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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

언어연구검색

LINGUISTIC RESEARCH


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 언어학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : - / SCOPUS
  • - ISSN : 1229-1374
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 31권 3호 (2014)

Heritage bilingual talkers do not exhibit an intelligibility penalty in either language

( Robert Daland ) , ( Mi Ra Oh )
7,800
초록보기
Some speakers have clearer voices than others. In the present study, we investigate whether early bilingualism has systematic repercussions for talker clarity, using a group of Korean-American heritage bilingual talkers, as well as American and Korean (near-)monolinguals. American monolinguals and the bilinguals produced English sentences, which were mixed with white noise at two signal-to-noise ratios and presented to native English listeners. Korean monolinguals and the same bilinguals produced Korean sentences, which were presented to native Korean listeners. In English, there was no monolingual/bilingual difference in talker clarity. In Korean, bilingual talkers were more clear than monolinguals. Post hoc investigation showed that Korean American bilinguals produced the Korean stimuli more slowly than monolinguals, explaining part of the bilingual advantage. Taken together, these results suggest that early bilingual exposure does not cause a talker clarity deficit, in either language.

Native and non-native talkers` mutual speech intelligibility of English focus sentences

( Joo Kyeong Lee )
6,300
초록보기
This study investigates English L1 and L2 talkers` mutual intelligibility of focus speech. Speech intelligibility of non-native talkers by native listeners has been much examined in L2 studies, but L1 talkers` intelligibility for L2 listeners is relatively less highlighted although the success of speech communication between natives and non-natives depends on mutual comprehension. Therefore, both native and non-native talkers` mutual intelligibility is investigated in the identification tasks of focal prominence, Two perception experiments were conducted to measure Korean talkers` intelligibility of focus intonation for native listeners and similarly native talkers` intelligibility of the same stimuli for Korean listeners. Non-native Korean talkers and listeners` proficiency and focus type were varied. Listeners` accuracy and reaction time were measured, and all the data were statistically analyzed. Results showed that native listeners were more accurate at identifying broad and narrow focus sentences than contrastive focus ones, but that their reaction time was significantly more prompt to narrow focus stimuli than broad and contrastive focus stimuli. This suggests that Korean talkers are the most intelligible for narrow focus, next broad focus and the least intelligible for contrastive focus. Native talkers` intelligibility, on the other hand, did not seem to be affected by Korean listeners` proficiency or focus type. Both non-native Korean and native talkers were highly to moderately intelligible unlike segment intelligibility. This might be attributed to the fact that the listeners took advantage of top-down processing, utilizing contextual cues available in a whole sentence.

Quantifying English fluency in Korean speakers` read-aloud and picture-cued storytelling speech

( Yong Eun Lee )
6,600
초록보기
Previous studies of quantifying oral proficiency of Korean learners of English have demonstrated that temporal aspects of the learners` speech (e.g., ``rate of speech``) are strongly correlated with their perceived fluency evaluated by native English-speaking raters (Choi, 2004; 2005). However, these results have been primarily based on speech elicited from contexts where Korean learners of English were asked to read simple passages or orally complete partial dialogues presented in written forms. The current study investigated whether and to what extent the previously reported findings can be generalized to different speech contexts, i.e., particularly to a more spontaneous speech. To this end, this study elicited picture-cued storytelling utterances produced by Korean learners of English and compared the results from the more spontaneous speech with the comparable results from read speech by the same speakers. The current findings indicate that perceived fluency of Korean speakers` speech can vary as a function of the modalities in which their speech produced. In addition to the types of task that the Korean speakers carried out, the present findings also show that the protocols/instructions by which the speech materials are elicited can also influence perceived fluency. Implications of the findings for objective assessments of oral fluency of Korean learners of English are discussed.

A representational system of idiomatic constructions: For the building of computational resources

( Hee Rahk Chae )
6,800
초록보기
We will provide a theory/platform-neutral framework for representing idiomatic expressions. Previous analyses on idioms, including those for some systems implemented on the basis of specific theories and platforms, are not flexible enough to deal with the gradational nature of syntactic and semantic anomalies of idioms, and/or are not explicit enough to be useful in natural language processing. We will overcome these problems by introducing some theory-neutral notational mechanisms, which apply to regular phrases, to capture the peculiarities of idioms. The present framework will become a very useful guide in building effective computational resources for a variety of languages, although we are focusing on the analysis of English and Korean idioms. One of the strong points of our approach is that we can formalize precisely the properties of potentially numerous different types of idioms, which is possible because we are using regular phrases built from phrase structure rules to represent the peculiarities of idiomatic expressions. The resulting resources will enhance the parsing accuracy and speed significantly, and will play an important role in disambiguation.

The SKT construction in English: A corpus-based perspective

( Jong Bok Kim ) , ( Ge Soon Moon )
6,100
초록보기
The so-called SKT constructions in English involve sort of, kind of and type of. This paper looks into the grammatical properties of the constructions and discusses their four main uses: referential, qualifier, adnominal, and adverbial. Based on a corpus-based research of the constructions, the paper first reviews the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties of these four uses and then discusses the properties shared among these four uses as well as the distinctive properties of each use. It also offers a construction-based view in accounting for how the mapping relations between form and functions in the SKT constructions have been changed in the present day of American English.
6,700
초록보기
This paper explores a corpus-driven approach to studying the phraseological patterns of adjectives and nouns using data and methods from corpus linguistics. The rationale behind this approach is the strong resonance between how the meanings of adjectives have been defined and a major claim proposed in corpus linguistics; the meaning of a lexical item is typically defined both by its inherent lexical content and its relation to any accompanying words. For the analysis, the four most frequent English adjectives and their most recurrent noun collocates were chosen from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (coca.byu.edu/coca). The data are new/book, good/news, old/friend and high/levels. The occurrences of the six different phraseological patterns of each pair were counted and the internal structures of each pattern were examined. Then, the concordance lines containing the two words were analyzed to determine how the words are related semantically and structurally. The analysis reveals that the noun phrase consisting of an adjective and its noun collocate is the canonical form throughout the four collocations. The analysis also finds that the four adjectives differ in terms of their phraseological patterning with the noun collocates. The adjectives new and old are rarely used as predicates when they are selected after friend and book, respectively. On the other hand, good and high are canonically employed to serve the predicative function when they follow news and levels, respectively. The two groups also differ from each other in the way they contrast with their antonyms. The adjectives high and good are frequently employed in a contrastive context with their antonyms low and bad, whereas the adjectives new and old are seldom employed in that way.

Embedded verbal complexes in Korean: Towards a unified approach to leftward movement, right dislocation and anaphora

( Myung Kwan Park ) , ( Ui Jong Shin )
6,200
초록보기
This paper examines the leftward movement, right dislocation, and overt/covert anaphora of the embedded verbal complex (excluding the embedded subject) in Korean. Supposing that anaphora is a basic phenomena, and that leftward movement and right dislocation are derivative from the basic phenomenon of anaphora, we propose a unified analysis for the syntactic distributions of embedded verbal complexes that undergo the afore-mentioned three syntactic operations. In ruling out illegal cases of such distributions, we show that a ban on haphazard movement and MaxMove are at work. We also show that the construction-specific requirement for right dislocation is that the clause preceding the right dislocated expression is grammatically correct, though allowing for subsequent syntactic reanalysis/reprojection after the addition of the right dislocated expression.
6,400
초록보기
The Korean connective -mye exhibits an intriguing pattern in its grammaticalization into sentence-final particles. From the paradigmatic viewpoint, the form extends its membership from the paradigm of connectives to that of the sentence-final particles. From the semantic-functional viewpoint, the developmental path of -mye and its related forms proceeds from the concomitance, to diverse grammatical notions of conditionality, simultaneity, background, commensurability, adversativity, contrast, permissive modality, among others. Various syntagmatic operations bring forth -myense through formal reinforcement and further -tamyense (and those sharing the paradigmatic affinity) through fusional processes. Crucially involved in this development is the main-clause ellipsis, in which the addressee is compelled to reconstruct the elided main clause, a process where context-induced reinterpretations, or invited inferences, actively take place. Such reinterpreted meanings are actively being conventionalized to become a part of the semantics of the newly created sentence-final particle. A quantitative analysis reveals that the grammatical forms follow the path of the most frequently-used form that spearheads the change. Such changes are enabled purely by their semantic and morphosyntactic similarities, i.e. their paradigm membership, despite their extremely low token frequencies. This is contra two important hypotheses: that analogy is not a decisive mechanism of grammaticalization and that the high frequency is as essential as a prerequisite to set a condition for grammaticalization.
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