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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

영미문학페미니즘검색

Feminist Stidies in English Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-9689
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 10권 1호 (2002)

버틀러의 퀴어이론과 정신분석

권택영 ( Teck Young Kwon )
6,600
초록보기
Judith Butler formulates her queer theory with Foucaultian materiality of body. Foucault illustrates how body cannot be repressed on the symbolic level, through his argument of the interdependence of power and knowledge which produces sexuality. According to Foucault, body is the material inscribed by historical and social needs. Butler focuses on the process of that inscription and emphasizes the displacement of power and discourse: body is not neutral but political. Body`s inscription of power provides her with a new with a new assumption that heterosexuality is neither natural nor absolute, but arbitrary and temporal: body is nothing but a production of history. Through the politicizing of the body Butler raises a question over all kinds of absolutism about sex, gender, race and class. In rearticulating Foucault into queer theory, Butler consistently criticizes psychoanalysis. Particularly, she condemns Freud`s incest taboo and Lacan`s pre-social imaginary, which, according to her, establish and confirm the social discriminations over sex, race, and class. However Butler`s complaint about the lack of political aspect in psychoanalysis reveals her confusions and sometimes misunderstandings of psychoanalysis. The purpose of this paper is to show in what ways she misunderstands psychoanalysis, and how she distorts it in the process of unfolding her queer theory. First, I will explore the materiality of body in Foucault and Butler, and Butler`s queer theory inspired by Foucault. Finally I will point out Butler`s conceptions and misconceptions of psychoanalysis, which are originated from her structuralistic view of Lacanian registers and her underestimation of revolutionary elements in Lacanian death drive.

여자 리어 - 리어왕의 페미니스트적 연출 전략 ?

김문기 ( Moon Ki Kim )
6,200
초록보기
Feminist scholars have long criticized Shakespeare`s King Lear as a play that aims to reestablish the patriarchal power and its legitimacy, betraying misogynistic prejudices. They have also noticed that the stage can be a very effective medium to foreground the patriarchal ideology of the play. Casting an actress for the role of Lear and thus positing a woman at the center of King Lear can be seen as a feminist`s attempt to subvert its patriarchal ideology on stage, by forcing the audience to reflect on their prejudice on the relationship between gender and power and to raise questions about the traditional interpretations of the play. This paper attempts to explore the possibilities and limits of the phenomenon of female Lear as a feminist strategy on stage, by analyzing two King Lear productions directed by a renowned avant-garde director, Robert Wilson, and a theatre collective, Mabou Mines, which cast Marianne Hoppe and Ruth Maleczech for the role of Lear respectively. Mabou Mines chose to stage King Lear for its 20th anniversary production in order to explore the ways in which power had been exerted within a family and affected by gender, race, and class in American society. For this purpose, director, Lee Breuer, reversed the gender of the entire characters, cast Gloucester and his two daughters as black, and situated the production in the 1950s` Smyma, Georgia. Despite Ruth Maleczech`s powerful performance as Lear and implications in here desire to own patriarchal language and thus challenge patriarchal representation, Mabou`s production fell short of being a full-blown feminist attack on King Lear due to directorial negligence to the details ensuing from the changes made by gender-reversal. Lack of technical subtlety and attempt to question not just gender but all forms of cultural hegemony in the specific sexual, racial, and class experience can also be attributed to the ineffectiveness of a female Lear as a feminist critique. In contrast to Mabou`s Lear production which openly proclaimed a politically resistant reading of Shakespeare`s play, Robert Wilson`s King Lear simply presented the process of Lear`s realization of human nature and death in a characteristically Wilsonian abstract and formalistic directing style. In this formalistic production, eighty-year-old Hoppe as Lear was portrayed as sexually indeterminate old (wo)man, implying that gender was not important in Wilson`s production. Despite the possibility that indifference to gender in Hoppe`s performance can be regarded as a step toward dismantling sexism based on the insistence of difference between sexes, Hoppe`s Lear functioned less as a gender critique than as a formalistic device which foregrounded Wilson`s anti-realistic aesthetics and deconstruction of the notion of unified, stable self. This study on two King Lear productions with female Lears thus argues that a female Lear alone cannot effectively subvert the dramatic narrative of King Lear, which is deeply implicated in patriarchal assumptions and designed to identify emotionally and morally with Lear`s sufferings. This study also concludes that in order to make a feminist statement with female Lears, directors are required to pay more careful attention to the details of the play and its coordination with other directorial choices. Despite tantalizing possibilities, the two productions with female Lears were experimentations which exposed the necessity of developing more diversified directing strategies for the subversion of patriarchal ideology of King Lear.
6,400
초록보기
The late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries witnessed the cultural construction of the ideal domestic woman in British society in a wide range of discursive practices such as conduct books, novels, magazines, sermons and medical tracts, etc. More specifically, numerous female-authored domestic novels proliferated the doctrine of domestic womanhood by creating heroines who embodied the modest, chaste, and self-sacrificing gender ideal. Many critics have questioned why women writers actively participated in the construction of the sexless and selfless images of women that seemed to serve only the dominant patriarchal power, while others have viewed these women writers as mindless conspirators of patriarchal ideology. In this essay, however, I examine the complex ideological implications surrounding this gender ideal and argue that these women writers were not so much passive bearers of patriarchal ideology but they were active agents, who acted according to their own gendered interest by simultaneously promoting and subverting the image of the ideal domestic woman. The domestic womanhood of the Romantic era constituted a location in which the interests of the British nation, the middle class, and patriarchy, intersected. On one hand, the morally enhanced image of domestic women functioned as symbolic capital in consolidating and naturalizing the middle-class hegemony, British internal colonialism, and British overseas expansion. On the other hand, domestic femininity was also a reflection of male anxiety about the increasingly unstable gender boundary in a rapidly changing society in which middle and upper-class women widely participated in cultural and political activities outside the home. Because the ideal domestic woman reflected disparate interests, the attitude of women writers toward this gender ideal was extremely ambivalent. As members and beneficiaries of an expanding nation and a rising class, they endorsed and promoted this gender ideal; however, as secondary citizens in a male-dominated society, they tried to subvert the separate spheres ideology that prescribed domesticity as women`s only sphere. Focusing on woman-authored domestic novels of the Romantic period, this essay analyzes the ways in which these women writers simultaneously construct and deconstruct the ideology of the domestic woman.
7,200
초록보기
Current descriptions of British literary Romanticism are almost entirely grounded on the writing of six male poets. The cultural and scholarly descriptions of that phenomenon we call Romanticism are gender-biased. As poets, women were patently excluded from the "masculine tradition." It also entails a gender ideology which subtly denies the value of female difference. Positive feminine characteristics - sensibility, compassion, maternal love - are metaphorically appropriated by the male poet, while attributes of difference - independence, intelligence, willpower, aggressive action - are denigrated. The exploration of Nature found in canonical Romantic poetry also masks a gender politics. Nature is usually gendered as cultural metaphors of Mother Earth, Dame Nature, Lady Bountiful. But by identifying it as the external objective world which the self-conscious subject must penetrate, possess and interpret, the Romantic poets often deny to Nature her own authority. What I emphasize in this study is the way in which the self of consciousness linguistically constructed by Wordsworth is not the higher and potentially universal self he dreamed of, but rather a specifically masculine self. A subtle gender politics is at work especially in his autobiographical poems, "Tintern Abbey," "Nutting," and The Prelude. While he acknowledges the power of female Nature, he also appropriates that power, leaving her silenced, even absent. The masculine self attempts to eliminate her otherness, her difference, and her separate being.

워즈워스와 어머니에 대한 욕망 - 주체성의 전략으로 읽기

손현 ( Hyun Sohn )
7,200
초록보기
In this article I aim to re-evaluate in a feministic view the desire for the Mother some critics consistently found in the poetry of William Wordsworth. Referring to the Lacanian account of it, I mainly discuss the characteristic way that the desire for the Mother, the primodial Other, works as a strategy by which a subject constitutes its sense of wholeness. What is unique with Wordsworth is that the poet overcomes the Castration Complex by imagining the Mother`s obedience to the Law of the Father. Thus, allotting to the Mother some of the symbolic power as a signifier of love, I try to argue against the dogmatic reading of woman in Romanticism just as victimized. Reading such poems as "The Thorn" and "The Mad Mother", I first explain that the Mother is desired only as a medium of love through which the poet finds his name as a subject. Denying the common interpretation of those poems that the Mother is very seductive with her Phallic power, I emphasize her unwillingness to transgress the Law of the Father. Focusing on the `stolen boat episode` in The Prelude, next, I trace the psychological process in which, resolving the oedipal crisis, the poet grows up to the point where he can meet the law of subjectivity and the desire for the Mother at the same time, thus magnifying himself as a whole self. The poet realizes this impossible project in the misrecognition that he is always in the bosom of the Mother who works in both ways of castration and healing love. Finally I demonstrate in "Tintern Abbey" how the poet aesthetically succeeds in maintaining the tension of being a subject, but in perfect union with the Mother simultaneously. Thus I conclude this reading with three feministic interpretations. First, a subject`s mastery over the other is unavoidable by the nature of subjectivity, so that female subjectivity would be either impossible or similarly victimizing. Second, woman is rather split in dual identities of denied body and idealized soul of love. Third, woman in the poetry of Wordsworth is not an object to be appropriated, but is allotted relative autonomy because the poet`s strategy of subjectivity is to sustain subjectivity in lack itself ever to be filled up by something greater than himself.
6,000
초록보기
The central idea Karen Finley tries to develop in The Constant State of Desire is that female sexuality and biological identity should be defined by women themselves, not by men. In order to define new female sexuality and identity for women, she keeps the focus of her performance aesthetics on strong negation against the conventional performing and narrative mechanism called realism. She challenges and derides realism conventions which have been used for reinforcing male-centered cultural regime. She firmly believes that the conventional realism cunningly strengthens the discourses of dominating culture in representing established gender-class power dynamics. Throughout the performance of The Constant State of Desire, Finley wishes to destroy every tool and representational mechanism for realism conventions in order to represent her own female sexuality both in words and images. Since the conventional representations of female body and sexuality have been contaminated and distorted by patriarchal cultural ideologies, Finley`s work and performance are fully devoted to tearing down male fantasies about female body and sexuality. Grotesque words and obscene scenes themselves are not for the purpose of her performance but just for her tools to express her feminist performance aesthetics. Finley shows great enthusiasm in defining biological identity of her own sex. Exposing her body and pornographic expressions can be her own shocking and aggressive statement for new definitions of female body and sexuality. What she hopes to achieve in her work and performance is to reject the male-fabricated images and words about women and their sexuality. In The Constant State of Desire, Finley`s messages, expressed both in words and scenes, stir up strong fear and criticism from the dominating male-centered culture. However, what she has done in The Constant State of Desire is neither a performance happenings nor a vain symbol. Finley`s themes and aesthetics in the play are now gradually obtaining broad support from various classes.

니체의 진리 , 삶 , 심연과 여성 은유

신경원 ( Kyung Won Shin )
6,900
초록보기
Nietzsche`s views on women have long been considered one of the most problematic aspects of his thought. Very often in his work did he disparage women as cunning, seductive, and disguising, while simultaneously celebrating them as mysteriously powerful. Nietzsche`s use of woman as a metaphor for his main philosophical issues such as truth, life, and abyss, has also caused an ongoing controversy among feminists, and readings of Nietzsche`s `woman` have been sharply divided into two directions so far: an essentialist one that reads him as a blatant misogynist, and an anti-essentialist one that interprets his metaphor in a wider context of his perspectivism. This paper examines Nietzsche`s `woman` metaphor and his views on women within his philosophy. To interpret his `woman` from a native essentialist point of view leads to misunderstanding his philosophical ambition to debunk the fictionality of `truth` and other conventional philosophical concepts including `unity,` `essence,` `meaning.` Nietzsche`s use of `woman` as a single metaphor for all those apparently heterogeneous philosophical concepts exemplifies well how the `woman` metaphor operates on a linguistic and discursive level, not referring to women in reality. However, an ethical question is still left unresolved in his metaphorical appropriation and its consequent violence on real women.

『 매리 바튼 』 에 나타난 개스컬의 서술적 권위와 종교

오정화 ( Jung Hwa Oh )
6,600
초록보기
When Elizabeth Gaskell wrote her first novel Mary Barton, she had various anxieties of female authorship. She was not only a woman but also the wife of a minister, whose parishioner included many manufacturers, and the mother of four daughters. She also had an anxiety about appearing in public. In spite of those anxieties, however, she wrote the industrial novel, a male genre, which covers politics, economy, history and theology. Her boldness in starting her career as a writer with such a book came from her faith that her ability of writing was God`s gift and her ministry was using it for the weak and the poor against economic and sexual exploitation. Gaskell strove to have her own voice criticizing patriarchal appropriation of God`s will. Her religion of Unitarianism helped her to have a marginalized perspective to challenge her culture`s dominant ideology of class and gender. Her struggle to have narrative authority is paralleled by three main characters` struggles to speak out. The inability of Esther and John Barton to have their words heard is intrinsically related to Gaskell`s doubts about her ability of speaking to change the world. Mary Barton`s progress to speak, overcoming conflicts between speech and silence, shows Gaskell`s own story to learn to speak. To help the weak and the poor was not only the principle which Gaskell suggested for the relation between the middle and working classes, and between men and women; but it was also the religious duty which made her to have the sense of urgency to speak. It enabled her to establish narrative authority to speak against dominant ideology and social practices of patriarchal culture.
6,200
초록보기
Joy Kogawa`s Obasan deals with the interaction between the mother/daughter conflict and the protagonist`s finding an identity. The narrator, Naomi Nakane, suffers from the mysterious disappearance of the mother and the loss of communication with her. In the course of the story, this lack of a mother keeps Naomi from establishing her identity as a grown-up. Even though Naomi`s mother is disfigured and then dies in the Nagasaki atomic bombing, Naomi and her brother, Stephen, do not hear about her mother`s death because the mother asks her relatives not to tell her children about her own death. Because nobody explains to her why her mother left and why she does not come back, Naomi`s waiting seems to go on forever and even time hardens like a stone. Reading the letter of her grandmother, however, Naomi discovers the explosion of the atomic bombs in Nagasaki. Finally, she figures out what happened to her mother and why her mother had disappeared forever. Also, the misunderstanding and the grudge toward her mother`s lack of communication fade away from Naomi`s heart. After Naomi finds her ancestors` and her mother`s past, she understands her mother and comes to establish her own identity as a Japanese Canadian woman. In Obasan, the absence of Naomi`s mother signifies Naomi`s own problematic absence of identity. During her struggles to find her mother, Naomi`s psychological health and self-consciousness have been cured. Naomi`s reconstruction of the mother-daughter bond represents a recovery of her Japanese heritage, and also the subjectivity of the mother is re-constructed by her daughter`s discovery of her mother and of a new stronger self in which both mother and daughter are bonded.

『 톰 아저씨의 오두막 』 에 나타난 기독교 정신과 여성의 역할

유정숙 ( Jeong Suk You )
6,400
초록보기
Uncle Tom`s Cabin is well-known for its abolitionism. Harriet Beecher Stowe desired to exhibit the evils of slavery to Christian and humane people when she heard of the Fugitive Slave Law in 1850. She also appealed to the white mothers to sympathize with Eliza`s "Crossing the River" to save her baby. In this paper I appreciate the author`s motivations: Christianity and motherhood. In the mid-nineteenth Century "a woman should be a Christian." As a daughter, sister, and wife of ministers Stowe heartily embraced this Victorian idealization. Like her famous sister Catherine, she concurred in the importance of maternal values. I explored the woman`s role and Christianity in the lives of four white couples-the Shelbys, the Birds, the Hallidays, and the St. Clares. The wives are more religious than their partners. This means the novel can be seen as "its elevation of domestic, Christian virtues associated with women over the failed political, secular virtues associated with a patriarchal society." Stowe lived within the limitations of Victorian womanhood but through Mrs. Shelby, Stowe`s ideal woman, Stowe implied the woman`s ability and influence. As a married woman she is powerless to prevent the slave sales. Only after her husband`s death is she able to right the financial affairs and try to redeem the old slave, Tom. Even to the black people Stowe endowed the white women`s ideals: motherhood and Christianity. Mrs. Shelby imbued Eliza, her slave, with those ideals. Tom is a motherlike Christian to St. Clare. In that sense Tom is another "heroine" in this novel. Like a woman he is oppressed by the white men. I believe Tom`s feminization came from the author`s belief in maternal values not from racism. Stowe wholeheartedly believed that maternal values should be the values of America. Thus, Christianity and motherhood are Stowe`s main concerns in Uncle Tom`s Cabin.
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