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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

현대영미시연구검색

Studies in Modern British and American Poetry


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-138X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 9권 2호 (2003)

형식주의자로서 찰스 올슨(Charles Olson)의 시학연구

구자광 ( Gu Ja Gwang )
6,200
초록보기
Charles Olson`s main interest lies in form. Form as an extension of content cannot be one of subjectivism but one of objectism. Content determines form. The human subject is “an instrument”through which an extension of content is achieved. Content should be understood not as “mental furniture”but as “what was in the actual system that could manifest ‘itself’by whatever form was possible.”Form should be an instant extension of content here and now. But form cannot fully accommodate instant demands of content. It is subjected to archeological and methodological re-writing in that form never stops being another extension of so far undisclosed content. Form in poetics is not limited to a simple prosody. Form provides the subject with “a modality of being.”In poetics, the birth of an aesthetic being can be witnessed. There opens an aesthetic world over which aesthetic principles preside. Olson regards aesthetic methodology as “the discipline”to master reality. That is why Olson refers poetics as politics and elevates the poet to the position of “the boss of the kingdom.”Aestheticizing of politics introduces “small narratives”of aesthetic “Achievements”replacing “the grand narrative”based on the metaphysical ideas of “the Good and the Power.”In this aesthetic world, rather than phylogenetic arrangements through logic and classification, juxtaposition of ontogenic singularities is highly credited. Ontogenic generation of singularities are faithfully recorded through “COMPOSITION BY FIELD”which reflects space or place where singular lives are rooted. “Human landscape”is composed of innumerable disparate singular lives in space. It results from an application of ‘composition by field’to the real world. Aesthetic education can be done by the poet since the poet is “the only trusted pedagogue”who champions singularities to the utmost. It will be done case by case because no universal principle can be claimed in aesthetic education. In an aesthetic world, even ‘morality is implicit in form.’This morality is aesthetic morality preceding one based on the ideas of ‘the Good and the Power.’With the understanding of the ‘linguistic turn,’aesthetic morality works on the level of the signifier but the traditional morality of metaphysics does on the level of the signified. All above mentioned claims in terms of form, aesthetic world and place are confirmed with “3 in 1:tropos-typos-topos.”That is, tropos to content is embodied in typos as form and topos as spatial juxtaposition of forms. Tropos is another aspect of ethics and in form or type, aesthetics is exposed. Tropos-typos (aesthetic embodiment of ethics) are locally and temporally juxtaposed. ‘Human landscape’as an embodiment of ‘3 in 1: trope-typos-topos’is nothing but spatial juxtaposition of aesthetic embodiments or extensions of ethical demands of content.

현대 영미시의 물질성: 현대 시어의 공간성과 시간성 문제를 중심으로

권승혁 ( Kwon Seung Hyeog )
6,300
초록보기
In this paper I will examine the materiality of language in the twentieth-century poetry. Modernist poets imagine language and writing as matter to be shaped and formed for the senses as well as the intellect. With the aid of a typewriter, they are more acutely aware of the materiality of words, and incorporate the materiality of modern language into their poems, visually as well as acoustically. On the one hand, they reflect on the visual materiality of language and create a new visual aesthetic-the word as image or object on the page. On the other hand, they investigate the rhythmic or sound pattern, which is expressed in the visually arranged words, lines and stanzas. The material page of the visually arranged texts suggests that “the sight of 〔stanzas to see〕inflects the speaking voice, the listening ear”(Kenner, A Homemade World 58). On the basis of the typographcial disposition on the white page, which are intended to deliver its visual and acoustic meaning, I will attempt to give a new reading of Ezra Pound`s idiosyncratic presentation. As the spatialized musical score directs all aspects of vocal or instrumental sound, the spatial configuration of the typewritten texts indicates also the temporality of language. In other words, he attempted to harmonize his idiosyncratic lineation and line breaks and his vocal effects, especially duration of sound and silence. In this context, I am going to argue that Pound`s typographical dispositions are his arduous effort to reconnect the written words spatially locked on the page and the dynamic, multi-sensory, and multidimensional experience of oral performance.

『찰스 페기의 자선의 신비』: 진리는 불가사의

김양순 ( Kim Yang Sun )
6,900
초록보기
Geoffrey Hill`s The Mystery of the Charity of Charles Peguy(1983) shows an enormous advance, an extension of range and an increase of suppleness, over the style of his early poetry. Hill`s development in The Mystery can be regarded as a genuine growth of thought and of feeling. At the same time, The Mystery continues the main concerns in Hill`s earlier work, expecially the interests in history, in language and its use and development, and in the individual`s interaction with his/her society in relation to constraints pertaining to all these. This study aims to read The Mystery closely, and to reveal that The Mystery is a scrutiny of how history is commonly read or rather misread, since history is always represented by problematic language. The poem is mainly concerned with the ways in which we apprehend history, the acquisition of language and ideas in terms of social environment and landscape, responsibilities pertaining the use of language, and the problems of judgment and justice. The hundred quatrains of The Mystery are an artful patterning and lamentation of Peguy`s death, and a profound meditation on the artist`s responsibility. The extended lyrical meditation of the poem is again about the relationship between the facts of history, truth and language.

시의 톤(tone)의 번역

김용권 ( Kim Yong Gwon )
6,100
초록보기
The tone of a poem is indicative of the attitude of the speaker toward his/her reader, subject, or himself. The poet can modify the meaning of a poem through the subtle tonal variation which renders its tone serious, light, witty, dignified, playful, gay, sincere, grim, majestic, etc. This means that the proper understanding of a poem would be almost impossible of attainment without the exact grasp of its tone. Thus the misreading of the tone in the poetic translation inevitably leads to the mistranslation, which should be considered as a creation itself. This essay attempts to show how the tone of a poem can influence the poetic translation through some English translations of Chinese poems and English, Chinese, and Japanese ones of some Korean poems.

에밀리 디킨슨의 회의의 시학

양승호 ( Yang Seung Ho )
6,800
초록보기
Emily Dickinson is an assertive and determined poet whose retirement is a stance of attack, whose timidity is aggressive. In dealing with the questions of belief, her poetry leaves an impression of defiance rather than detachment and her denial of heaven and exploration of self suggest a modern existential point of view. Refusing the world of heaven in the light of that of self, she turns to the world of self and endeavors to explore the identity of self, but only to find its final destination is despair. With her poetic perception, she embarks on the private pilgrimage of an isolated soul to immortality and tries to grasp eternity from death`s bold exhibition. Having brought the soul at death to the brink of the incomprehensible, she remains poised at the boundary between the two worlds, continually attempting to define each in terms of the other. In this sense, she is the poet in whom modern consciousness become fully and lucidly conscious and articulate in poetry, in a coherent way of continuing exploration of human predicament.

파운드의 초기시에서의 전통과 실험

유정림 ( Yu Jeong Lim )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 2호, 2003 pp. 127-153 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
초록보기
Ezra Pound is a poet who founded the modernism of English poetry in the 1910s. In fact, many modernists were interested in searching for a new method of representing the psychological state of the modern man. While they wrote poetry in their own style and language, Pound decided to know about the art of poetry more than any other poet and explored the literary tradition for his poetry. He realized that old English and European literature proved to be far more valuable to him. In his early time Pound identified himself with symbolists such as the poets of the Pre-Raphealite brotherhood and W. B. Yeats. Many of his early poems reveal their influence, especially in aesthetic and pagan theme, image, and rhythm. He found that they represented the things objectively and specifically in their works and tried to get out of the vague expressions and images by their versification. Pound was also influenced by the Medieval poets such as Arnaut Daniel, Guido Cavalcanti, Bertran de Born, G. Dante, and Francios Villon who wrote poetry in the spirit of realism. They had what can be described as realistic spirit and their poetry was written from real life experiences. He employed their method to closely connect art with life. By translating their works, Pound imitated the poetic methods by which they revealed their vigorous emotion and pagan spirit. From Medieval poets, Pound learned the importance of language and metric forms. In addition, he practiced these methods for the modern poetry. His experiments with the multifarious resources from tradition have enabled him to from his modernist poetic theories.

파운드의 모더니스트 시학과 그 역설성

전홍실 ( Jeon Hong Sil )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 2호, 2003 pp. 155-183 ( 총 29 pages)
6,900
초록보기
Ezra Pound is well known to have been the leading founder of modernism in English poetry in the first half of the last century. Although he seems to have languished in the shadow of postmodernism, he has now a dominant tradition which is often called ‘a Pound tradition’ in modern American poetry. The purpose of this paper is to clarify what it is that makes Pound exert a lasting influence even in the postmodern age. Pound`s modernist poetics has the triangulate relation of the poet, the literary work, and the reader. First, the poet is an artist who aims at the scientific precision of his poetry, which is an artifact composed of images presented by the ideogrammic method or the presentative method. He never has the authority to obtrude his opinion, comment or explanation in the poetic process. Instead, he should be disciplined or depersonalized enough to maintain the artistic integrity or honesty which is prerequisite for the precision and objectivity of his poem A well-disciplined poet can only juxtapose poetic materials such as images, facts, of particulars without any logical connection or narrative continuity. In consequence, poetry has gaps or indeterminacy from the narrative discontinuity of paratactic structure. And readers are required to think about the leap in the gaps from the lack of the logical connection. As a co-creator, they cannot but mobilize their maximum available imagination and knowledge. Pound`s poetics is ultimately intended to arouse readers from their mental laziness induced by familiarity with the monolinear logic of the traditional narrative and make them take an active participation in operating the latent form of a poem. Readers should not expect to follow the logical conclusion of the poet, but observe poetic materials and think about them on their own. As a modernist, Pound paradoxically has proposed the open form which admits of subjectivity and relativism in reading a poem. He foresaw the role of the reader as emphasized in the postmodern age.

W. B. Yeats의 신비주의와 Daimonism의 미학탐구

조용해 ( Jo Yong Hae )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 2호, 2003 pp. 185-221 ( 총 37 pages)
7,700
초록보기
In Yeats`s poems, the existence of Daimon was a great source, a medium of the creation, and a great fruit of his creation, though the poet recognized them as poetic expressions or as highly poetic allegories. So, the Daimon seemed to be a mentally projected Self-consciousness. Yeats, in trying to gain support for a Daimonic system in his philosophy, researched the Brahmanism, mysticism, spiritualism and occultism through the Upanishads of India. In his search for an ultimate reality, he studied the Veda and Tantra as well. As a result of his research, he made a Daimonic system through Hesiod, Heraclitus, Empedocles, and N대-Platonists, ultimately deciding to follow the Romantic Daimonism. When Yeats had said to give up all worldly knowledge, all ambition, and to do nothing of one`s own will, it meant that he could reach the spiritual reality, which is the object of all artists. So Yeats`s Daimon is a powerful and internalized spirit. What he wanted to transmit with this concentration was a wpiritual existence. He took a role in his physical drama and he called it the Daimon from the Daimon`s works. Daimon was a symbol of perfection and a visionalized passion of unconsciousness, which grew out of the microcosm and the natural consciousness. The main function was Anima Mundi or Collective Unconsciousness, which connects the past experiences and the person, the racial instinct, and the racial history of the people. Yeats, who recognized deeply this, called this Daimon as a ‘great self’ of ‘Gostly Self’. This ‘great self’ was on apposite to the ego, an ego of consciousness. Yeats called the Daimon such as ‘unconsciousness’, ‘unconscious mind’, ‘Great Memory’, ‘Anima Mundi’, ‘Thirteenth Cone’, and ‘Thirteen Sphere’ because he thought that this is a psychological underlayer what is called Collective Unconsciousness by Jung. Yeats thought that Unconsciousness was the source of the inspiration to himself. He thought that it is the poet`s responsibility to express what the Collective Unconsciousness says. Therefore, he believed that the artist has to play the role of Daimon and tried to translate all of the spiritual languages for the ordinary people, for the Daimon uses symbols and images, heard through dreams or epiphanies, which only occultists can understand. So with the Unity of Being between occultism and art, Daimon was a creative source itself and Yeats made great works through the Daimon.

토마스 하디의 『1912-13년의 시』에 나타난 과거와 현재의 이야기

허정자 ( Heo Jeong Ja )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 2호, 2003 pp. 223-252 ( 총 30 pages)
7,000
초록보기
Thomas Hardy as a poet wrote mature lyric poetry, Poems of 1912-13, which has been called poems of mourning or an ‘expiation’to escape in imagination and memory from the grim reality of his wife, Emma`s death. In these 21 elegies in Satires of Circumstance(1914), Hardy told us stories of past and present, recalling the different phases of their 40 years of married life, the happy years of their courtship and early marriage as well as the later painful period of estrangement between them which he didn`t solve positively, like “traces of an ancient flame”. In this process of the quest for the woman he once loved, starting with opening cry of Emma`s death in “The Going”, he remembered her revisiting old haunts such as Dorcet of Cornwall in “I Found Her Out There”, “The Voice”, “After a Journey”, “Beeny Cliff”, “At Castle Boterel”, and experienced sudden ecstasy of recapturing joy in “The Phantom Horsewoman”, but finally ended with his own acceptance of anguish of loss with the full understanding of past and present. Poems of 1912-13 can be regarded as Hardy`s superb personal love poems. But he gives to these poems what is called the impersonality of great art, which makes his personal marital bitterness be placed in the larger perspective of common human experience.

영문논문 : 예이츠의 개인신화로서의 『환영의 바다』

이세순 ( Lee Se Sun )
한국현대영미시학회|현대영미시연구  9권 2호, 2003 pp. 253-281 ( 총 29 pages)
6,900
초록보기
에이츠의 『환영의 바다』는 단막으로 된 장편 시극으로, 표면상 사호 변신을 통해서만이 실현될 수 있는 훠겔과 멕토라라는 두 연인들 사이의 초자연적인 사랑을 묘사하고 있다. 그리고, 그 분위기는 제목이 암시하고 있듯이 매우 몽상적이고 마법적이며 초자연적이다. 그러나, 예이츠의 자전적 성격이 짙은 이 시극은 장편 설화시 『어수니의 방랑』 등과 마찬가지로, 고대 아일랜드의 신화적 인물들을 통해서 예이츠 자신의 실제의 삶과 모드 곤과의 짝사랑을 적나라하게 표출한 개인신화라고 할 수 있다. 그리고, 다른 설화시나 시극과는 달리 뚜렷한 원전 없이 쓰였을 뿐만 아니라 신화의 특징인 객관성과 일반성을 지니고 있다는 점에서, 이 작품은 예이츠의 한층 성숙된 개인신화 창조의 솜씨를 보여주는 것으로 평가된다. 이 시극의 최종 공연본은 1911년에 나왔지만, 예이츠가 이 작품을 쓰기 시작한 것은 그가 억제하기 힘든 성적 욕구로 고통받고 곤에게 당한 실연으로 실의에 빠졌던 1880년대 후반이었다. 그리고, 예이츠는 무려 26년여에 걸쳐 부단히 이 작품을 수정하면서, 이루어질 수 없는 곤의 사랑이 그의 삶과 시에 끼친 영향을 빠짐없이 기록해 놓았다. 즉, 신화의 형식을 빌어 쓴 이 작품 속에는 끊임없이 변화하는 곤에 대한 예이츠 자신의 사랑과 증오의 감정이 그대로 투영되어 있다. 따라서, 복잡한 갈증구조와 다소 애매한 신화적 상징의 사용으로 인하여 이 작품이 난해하지만, 곤과 관련된 시인 자신의 자전적 사실의 개인신화라는 측면에서 보면 수수께끼 같은 의미가 쉽게 파악될 수 있을 것이다.
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