This article is to understand and discuss the mythic pattern and motif based on the myths in the North-eastern Asia, especially Korea, Tibet, Manchuria, and Mongolia. Suppose human being first comes out of the founding myth and the creation one. Thus, this study deals with how the several mythic motifs repeatedly come to appear and fit together in these myths. It concludes that four mythic patterns to explicate the origin of mankind represent: the creation myth made by God; the reproduction by the male and female; the advent from the Heaven; and the movement around the earth.
The creation by God and the advent from the Heaven share the similar mythic patterns with the founding myth and creation one in Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, and Korea. But they show the relatively different figuration. To illustrate, in the myths of Tibet and those of Koguryo and Tangun, the founding father of Korea, the progenitor generally appears as god or his son. On the other hand, the progenitor respectively seems to be the fox or the hawk in Mongolia myth, and 'the red fruit taken by the wise bird' in Manchuria myth. The fact that the progenitor derived from the male images projects the superior male power in the process of the reproduction. It also reveals the origin myth based on the creation and reproduction myth.
The myths in Tibet include the creative motifs and the other motifs dealt with the advent from the Heaven. Furthermore, they accept even the movement in the earth in that the progenitor gave a birth out of the marriage and the struggle between the princes. In this process, the progenitor himself experiences the ceremony of descending from the heaven.
In Mongolia and Manchuria myths, it appears much more mythic motifs in relation with the women's fertility than in Tibet myths. It can be shown in the myths of Koguryo, Koryo, and the Chosun dynasty. These myths all stress the women's fertility. For example, the female progenitor in Mongolia can be seen in 'the traces of urination.' In Manchria, she figures as the goddess bathing in the lake. The daughter of the progenitor in Koguryo and the royal women in Koryo may be the successors of this fertility. In the folk tale, Lee, Sung-Kye, the father of the Chosun dynasty, also unites with this fertile woman. These myths accept the creation motif from the union of the male and female, and put emphasis on the women's fertility.
On the other hand, these myths simultaneously include the varied mythic motifs. To be sure, the progenitor descended from the heaven or his descendants keep on crossing the river. After this movement, they marry the fertile woman. It appears that the woman also unites with the man shaped as 'god' or 'the white light' or 'the hawk,' and gives birth to a child. The creation myth and the advent from the heaven bring out the mysterious mythic elements, while the reproduction myth and the movement around the earth provide the concrete mythic recognition and the fertility.
The repetitive and organic unity of varied mythic motifs resists the simple pattern of ideas, and suggests the synthetic thinking pattern. Therefore, the founding myth transcends all the time and the space. The founding myth is regarded as an organic unity by means of the stylistic techniques like parallel and repetition, not as a divided motif.
Finally, it remains that to develop this study, it is necessary to get the materials spread out in the minor tribes of Manchuria and in Japan, reading the folk tales in the Ch'ing dynasty.