroke to realize his self by trying to go abroad and change his name. While Lord Claverton gives advice to his son, he explains the meaning of changing names. And that brings him his self-realization. Through many people`s help, Lord Claverton recovers his self and gets peace in the long run.

영문 논문 : 캐씨 송의 시에 나타난 가족 관계의 양상

안중은 ( Joong Eun Ahn )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 1호, 2003 pp. 189-209 ( 총 21 pages)
6,100
초록보기
이 논문의 목적은 2001년 7월 31일 필자가 미국 하와이주 호놀룰루에서 면담한 신인작가로 주목받고 있는 한국계 및 중국계 미국 여류시인인 캐씨송(1955~ )의 『사진 신부』(1983)와 『창틀 없는 창문, 네모의 빛』(1988) 및 『피겨 스케이트의 지정동작』(1994)에 반영되어 있는 핵심적인 주제인 가족 관계의 양상들을 부모와 자녀와의 관계, 조부모와 손자손녀와의 관계, 대가족들의 관계 측면에서 고찰하는 것이다. 제한된 지면 관계로 송의 최근 시집인 『정토(淨土)』(2001)는 논의에서 제외하였다. 천착한 20편이 넘는 시들의 절반 이상은 부모와 자녀와의 관계에서 1) 연로한 부모와 미혼 딸들, 2) 어머니와 자녀들, 3) 어머니와 딸-화자, 4) 노모와 성인 막내딸, 5) 모자(母子), 6) 부녀(父女), 7) 어린 딸과 어머니, 8) 아들-화자와 아버지의 관계의 양상들을 다루고 있다. 몇 편의 시들은 조부모와 손자손녀의 관계에서 1) 조부모와 딸, 2) 조부와 손자의 관계들을 그리고 있다. 나머지 시들은 대가족 제도하에서 1) 조부모, 부모, 숙모들, 손자손녀들, 2) 조부모, 아버지, 어머니-화자 3) 조부모, 숙부모들, 딸-화자, 4) 조모, 부모, 자녀들, 5) 조모와 모자의 관계의 양상들을 묘사하고 있다. 송은 자신의 예리한 관찰력을 통하여 위와 같은 친밀하고도 사랑스런 가족 관계의 양상들을 섬세하게 표출하고 있다. 이러한 가족 관계의 일차적인 근원은 송의 조부모들의 한국에서의 가난한 생활과 하와이에서의 힘겨운 이민 생활에서 파생된 것이다. 결론적으로, 송은 그녀 특유의 여성적인 시점에서 이 세 가지 양상의 가족 관계에 투영된 매우 아름답고 사랑스러운 유대를 동양화처럼 묘파하고 있다.

영문 논문 : 로버트 로월의 『인생연구』

이홍필 ( Hong Pil Lee )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 1호, 2003 pp. 211-236 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
초록보기
로버트 로월의 『인생연구』는 총 4부로 구성된 시집인데, 각 장은 시집 전체의 구조와 주제를 구성하는 데 있어서 서로 다른 역할을 성취하고 있다. 가령, 제1장은 『인생연구』전편의 주제를 도입시키는 역할을 하고, 산문으로 쓰여진 제2장 『리비어가 91번지』는 시집의 핵심적인 갈등구조, 즉 가족 구성원 사이의 알력을 등장시키며, 제3장은 그러한 갈등을 현대사회가 내재하고 있는 다양한 형태의 병리현상이나 모순들과 연계하여 그 갈등의 폭을 한층 증폭시킨다. 촘촘히 짜여진 『인생연구』의 구조상 제 4부의 전반부는 그러한 갈등을 화해의 국면으로 전환시키는 역할을 한다. 제2장에서 로월이 고백하는 부모간의 심각한 갈등이나 로월과 그의 외조부와의 갈등이 제4장에서는 점차 해소되어 가는 양상으로 나타난다. 이러한 사실에 착안하여 이 글을 로월의 성숙해 가는 자아의 양상을 추적할 것이다. 갈등을 화해로 인도하는 실마리는 로월 자신의 자아에서 출발한다. 특히, 『인생연구』제4장의 초반부 시편들은 제2장에서의 로월과 달리 그의 자아가 점차적으로 성숙 ˙ 확장되어 가고 있다는 사실을 보여준다. 가령, 외조부를 묘사하는 작품들은 외조부에 대한 그리움으로 충일해 보여서, 종전의 화해 불능상태에서 이제는 외조부의 세계를 포용할 수 있을 정도로 성장한 것으로 보인다. 또 부친과 모친 사이의 알력을 회고하는 시편들에서도 로월의 자아는 부모의 상이한 세계를 이해 ˙ 동정할 수 있을 정도로 성숙해 있다. 이러한 시인의 성숙된 자아는 자신과 세계와의 지속적인 대화의 결과이다. 물론 로월의 자아가 완벽한 성숙의 상태에 도달했다고 규정하기는 곤란하다. 그러나 로월 자신과 가족 구성원들 사이의 관계 확장은 제4장의 후반부에서 로월이 타인들의 세계를 인식하고, 자신의 자아를 더욱 더 확장 시킬 수 있는 계기를 마련했다는 점에서 중요하다.
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