The purpose of this study is to examine what the motif of birthplace means has with the background of nature, rural and urban areas, in poems of Esenin renowned for a Russian rural poet and Oh Jang-whan , South Korean poet gone to North Korea. Oh Jang-whan was the poet that translated and published Esenin`s Collection of Poems(1946), and stayed in the Soviet Union for one year to treat his illness. Oh Jang-whan aggressively introduced Esenin to the domestic poetry and creatively transfigured Esenin`s aesthetic to his own poems, accepting it. These facts are the reason of the need for a comparative literary study with Esenin in terms of researching Oh`s world of poems. Both of them were holding the same poetic characteristic such as sorrow, resentment, poverty, disobedience to a mother and a moral sense of uneasiness, nature-admiration and the consciousness of wanderer as a prodigal son, nostalgia for the past and pastoral recovery of birthplace. In particular, they made an effort to come true their own dream of constructing an rural communist paradise through class revolution. For Esenin, Birthplace is the object of keeping the rural area of Russia from being devastated by disorder of modern industrial society, and appears his own spiritual relief to which he returned after being disappointed at Bolsheviki revolution. However, a pastoral poem about birthplace and nature with Esenin`s innocent affection, contains more active meaning of realizing the ideal of rural area than having hostility to urban civilization. On the other hand, the motive for Esenin to have the consciousness of birthplace comes from criticizing modern civilization. Furthermore, he shows his recognition of reality, in the way of regarding hope as the consciousness of returning birthplace. Birthplace in terms of Oh`s protagonist, is related to the criticism of urban civilization and is being the medium of him to recover identification of disrupted ego in the modern life. Birthplace, for Esenin, is related to the shape of a mother, and a family is inseparably related to it. The reason that home occurs to Esenin is, because it is the relief where he often wants to escape from a society inflicting a pain on him. For Esenin, the mother is appeared to be the salvation, consolation and the existence like sunlight. For Oh Jang-whan, the shape of a mother is also identical to poor home, and is related to more lyric sorrow and comfortableness. Protagonist overcomes sorrow and despair through meeting with his mother, and dreams of resurrection. Esenin made use of the shape of an animal to satire social contradiction of narrow-minded human society. The social contradiction frequently appears as the changed image of totalitarian Russian farmers and home folks unilaterally who have been forced to sacrifice, and it contains his naturalistic humanity with brotherly love of all living things. Instead, Oh Jang-whan took lyric effect utilizing the shape of an animal as a messenger to send elements associated with nostalgic birthplace and homecoming or his sorrow. An animal`s roaring shows up as a symbol of loneliness and nostalgia wandering about with leaving birthplace. However, he showed his change that he intended to hint the exploited people`s situation advocating proletarian`s revolution after liberation of Korea in 1945. Overall, we can find the fact that the poetic world of both poets seems to be similar, and Korean lyricism is being more affluently expressed in Oh Jang-whan`s space of birthplace.