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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

구비문학연구검색

Journal of Korean Oral Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 국문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1229-019X
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 12권 0호 (2001)
12,000
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The narrative structure of ‘wonhon(寃魂) ghost tales’ can be explained to have the appearance of the ghost figures and its destruction, which have been considered as ‘gyulone(結寃)' which means unresolved problems remained knotted and 'hewon(解寃)’ which the problems finally resolved. One of the characteristics found in the descriptions of the ghost figures is that they have the intention to represent the problematic situation of the ghosts as vivid as possible by using every senses of seeing, hearing and touching. The 'wonhon ghost tales', therefore, are structured in such ways as the ghost figures could be represented as vivid as you see them in your eyes. The descriptive figures help the story tellers' rememberance through association as well as enhance the listeners' interests in the stories they're listening to. The figures of ghosts will be impressed in listeners' minds as certain images while they are listening. Through the process, the figures of the ghosts described in the tales have been culturally conventionalized and have acquired a few common features to become a universal representation. In ‘Arang type tales', the figures change from a virgin to a ghost with a passionate longing unfulfilled, a butterfly, a living corpse and a dissolved corpse, representing the inner state of the ghosts and the changes of the real situations the ghosts are under. But the ghost figures described in 'bride type tales' appear as a bride to a bride with a passionate longing uncompleted and a dissolved corpse. The images of the figures are so strong that they are easily carved in listeners' minds as some fixed unchanging images regardless of the change of time. One of the principles found in the description of the ghost figures is their denial of time. This characteristic which might be called a denial to physical time are especially effective for their economic and symbolical description of the psychological areas representing the ghosts' consciousness. The appearance of vivid images of the ghost figures and their disappearance are the images for the opposite situations of the ghosts in which their unresolved problems still remain and they are finally resolved. The time and space in which ghost figures appear are usually considered the areas beyond daily life and on the borderline of this and that world, which exactly match with the ghosts' existential positions. The description of ghost figures, which always try to rehabilitate the ghosts' problematic situations, emphasizes their visual images. As the result, the ghost tales have acquired such characteristics as image-centered narrative structure, strongly sympathetic ability based on the conventional concept of the ghosts and highly descriptive quality to summon the real problematic situations. This is why ‘wonhon(寃魂) ghost tales’ are so frequently recreated in visual art forms like films.

시베리아 오로치족의 신화와 신앙에 대한 연구

곽진석 ( Kwak Jin-suk )
한국구비문학회|구비문학연구  12권 0호, 2001 pp. 47-83 ( 총 37 pages)
7,700
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Some patterns of Orochian myths tell about the creation or appearance of the earth, the creation of human beings and the control of the extra suns and moons. These patterns can be included in the category of Creation myth, and they show there is any similarity with Korean Creation myth. There are also some Orochian totemic myth which show what they think about the relatives of animals. Within this patterns of myths bears and tigers are worshiped as their ancestors. Orochian traditional belief is shamanism. Therefore they believe in the absolute powers from a shaman and took it for granted that he can control them. A shaman performs ceremonies, using many various sorts of tools such as drums, crowns, spears, canes and etc. These ceremonies, which can be devied into initiatory ceremony, hunting ceremony, healing ceremony, ceremony to convoy soul to the Underworld, and ceremony to thank helping spirit or guarding spirit, are thought to be related to ones which are carried out in Korean shamanism. According to Orochian view of universe, soul, and disease, they think that people can live in the Underworld, which is directed by good and evil. This thought makes this tribe believe that after they die, their soul are sent to another world, and can achive immortality. When the soul of the dead can't go to the Underworld, a shaman can lead them to the Underworld by performing some ceremonies. Their view of the disease show that they have the belief that the disease should be caused by evil spirits, who steal people's soul and occupy their body. Orochian beliefs in universe, soul and disease have some similarity with thoughts within Korean shamanism.

동북아 창조신화와 양성원리

김재용 ( Kim Jae-yong )
한국구비문학회|구비문학연구  12권 0호, 2001 pp. 85-117 ( 총 33 pages)
7,300
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This paper aims at comprehending and discussing the male/female principle of creation myths apparent in the Manchurian, the Evenk, and the Korean. In Manchurian creation myths, the creator names Abuca, the supreme goddess, who was born out of the water. She creates a universe, mankind, and other things together with her two sisters, Banamu and Warudu. On its way, God does not appear. In Evenk creation myths, the creator is god. In the midst of the creative process appears the female who is symbolically imaged. The creation accordingly suggests the union of both sexes. In Korean creation myths, there is no goddess. In 'the song of creation,' god opens the universe by separating the sky from the earth. But except the universe creation, god appears as a controller rather than a creator. He prays the sky, and gets five golden insects and five silver ones. He brings up ten insects, which respectively turn into men and women. It represents the superiority of the male over the female in the birth of a child. As a consequence, in Korean creation myth, the goddess absolutely kept out. The Flood makes an epoch. After the Flood, the supreme goddess names Abuca withdraws from the throne in the Manchurian creation myth. On the contrary, the male god calls Abuca-eunduri ascends the throne of gods and goddesses. This mythical evolution may anticipate the transition from the maternal society to the paternal one. The view on the creative role of goddess for the birth of a child was modified. Thus, the union of both sexes gives birth to children. In Korean myths, a man and a woman who had rescued during the Flood united and gave birth to children. Although the goddess has presided over the creation myths, she grew weaker and weaker in the myths of later periods. In myths of founding country, goddess surrenders to god. Although the goddess hands over the supreme position to the god, she has a sacred diety. To be sure, in the myth of founding Koguryo, Euwha, the mother of Jumong who had built up the Koguryo empire, was regarded as an agriculture goddess. During the period of replacing both sexes, we can easily find some struggles between two sexes. According to Korean myths, the male excels the female among these struggles. In the folktale, the female has no enough ability to change the world. To illustrate, the folktale treating siblings who become the sun and the moon clearly shows that the female has no power and wisdom to get through the crises.

동(東)아시아의 창세신화(創世神話) 연구(硏究) ― 만족·몽골·한국 창세신화의 양상과 변천 ―

박종성 ( Park Jong-seong )
한국구비문학회|구비문학연구  12권 0호, 2001 pp. 119-165 ( 총 47 pages)
12,200
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This study aims to examine the diverging aspects of the God of creation's role in Creation myth, in respect to the analysis of the transmitting aspects of the creating mankind, sun-moon and heaven-earth. The first noticeable result indicates that the highest God of creation were diverged into the God of creation in higher grade, God of creation in lower grade and the mankind created by the highest God of creation. Because various versions of Creation myth are singly transmitted, on the other hand organically correlated to each other, it can be assumed that a man and woman creating mankind, sun and moon in Creation myths has referance to the mankind created by the highest God of creation, putting various versions of Creation myth together and from diachronic point of view. The second noticeable result indicated that the three Gods system is revealed in Creation myths of Korea, Manch, Mongol. Then I think that it was ascertained that a ranks of the God could be commonly established in three nations. Extending the point of an argument, it can be assumed that the context of various versions of Creation myth is established from diachronic point of view in three nations.

韓·中 城隍說話 比較 硏究

손지봉 ( Son Ji-bong )
한국구비문학회|구비문학연구  12권 0호, 2001 pp. 167-201 ( 총 35 pages)
7,500
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This thesis is a study on the folk tales about Sunghwangs that exist in China and Korea.Sungwhang gods have been tutelary gods protecting a castle. In China Sunghwangs trace as far back as to Oh dynasty in the Three Kingdom Period and had been worshiped across the nation in the Tang, Song, Won and Ming dinasties. The Sungwhwang gods were introduced to the Korean peninsula before 996 A.D., the 15TH year of Kong Sung Jongs reign.On the peninsula, Sunghwangs, which were invested with titles of nobility and then became the object of national worship services, were enshrined.They have become the unofficial object of worship services along with Chongsa, piled-up stones, that were considered to protect travelers in king Songjongs reign in Chosun dynasty. Since that period, Suhnang and Sunghwang have been used so interchangeably in various forms, such as piled-up stones, shrines, and god-trees that Suhnang has replaced Sunghwang as an official name and piled-up stones are considered the authentic form of Sunghwang.Sunghwang folk tales are responsible for these changes.This paper compares Chinese folk tales with Korean ones in terms of origin, deity, acts of Sunghwang gods, function of Sunghwang and the relationship between the government and the people.Following are the summary of that. First, as the deity of Sunghwang assumed the form of piled-up stones, folk-tales of Sunghwangs location have become spread nationwide, while in China, there have been many folk-tales of the number of Sunghwang tombs. Second, the deity of Sunghwang often originated from an honest provincial public official in Chinese folk tales, while in Korea it often turned into a malignant spirit from a progenitor of a local family. Third, with regard to the acts of the deity, Korean Sunghwangs punish the proud and protect the docile, while Chinese counterparts degenerated into greedy and stupid beings from their original character as one to punish evil spirits. Fourth, in terms of its function, Sunghwang provided a shelter to a traveler as well as a place for worship, Chinese Sunghwang served as a tribunal just like a government office. Fifth, Korean Sunghwang represented a goodwill between the government and the people, Chinese Sunghwang later became an object of derision after it became alienated from the general public. However, both Sunghwangs have something in common. That is they contributed to the unity of communities by moving the Sunghwang faith from the government control to public self-practice. In China, Sunghwhangs this transition of deity took place as Sunghwangs were defiled and new folk tales glorifying the superiority of people sprang up, whereas in Korea the transition came as the deity gave way to the mortified malignant spirits. Chinese Sunghwang folktales, after being introduced into Korea, were localized in Korea during the Korea dynasty and in Chosun dynasty they in most cases, assumed the form of piled-up stones.

한국장군설화의 통시적 연구

오세길 ( Oh Se-gil )
한국구비문학회|구비문학연구  12권 0호, 2001 pp. 203-229 ( 총 27 pages)
6,700
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The object of this dissertation is to set up “Korean General Tales” as a genre and, clarifying the various transmitted appearances and the meanings and principles of “Korean General Tales”, to examine the status and significance of “Korean General Tales” in the history of Korean narrative literature. “Korean General Tale” is ‘a narrative story of the real general who played an active part historically.’ This definition can make it differences from Commander(장수) Tales and Heroic Novel, and establish it as an original type that it is a story of the real general. The narrative structure of “Korean General Tales” has some connection with the birthmyth of a nation, especially Ju-Mong(주몽) myth, and seems also to be related with Dan-Gun(단군) myth. However, whereas Ju-Mong myth is intended to describe that Ju-Mong has the ability and inevitable duty to build up Kogurya(고구려), Kim You-Shin's tale reflects just that he is the personage to achieve the great work of unification of three nations. These different purposes had an influence only upon forming both of heroes' stories narratively, and the community that they were the best heroes of their ages basically caused both of stories to have the same narrative structures. In the study of the varied transmitting of “Korean General Tales”, it was examined that generally “Korean General Tales” had been changed and developed from the narrative structure with mythical order emphasizing the extraordinary mystery, to gradually the narrative structure with reasonable order.

제주도 큰굿내의 신화에 나타난 가족구성상의 특징과 의의

이수자 ( Lee Soo-ja )
한국구비문학회|구비문학연구  12권 0호, 2001 pp. 231-256 ( 총 26 pages)
6,600
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Kunkut of Cheju Island and its myths are fairly old cultural assets. This study has been done to find out the characteristics and meanings in family structure in myths. There are myths in Kunkut of Cheju Island such as : Bepodoupchim, Sengbulhalmang-bonpuli, Chokong-bonpuli, Ikong-bonpuli, Samkong-bonpuli, kanglim-bonpuli, Mengkam-bonpuli, Sekyoung-bonpuli, Chilsung-bonpuli, Munjun-bonpuli, etc. As for the characteristics in the family structure, the attention to the children is centered to twins, only daughter and youngest one. Throughout generations, heaven-father and earth-mother, old man and wife praying for having a son, women sufferings due to giving birth and upbringing, looking for fathers by sons born without them, troubles between wife and lover or between step mother and former wife's son, marriage between human being and animal, respect to old skull. The myths were abundant in the ancient times but there is no way to be brought those myths back to life. As an example, the centered attention to the youngest child plays a key role in pursuit of those myths of ancient times. The story of Gurungdungdungsinsunbi, which is about snake and, at the same time, Jang Ja family's youngest daughter has most important role, has something in common with myths in Kunkut of Cheju Island. Therefore, this story could have been one of those lost myths of ancient times. From this point of view, the fact that Hwanwoong was the illegitimate son of Hwan-In in Dankun myth could be related to the social tendency of the ancient times in which more importance was given to the youngest child than to the first one.

구비설화(口碑說話)에 나타난 여성의 ‘성적(性的) 주체성(主體性)’ 문제

이인경 ( Lee In-gyung )
한국구비문학회|구비문학연구  12권 0호, 2001 pp. 257-278 ( 총 22 pages)
6,200
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This paper researches the subjects of women's sexual-subjecthood and sexual self-determinism presented in folktales. The research is focused on the issues of the husbands' sexual dominance towards their wives, and social pressure toward the widows presented in folktales. The folktales, reviewed in this research, present that the woman's sex life was dominated completely by her husband's desire and intention. In other words, the folktales show the absurdity or irrationality of sexual abuse generated by a husband's sexual dominance, and the fact that a woman's sex becomes the means for the husband's benefit. Also these folktales present that the traditional society controlled women's sex life through dual ethnic standards of both sexes. In any folktales, a woman character was always placed at the disadvantaged situation, such as that she had to endure her self-desire completely, or she had to face the opposite situation against her own desire. This research does not intend to simply report that a woman's sexual independence was suppressed in the traditional society. This paper rather concentrates on motivating our interests in a woman's self-determinism, which are usually overlooked in the process of interpreting literature works.
7,900
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This article is to understand and discuss the mythic pattern and motif based on the myths in the North-eastern Asia, especially Korea, Tibet, Manchuria, and Mongolia. Suppose human being first comes out of the founding myth and the creation one. Thus, this study deals with how the several mythic motifs repeatedly come to appear and fit together in these myths. It concludes that four mythic patterns to explicate the origin of mankind represent: the creation myth made by God; the reproduction by the male and female; the advent from the Heaven; and the movement around the earth. The creation by God and the advent from the Heaven share the similar mythic patterns with the founding myth and creation one in Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, and Korea. But they show the relatively different figuration. To illustrate, in the myths of Tibet and those of Koguryo and Tangun, the founding father of Korea, the progenitor generally appears as god or his son. On the other hand, the progenitor respectively seems to be the fox or the hawk in Mongolia myth, and 'the red fruit taken by the wise bird' in Manchuria myth. The fact that the progenitor derived from the male images projects the superior male power in the process of the reproduction. It also reveals the origin myth based on the creation and reproduction myth. The myths in Tibet include the creative motifs and the other motifs dealt with the advent from the Heaven. Furthermore, they accept even the movement in the earth in that the progenitor gave a birth out of the marriage and the struggle between the princes. In this process, the progenitor himself experiences the ceremony of descending from the heaven. In Mongolia and Manchuria myths, it appears much more mythic motifs in relation with the women's fertility than in Tibet myths. It can be shown in the myths of Koguryo, Koryo, and the Chosun dynasty. These myths all stress the women's fertility. For example, the female progenitor in Mongolia can be seen in 'the traces of urination.' In Manchria, she figures as the goddess bathing in the lake. The daughter of the progenitor in Koguryo and the royal women in Koryo may be the successors of this fertility. In the folk tale, Lee, Sung-Kye, the father of the Chosun dynasty, also unites with this fertile woman. These myths accept the creation motif from the union of the male and female, and put emphasis on the women's fertility. On the other hand, these myths simultaneously include the varied mythic motifs. To be sure, the progenitor descended from the heaven or his descendants keep on crossing the river. After this movement, they marry the fertile woman. It appears that the woman also unites with the man shaped as 'god' or 'the white light' or 'the hawk,' and gives birth to a child. The creation myth and the advent from the heaven bring out the mysterious mythic elements, while the reproduction myth and the movement around the earth provide the concrete mythic recognition and the fertility. The repetitive and organic unity of varied mythic motifs resists the simple pattern of ideas, and suggests the synthetic thinking pattern. Therefore, the founding myth transcends all the time and the space. The founding myth is regarded as an organic unity by means of the stylistic techniques like parallel and repetition, not as a divided motif. Finally, it remains that to develop this study, it is necessary to get the materials spread out in the minor tribes of Manchuria and in Japan, reading the folk tales in the Ch'ing dynasty.

설화에 나타난 여성주의다운 상상력 읽기와 민중의 여성인식

임재해 ( Lim Jae-hae )
한국구비문학회|구비문학연구  12권 0호, 2001 pp. 319-362 ( 총 44 pages)
11,900
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The feministic imaginative power embedded in folk-narratives is well represented at the three points centered on man's power, namely, the 'power' as a his muscular strength, the 'sex' as a manly desire and the 'writings' as a his authority. The male's matters are not limited in those and also the pursuit of feministic living is not limited at solving those, but those three points, in fact, are most essences of female's power extension against the male's. So that we can apprehend the feministic consciousness challenging and overcoming male's power through folk-narratives. The folk's feministic perceptions to female in folk-narratives are as follows; First, it make it possible to control, refine, help fairly productive usage the male's strength just like working as biological and innate. Second, it transforms a sex of living as the oppression of male's sex regarded as the assurance of ethical what should be. Third, it make the male's false knowledge priding like monopoly acquirement illuminate and make it possible to have a chance of acquirement of human inspiration. So that we are to notice that the folk's feministic perception of female essentially catches that the biological superiority, the ethical legitimacy, and the cultural authority as well as resists, criticize, break down and make those useful to the feminism and transforms co-enjoying life activity. According to the Harbermas's viewpoint recognizing objects depends on an interest, the study departed from emancipatory viewpoint so that will attach importance to the critic recognition and method. Thus it interprets folk-narratives from the feministic viewpoint but does not orient the feminism, and pursues female emancipation, extremely orients human emancipation not limited in the female. The feminism on breaking down improper male's power acquires the female's power but, in fact, must rescue males from the fetters of their power. So the true feminism does not transform male's power as female's power but humanize all male and female.
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