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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치


Feminist Stidies in English Literature

  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-9689
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
수록 범위 : 11권 2호 (2003)

Sympathy and Empathy: Women Writers and a New Idea

( Dame Gillian Beer )

A White Female Subjectivity in Janet Schaw`s Journal of a lady of Quality

( Shejae Chun )
My purpose in this paper is to examine the complex process of the formation of a white female subjectivity of Janet Schaw in Journal of a Lady of Quality (1774-6). Interestingly, the subjectivity of Schaw, who traveled from Scotland to the West Indies, North Carolina, and Portugal, in the years 1774 to 1776, can neither be reduced to the notion of the female as colonized object, nor to the example of the white female escaping from a patriarchal society. Starting with the analysis of her description of the landscape, I examine her impulse to fictionalize her colonial experience with the aestheticized gaze. Drawing on her strategy of fictionalizing the landscape and making herself a female spectator, I explore her aesthetic facilitation of colonial domination with the interplay of sympathy and "de-emotionalization" of the landscape and its natives, which contests and at the same time endorses imperialism in the complicated racial and gender politics. This analysis of Schaw`s female subjectivity shows that her strategy of containment of imperialism in Antigua, and her attempt to reconcile the problems of colonial dominance are the ideological product of the imaginary solution to her conflicting female subjectivity.

Lollard Repression, Affective Piety and Margery Kempe

( Ji Soo Kang )
The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to examine in the context of The Book of Margery Kempe the nature of the clerical anxiety incurred by the spread of the Lollard movement; and second, to examine the effect of this prevailing anxiety, which lay hidden behind the force of repression represented by anti-Lollard measures taken by Church officials such as Archbishop Arundel, on Margery`s religious, social and textual experience related, in particular, to her peculiar behavior of crying. Even though there is much evidence against the clerical accusations that Margery was a Lollard, her claim to enjoy a direct relationship with God unmediated by the clergy, her knowledge of Scripture and the audacity with which she "preaches" her claims caused quite a bit of ecclesiastical anxiety and backlash. Recent studies on the effectiveness and pervasiveness of Lollard repression by the official Church necessitate another look at the significance of Margery`s very feminine affective piety as a practice intentionally popularized by people like Archbishop Arundel precisely in order to counteract Lollardy, and of her tears which are an important part of her devotional practice. Margery`s "empowerment" must be considered in the context of her need to establish the identity and validity of oneself under extremely dire and urgent socio-political circumstances that threatened even her very existence. Margery embraces the officially encouraged practice of affective piety wholeheartedly, her copious tears and loud crying being its representative expression. However, her tears also function as powerful language and voice that was denied her by the same Church, at least until her speech of tears was superceded by The Book. The power and "eloquence" of the tears most clearly manifest themselves when the male priest-scribe, the one with the original power and authority to read, speak and write, comes to shed tears.
Ruth is one of the 19th-century novels that the force of the plot can be in conflict with the force of counternarratives. The force of the plot in Ruth supports the single standard of sexual morality for both sexes which results in emphasis on female passionlessness and attack against male sexuality. The implication of the female passionlessness also leads Ruth to real penitence and redemption with the help of Bensons and her son, Leonard. The conception of female passionlessness entails the middle-class belief that the fallen women can be controlled, regulated and redeemed. Fallen women`s redeemability signifies the middle-class and evangelical conviction that immorality and sexual deviation is amenable to intervention and cure. Ruth`s penitence and redemption is a representation of the middle-class conviction of the female passionlessness. The counteractive force of counternarratives contradicts the female passionlessness. Ruth sometimes recognizes her desire unmitigated by her penitence and redemption. The counteractive force reaches the meaning that respected women including Jemmima have the same passion, desire and yearning as Ruth. Ruth`s passion and desire is not abnormal, unnatural, but inherent and spontaneous. These two forces have confronted each other all through the novel, have made the whole meaning of the novel through the conflict and clash between the two forces. The whole meaning is yearning for the change of Victorian women`s status and the rise of women`s self-esteem.
Although the nameless English husband is not the central figure in Jean Rhys`s Wide Sargasso Sea, Rhys`s reimagining of the Rochester figure in Wide Sargasso Sea deserves more critical attention. While there is no doubt that Rhys emphasizes the cruelty and brutality with which the husband enacts the racial and sexual violence upon a white Creole woman, Rhys`s revision of the Rochester/Bertha relationship resists any reading simplifying the Antoinette/Rochester relationship in the reinscription of the hierarchical dichotomy of the opposite terms between an imperial masculine self and a colonized female other. Rhys`s narrative of the nameless Englishman chronicles the failed quest of the subject-making, the quest for a stable, unitary male subject. Beginning with the necessity to articulate and define his English masculine self, however, the husband`s narrative betrays that he needs to mark Antoinette in the space of the alterity--both racial and sexual--in order to inscribe his English masculinity at the margins of Empire. Marked by ambivalent desire for and fear of the other, the nameless English husband`s narrative undermines the fiction of the unitary English self and blurs polarized binaries between male and female, English and non-English, white and non-white, and the colonizer and the colonized. While raising questions on the concept of unitary English masculinity by drawing on the novels of her literary precursors such as Emily Bronte as well as Charlotte Bronte and building on her earlier work that examines imperial Englishness, Rhys`s Wide Sargasso Sea investigates the complicated dialectics between imperial masculinity and colonial femininity.

Dystopia and the Frustration of Female Agency in the Mill on the Floss

( Sung Ae Lee )
In The Mill on the Floss, George Eliot contrasts the paths of individual development and emphasizes the crucial role played by society`s expectations and conventions on the lives of individual characters, especially on the basis of gender. By depicting the development of Maggie Tulliver in contrast to male characters, the novel discloses the dystopian effect of a society that not only arbitrarily inhibits individual growth and diminishes potential but also condemns and expels the nonconformist individual. The utopian vision that this bodies forth is of a society, desirable but unattainable, that is ideal and more perfect than the author`s community in encouraging the potential of individual growth by providing an open and nurturing environment. The more positive vision emerges from the novel`s critique of the dystopian conditions which render Maggie abject, in contrast to an ideal society that facilitates all kinds of differences and possibilities regardless of gender, race, or class hierarchy. In tracing the history of Maggie`s abjection from its origins in her childhood through its various stages from transgression, to renunciation, and to death, and thus the most extensive exploration of women`s lot in her fiction, Eliot criticizes the kind of society that produces and ultimately destroys the abject like Maggie as a way of suggesting utopian possibilities.

An Amatory Fiction "Domesticated": Eliza Haywood`s Love in Excess

( Hi Kyung Moon )
The mid-eighteenth century drive towards greater didacticism in the novel has been viewed as one of the reasons for the dismissal and erasure of amatory fiction from the history of the English novel. Haywood, who wrote one of the most popular novels in the earlier eighteenth century, has been one of the greatest sufferers under this changing taste. Overwritten as it was, however, amatory fiction has not been totally suppressed. It has survived in various novelistic and cultural forms and has penetrated deeply into the more "elevated" novels of Richardson and Fielding and their followers. But the reverse also holds true; it can be claimed that many characteristics of the domestic novel could already be found in the earlier novels so much so that the domestic novel of sentiment, when it came into being in the mid-century, contained in fact very little that was entirely novel. I argue that the two widely divergent traditions in the English novel, amatory fiction and the domestic novel, thus stand much closer together than is usually assumed. I have taken Haywood`s Love in Excess as the central text in my discussion because it is a novel in which these two divergent traditions co-exist in uneasy tension. The novel begins as an amatory fiction but ends as a domestic novel; it is a story of seduction and betrayal which inverts itself to become a story of conjugal happiness. These contradictions produce ambivalences within the text which becomes a space in which such competing ideas as the transgressive and socially sanctioned, the disclosed and hidden, public and private, masculine and feminine, libertinism and domesticity are fought out. I discuss how these competing view points and contradictions are worked out and how in the process Love in Excess comes to undermine its own generic standing.

Zoe Valdes`s Yocandra in the Paradise of Nada: Revolution of a Cuban Woman

( Jai Young Park )
In Yocandra in the Paradise of Nada, Zoe Valdes, one of the significant Cuban/ French women writers, boldly explicates the failure of Castro`s "revolutionary" government and the traditional and cultural depreciation of Cuban women`s human and civil rights. Through the protagonist Yocandra`s experiences as a marginalized Cuban woman, Valdes penetrates the miserable reality of Cuban women in a male dominant society and a failed revolutionary society on the one hand; and, through Yocandra`s metamorphosis as a woman of autonomy and subjectivity, Valdes redefines and exemplifies the meaning of revolution on the other. Yocandra is subject to the "Absolute Power" even before her birth. Her fate depends on the Absolute who may decide if she goes to heaven, to hell, or to earth. The Absolute Power finally dispatches her to "the island that in wanting to build paradise has created hell." At her birth, Yocandra is subject to her patriotic father, who names her "Patria." With the name, her father wishes to make Yocandra subject to himself and his nation. When Yocandra marries, her husband, "The Traitor," wants her to be a submissive and sacrificial "good" wife. Such life of hers is a continuation of marginalization and subjugation, representing Cuban women on the sociopolitical, traditional, and cultural margin. However, Yocandra eventually decides to revolutionize herself, moving from margin (the dominated) to center (the dominating). She changes her name. She rejects school educations indoctrinating students in the legitimacy of the "revolutionary" government and reiterating the male superior culture and tradition. She sexually subjugates men, contradicting the male dominant Cuban tradition. In doing so, Yocandra locates herself on the center, dominating the "oppressors." Although ironically Valdes herself fails to actualize such transformations as she later leaves the country, through Yocandra`s experiences, Valdes ultimately delineates a paradigm of a successful revolution and offers Cubans, especially women, a way to subsist in a disastrous "revolutionary" society.
This paper explores how Emily Dickinson`s poems, tracing the maternal imprints in the speaker`s psyche, present to the reader the uncanny of the pre-oedipal mother as the crucial impetus for poetic sublimation. Throughout her poetry, Dickinson describes how the absent mother hovers over the speaker`s psyche, bringing about the gothic fear and power of the maternal body. Dickinson`s poems represent to us the familiar figure of the mother becoming the uncanny figure of the maternal in the house. For Dickinson, the house, as Freud argues in "The Uncanny," symbolizes the body of the mother. In her most psychologically complex poems, Dickinson`s way of describing the space of the house evokes the uncanny maternal figure for the reader. Dickinson relies on the gothic tradition to depict the speaker`s ambivalence towards the maternal body; the maternal absence and presence is dramatized through the spatial imagery of the house. Furthermore, for Dickinson, the house implies the blurry boundary between the pre-oedipal and the symbolic. The house often carries the psychic turmoil and pain that the daughter-speaker undergoes. Posing herself as the gothic heroine in the house, the speaker, in Dickinson`s poems, continuously encounters the female body / femininity which she shares with her own pre-oedipal mother. Portraying the daughter-speaker`s ambivalent struggle with an absent maternal figure, Dickinson`s poetry embodies the pre-oedipal maternal imprints in the speaker`s unconscious through the complexity of poetic voice.

Politics of Sexual Violence in Philomela`s Story

( Kyung Ran Park )
Philomela`s story, based on a Greek myth, has inspired many western writers such as Sohpocles, Aristophanes, Chaucer, Dante, Gower, Gascoigne and Shakespeare. This article compares and contrasts various male-authored versions of Philomela`s story and then focuses on a dramatic representation of Philomela, a re-working by a woman dramatist in the twentieth century. The Philomela story is simple, but omnipresent in history in the same way that pain is omnipresent. Her story has been retold throughout Western literature where Philomela has become one of the paradigmatic victims of sexual violence. The name, Philomela, thus represents the diverse pain that women in Western literature have suffered from abduction, adultery, exploitation, incarceration, incest, infanticide, mutilation and rape. Philomela`s pain is as `universal` as it is `omnipresent` and `diverse,` as much in literature as in reality. The image of Philomela in ancient Greece, in medieval and Elizabethan times is a naive and submissive victim, who laments her ravishment and her cut-out tongue. In Ovid`s Metamorphoses Philomela avenges herself on male violence on her body. However, in medieval times Philomela and her sister, Procne, are described as not able to be revenged upon the perpetrator, but Tereus`s carnal desire is condemned in the moral context. In Elizabethan times, Philomel is used as a political agent, who is the scapegoat of sexual politics of patriarchal domination. If a woman is an unwilling victim and rejects her role, the penalties are high. The Love of the Nightingale, dramatized by a woman playwright in the twentieth century, however, portrays Philomel and Procne as strong-willed women who break their silence by wielding whatever they can grab. Both in fiction and reality, there have been brave women who have overcome their oppression like Philomel.
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