Having begun with memorial service for Dionysus in the 6th century B.C. in ancient Athens, theater has developed in different forms in different countries through the Middle Ages to the present day. Of the forms, mask plays are still performed as festival or performance plays in almost all countries across the world. In Korea, a mask play is called “Talchum.” “Tal” and “chum” mean “mask” and “dance” respectively. Today, Talchum encompasses all the traditional mask plays. To the 1970s, “Gamyeongeuk” was used as an academic term. Currently, both Talchum and Gamyeongeuk are used without distinction. Of three elements, i.e. mask, dance and theater, the term Talchum emphasizes the first and second, but also includes the third. Originally, only the mask dance in Hwanghae-do [province] was called Talchum and those in other regions were referred to as Sandaenori, Deulnoreum, Ogwangdae etc. In Hungary, mask plays are performed during the “Farsang,” a form of carnival. The Hungarian “Farsang” is a word derived from the German “Fasching” and its Austrian and Bavarian dialect “Vaschung.” Hungarian mask plays are different from Korean Talchum standardized as a genre of folk art. Unlike Talchum, they have no separate professional dancer or performer. Masks are stressed in Talchum, while costumes are stressed in addition to masks in Hungarian mask plays. Talchum has established itself as a form of performance art, whereas Hungarian mask plays are part of Farsang rather than a form of performance art. Despite such differences, Hungarian mask plays can be incorporated into mask plays, like Korean Talchum in that they use masks, show acts and communicate dialogues to participants. The present study is aimed to compare the mask plays between Korea and Hungary founded by the Magyar from Asia. Though about one thousand years have passed since the Hungarians settled in Europe in 896, this study is in tended to look into the common and different points between the two people rooted in Asia, using the genre of a mask play. This is because such comparison will help understand the identities and cultures of the both peoples. Korean and Hungarian mask plays are considerably different from each other in form and content despite the commonness that the both peoples are Asian ones. The Korean Talchum, one of drama genres, has established itself as an important performance art. On the contrary, the Hungarian Farsang mask play is performed as part of Lent, a Christian event. Therefore, it is part of Lent festivity rather than an independent art genre. Korean masks contain various expressions according to characters, while Hungarian masks do not have expressions as fine as Korean ones. Though different from each other in form and content, the both mask plays have something common in human universal emotion and Weltanschauung.