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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

D. H. 로렌스 연구검색

D. H. Lawrence Studies

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 반년간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-4318
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
수록 범위 : 16권 2호 (2008)

『쓴트모어』와 켈트적 타자성

권영희 ( Young Hee Kwon )
Despite the obvious fact that Lewis has a lesser role than that of the eponymous stallion in St. Mawr, this paper highlights the Welsh groom, rather than the horse, locating his Celtic alterity in colonial confrontation. Lewis`s interaction with other characters may present some striking aspects in that light. As Mrs. Witt`s brief romance with him forms a sub-plot that reflects Lou`s dramatic encounter with St. Mawr and its aftermath, the narrative development of St Mawr intimates a certain structural doubling between Lewis and Lou. Initially, Lewis is aligned with Phoenix, the other groom and racial other from America. What happens later, however, is no less than a mockery of Phoenix`s racial difference, in notable contrast to the vicissitude of Lewis`s Celtic identity. Although Lawrence`s presentation of Lewis as a superstitious, childlike, and femininely-sensitive man undeniably implies the discursive field of Celticism, the same character is granted primeval "Britishness." Along with the structural doubling of Lou and Lewis, such a turn indicates the significant extent to which Lewis`s Celtic otherness allows Lou to transform her white subjectivity without resorting to a primitivist pursuit of an indigenous male. Lawrence, in this way, draws a meaningful, if subtle, distinction between the New England woman and Lou in their seemingly shared but profoundly different grasp of "wild America."

성과 제국 -『무지개』에 그려진 "제국 인종"의 내면-

김성호 ( Sung Ho Kim )
한국로렌스학회|D. H. 로렌스 연구  16권 2호, 2008 pp. 27-51 ( 총 25 pages)
Though not the primary focus of the narrative, the British Empire appears in D. H. Lawrence`s The Rainbow as an integral part of the meaningful world of its third generation characters. For Skrebensky, the Empire is the ultimate horizon in which his social and emotional life is experienced. At moments of masculinity crisis, caused by critical consciousness and self-indulgently powerful sexuality on the female part, he turns desperately to the Empire to recoup his personal male authority. Ursula`s case is much more complicated. Her deeply individualized self, informed by a rich sense of being, maintains a critical stance toward Skrebensky`s commitment to the nation and its imperialist war. Yet her will to freedom and social independence frequently acts to enhance her sentimental attraction to `the outer world` of which her colonialist lover is a close representative. Thus her sexual thrill at his voicing of `sensual darkness` in Africa registers a multi-layered psychic process within her. It is, on one level, an enactment of her usual yearning for the wider world, but on another, a prepared response to his `dark` being-the preparation being intimated by a preceding discourse on ontological darkness. There is accordingly a double continuance in the narrative language: between the discourse of African darkness and that of dark being, and between two variants of the latter. Such a continuance may as easily suggest Lawrence`s ideological vulnerability as his characters`. Yet in a broader context, it suggests a complicated psychic drama in which Lawrence and his heroine adopt the colonial discourse only to transmute it radically into their own, post-Enlightenment and anti-colonial discourse of being.

D. H. 로렌스의 주요 장편소설에 나타난 성서적 이미저리

김인수 ( In Soo Kim )
한국로렌스학회|D. H. 로렌스 연구  16권 2호, 2008 pp. 53-73 ( 총 21 pages)
This paper examines a unique narrative stream-deprivation, wandering and restoration-which is in the three main novels of D. H. Lawrence: The Rainbow, Women in Love, and Lady Chatterley`s Lover. The narrative stream consists of four stages: the first, the opening presentation of idealistic life mode of the Marsh Farm in The Rainbow; the second, the diachronic presentation of three generations(Tom Brangwen-Lydia; William Brangwen-Anna; Skrebensky-Ursula) in The Rainbow; the third, the synchronic presentation of two couples(Berkin-Ursula; Gerald-Gudrun) in Women in Love; the fourth, the final presentation of a new idealistic life plan of Mellors and Connie, which is most similar to the life way in the Marsh Farm, comparing the failed one of Clifford and Connie, in Lady Chatterley`s Lover. In the prologue of The Rainbow, Lawrence put a scene of the Brangwens` lives in the Marsh Farm. The Marsh Farm is presented as an ideal pastoral agricultural society. The Brangwens had lived for generations there. Before a new industrialization inflow approached there, their lives were peaceful. But the women there began to look at the outside world beyond the farm, because of their strong desire of knowledge. The action of the women symbolizes the event of Eve`s picking and eating the fruit of tree of knowledge in the Garden of Eden, and being banished from there. In The Rainbow, the lives of three generations-Tom Brangwen and Lydia; William Brangwen and Anna; Skrebensky and Ursula-show their own relationships between the two, and make a diachronic stream of destructive discords or partial harmonies through three generations. The diachronic stream transfers into a new synchronic one in Women in Love. Two couples(Berkin-Ursula; Gerald-Gudrun) are presented in Women in Love. Lastly, the diachronic stream continues in Lady Chatterley`s Lover. Two contrastive pairs(a failed one of Clifford-Connie; an ideal one of Mellors-Connie) are shown in Lady Chatterley`s Lover. Lawrence presents an ideal life mode in the prologue of The Rainbow, and tries to build up another ideal world in the wood of the Wragby, but failed. Finally, he plans to make the ideal world in a far-off country in the vision of Mellors and Connie. The life mode in the vision reminds us of the Marsh Farm in The Rainbow.

로렌스의 『처녀와 집시』(The Virgin and the Gipsy)에 나타난 욕망과 형식

윤영필 ( Young Phil Yoon )
한국로렌스학회|D. H. 로렌스 연구  16권 2호, 2008 pp. 75-98 ( 총 24 pages)
Since its posthumous publication, The Virgin and the Gipsy has drawn much critical attention to its non-realistic formal elements such as romance, fairy tale, myth or symbolism. But why Lawrence deployed them so conspicuously in this novella unlike in his other realistic novels, and what is their relation to its theme of desire have yet to be clarified. Aiming to address these problems, this paper examines the nature of the virginal desire of Yvette, the heroine of the novella, and then how effectively the formal devices work to develop this theme. One of the most salient features of Yvette`s virginity is her vagueness. It is not only a kind of defence strategy to protect her subversive desire in the covertly repressive milieu of the Rectory, but also symptomatic of her self-delusion or false consciousness of denial for the sake of the comforts of the rectory life. As the constrictions of the Rectory are not easy to shake off, her desire for the gipsy, who belongs to the outermost fringe of the English society, is to a certain extent imbued with romantic ideas or sentiments. The non-realistic formal elements are introduced to expose and undermine this romantic aspect of her desire. These include, among others, the allusion to `the Lady of Shalott,` the dramatization of a brief pseudo-romance scene between Yvette and the gipsy, the insertion of the romance figures of Eastwoods, and the parody of romance and the ostentatious use of symbolism at the climactic flood scene in which she confronts and recognizes her own desire. Returning to Lawrence`s typical realistic style, the novella`s concluding part subtly captures the small, though significant, signs of Yvette`s transformation after the flood scene and leaves her open to an ongoing new readjustment to reality, with her desire divested of its romantic tinge.
Lawrence`s dualism is one of the central principles of his theory of aesthetics, particularly those related to his characters. His dualistic world is composed of two polarities of dark and light which symbolize spirit and flesh respectively. These two polarized worlds are always prone to seek balance, or conciliation by menas of a spark of Holy Ghost. There are many common factors between Lawrence`s dualism and the oriental one of dark and light. All of the characters can be grouped along a spectrum of dark, light and the third-type which contains both properties of dark and light from the point of view of Lawrence`s dualism. Here I wish to explore types of the dualistic characters in the Rainbow and his early short stories and novellas. In the Rainbow, Tom with blood intimacy who has dark properties unites himself with Lydia of light properties who came from the outer world, and eventually they establish a star equilibrium. Anna marries Will. Anna is the daylight and Will shadow, and in their marriage the union of opposites achieves a partial fulfillment, but for Ursula and Skrebensky there is no such fullness in union. He is a character of light properties, full of social duty, and desires to engulf Ursula who is the third type character of half_dark properties like Paul in Sons and Lovers. Skrebensky has nothing to bring out a union with Ursula. Alone therefore, she has to harmonize the dark with her own light before cleansing and regeneration may come to her. It is this that she tries to achieve in the closing pages. Although class separateness is a main motif of "Daughters of the Vicar," Lawrence focuses on the ideal union of man and woman beyond the convention and artificial morality. What unites Lousia and Alfred is the vital power of life, "the jet of life" which both of them posses abundantly as the dark properties whereas Mary is obsessed with class consciousness under the harsh upbringing of her parents. In other words Lawrence is dramatizing the theme of upper class sterility and the saving of an upper class woman by the vitality and superior human values of a working man. In "the Love among the Haystacks," it is warm-hearted tenderness that can come to fulfill balance in Geoffrey and Lidia while on the other hand it is this tenderness that is apparently missing in the encounter between Maurice and the governess. In "Ordor of Chrysanthemums" the chrysanthemums play a major role in the theme of this short story.

20세기 초반의 미국과 21세기 초반의 미국

장시기 ( Si Ki Chang )
한국로렌스학회|D. H. 로렌스 연구  16권 2호, 2008 pp. 125-146 ( 총 22 pages)
In the early 20th century D. H. Lawrence says, in Studies in Classic American Literature, "America is a great melting pot." America is "away from everything. That`s why most people have come to America, and still do come. To get away from everything they are and have been." In this respect Lawrence finds out "the spirit of place" different from European modern thoughts in the classic American literature including Benjamin Franklin, Fenimore Cooper, Edgar Allen Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Walt Whitman and so on. But in the early 21st century Peter Weir, an Australian cinema director, shows the flight of Truman Burbank in `The Truman Show` from the Seahaven Island Township which is symbolized as "the only world" in the Americanized post-modern world. As Lawrence finds out the American "spirit of place", we think of American people as a different way of life from European modern thoughts. But after World War II America has been liked to the modern European way of life. After all, Truman doubts his world and escapes through the danger of death from the Seahaven Island which was "all he`d ever known and as real to him as ours is to us." Comparing to Peter Weir, John M. Coetzee is, in Elizabeth Costello, going one step forward the trans-modern figure who is an Australian female writer, Elizabeth Costello. She is "a writer, born in 1928", who has "left behind the territory" in which the modern white European were. And she is a person who lives "in the far territory", where Lawrence finds out "the spirit of place" in the old classic American literary texts. But most Americans don`t understand her world and will not appreciate on her way of life. So we have to try find out "the spirit of place", in which Lawrence thought of America as the different way of life from the modern European thoughts, not in America but in the present Australian and South African white writers.

로렌스의 후기 시에 나타난 신비주의

전영옥 ( Young Ok Jeon )
한국로렌스학회|D. H. 로렌스 연구  16권 2호, 2008 pp. 147-160 ( 총 14 pages)
Lawrence`s later poems, More Pansies, and Last Poems can be characterized as religious poems. Lawrence`s religion fuses elements of Christianity and paganism into a new synthesis. He thinks that God is that which "is a body and has a body." It is both the incarnation and the urge toward incarnation, the product and the process because God manifests himself not in being, not in a static preplanned order, but in becoming, in the energetic flow and struggle that underlie being. And he incarnates himself in a host of fleshly messengers, Aphrodite, Dionysus, who are sexual and holy messengers and the central mystery of the divine urge toward incarnation. Lawrence`s religious `thoughts` in both poetical works are directed towards such a prelapsarian state, where all men may see the gods in their everyday lives, that is they are concerned with the physical universe in which we still live. To see the gods in mundane, most ordinary of circumstances, it requires any extra-sensory perception on the part of the beholder, only the fullest attentiveness and those senses we all have, when all the senses are responding together, `a man in his wholeness wholly attending`, then these together make up a unity which can be call the sixth sense, that `natural religious sense` of wonder. Lawrence thinks that the fullest attentiveness, the sense of wonder are necessary to have relationship with the living God resides at the center of all things.

포우와 로렌스의 남녀관계 비교: "의지의 투쟁" 개념을 중심으로

한기욱 ( Ki Wook Han )
한국로렌스학회|D. H. 로렌스 연구  16권 2호, 2008 pp. 161-181 ( 총 21 pages)
This paper purports to compare the man-woman relationship manifested in Edgar Allan Poe`s grotesque love stories such as "Ligeia" and "The Fall of the House of Usher" with that of D. H. Lawrence`s later works, focusing on the concept of `the battle of wills.` The concept is presented most clearly in the Poe chapter of Studies in Classic American Literature, but it can also be applied significantly in Lawrence`s own works. Specifically, St. Mawr, "Princess", and "The Woman Who Rode Away" can be argued to explore new ways of life possible on the American continent through the prism of the battle of wills. And in this sense, Lawrence can be called as an American novelist. It should be noted that in St. Mawr only after Lou decided to walk away from the liberal circle of Rico`s world, and from the battle of wills with him, can she start a journey towards a new way of life in America. Even in America, she needs to refuse to be involved in a battle of wills with Phoenix, whose presumptious advance she successfully defeats. In "Princess", the battle of wills between Dollie and Romero is dynamically presented against the vividly represented landscape of Rocky mountains. Their negative and fateful relationship, which has remarkable similarities to that of Ligeia and her husband, shows that Lawrence recognizes and dramatizes the difficulty of overcoming the battle of wills between different races in America. In "The Woman Who Rode Away" Lawrence makes another such attempt by presenting a white woman`s journey towards the Chilchuis Indians after her conscious self`s death, which seems to have occurred in the battle of wills with her husband. Lawrence`s attitude towards both the woman and the Indians is remarkable in the sense that he responds sensitively to racial otherness while dismantling any racist prejudices.

To Know, or To Be, That is the Question: D. H. Lawrence`s View of Human Consciousness

( Masashi Asai )
한국로렌스학회|D. H. 로렌스 연구  16권 2호, 2008 pp. 183-203 ( 총 21 pages)
Throughout his life, Lawrence is preoccupied by the action of human consciousness, especially by its function called "knowing." In Fantasia of the Unconscious he proclaims quite definitely: "The final aim is not to know, but to be. There never was a more risky motto than that: Know thyself. You`ve got to know yourself so that you can at least be yourself. `Be yourself` is the last motto." And this motto is untiringly supported by his life-long assertion that blood consciousness is more essential than mental consciousness. This assertion has a variation from time to time, but the essence of his message is: man has an innate core of being which he calls the "naive core," but over the time this core is cumulatively covered, and eventually dominated, by man`s later attainment of intellect, and this phenomenon has overturned the original balance that man once had: hence the present human ailment of self-consciousness and the loss of spontaneity. What we need to do, then, is to recover this balance. -The latter part of this message seems very sound, but the premise of his assertion needs reconsideration. What does he mean by saying that blood consciousness is dominated by mental consciousness? Presuming that this is true, is it such an abominable thing as he asserts? Aren`t there any positive aspects in the phenomenon? An important question to be asked is whether or not Lawrence`s dichotomy of "blood consciousness" and "mental consciousness" on the issue of "knowing" is still valid. An even more fundamental issue is his dichotomy of "to know" and "to be," or to expand the question, his dichotomic world view itself. Having become so familiar with these dualities or parallelisms in his works, we Lawrence scholars tend to take them for granted. In this paper I reconsider the relationship between the two concepts and the validity of such world view.

D. H. Lawrence and German Culture: Lawrence`s Conflict with Frieda the German Lady

( Yeung Jin Oh )
한국로렌스학회|D. H. 로렌스 연구  16권 2호, 2008 pp. 205-226 ( 총 22 pages)
Frieda von Richthofen Lawrence was a woman of an unusual vitality and strong sense of independence. The early works of Lawrence-Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, Women in Love-were produced when Lawrence was largely under the sway of her influence. But her willfulness and Lawrence`s insistence on male superiority and on her submission to him caused bitter conflicts, particularly in the `leadership` period. He did not want to place himself under her thumb and she refused to bow to his authority. Some of the artistic failures in Aaron`s Rod, Kangaroo, and The Plumed Serpent reflect the troubled relationship between them. In parallel with Frieda`s recalcitrance, Lawrence`s lack of initiatives and confidence played a significant part here. His indecision and vacillation as represented in the novels can be traced back to his Oedipal fixation on his willful mother, which hindered the development of his individual consciousness. Frieda helped him release himself from the trammels, but in the process, she became a surrogate mother, and he only achieved a partial release. Probably this explains why his belated self-assertion of the male domination only led to a crisis of marriage as well as danger of failure in his novels featuring male authoritarianism. All through these ups and downs, however, they maintained their bond, due to Frieda`s unwavering faith in Lawrence`s genius and her exceptional vitality to inspire him on the one hand, and his appreciation of this on the other. Frieda prepared him for a quantum leap from his upbringing, his disposition, and his culture. By breaking free his libido locked up in oedipal fetters and moral conformity, she opened the door to his manhood and helped to channel his libido into a free-floating creativity. And he also gave her self-confidence as the cheerful and unabashed Magna Mater.