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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

영미문학페미니즘검색

Feminist Stidies in English Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-9689
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 17권 1호 (2009)

민족경계 안팎의 여성과 남성: 민족주의의 감정정치와 신체훈육

박미선 ( Mi Sun Park )
6,300
초록보기
Since the mid-1980s, feminist scholars have introduced gender and sexuality as crucial categories of analysis missing in hegemonic theorizations about nation and nationalism. With these recent feminist interventions, it is no longer possible to think about ideas of nation and nationalism without acknowledging that gender and sexuality are central to both. Much feminist scholarship has focused on women`s marginality in the construction of national subjects and simultaneously on women`s central roles in national projects. Feminists have also shown how masculine subordination of feminist to nationalist concerns is often manifested in the formation and maintenance of the nation, and women become "dangerous" subjects by their acts of breaking the gendered silence that nationalist discourses have imposed on them. Working within this tradition of feminist scholarship, I discuss the issue of male national agency in nationalist projects. The social construction of masculinity in the formation of the nation and in nationalist projects remains understudied even in feminist literature. Based on the observation of the invisibly privileged status of masculinity in this field of study, I selectively review hegemonic, male-authored theories of nation and nationalism and re-examine feminist theoretical interventions on them. In doing so, I show how the nation has been constructed as a hegemonic domain of masculinity and heterosexuality. Tackling the unmarked status of masculinity even in recent feminist literature about nation and nationalism, I argue that male national agency is also being constantly re-inscribed and that nationalism is a fertile ground in which masculinities are contested and "domesticated" into the ideal masculinity of national subjects.

여신 신화와 새로운 상징질서 찾기

박정오 ( Jung Oh Park )
6,500
초록보기
Goddess is one of the most powerful symbols that challenges the power of the patriarchal male God, and the effort to resurrect her image parallels Luce Irigaray`s attempt to establish a new symbolic order for female representation. This paper investigates how studies on Goddess are inextricably bound with the questions of maternity and sexuality and argues that, in spite of her gradual suppression, the Paleolithic Great Goddess, or Earth Mother, has remained in our subconscious, her traces being found in figures such as Gaia and the Virgin Mary. Archaeological evidence of the prehistoric Goddess not only helps to free women and artists from a deeply rooted Judeo-Christian ethos that portrays female sexuality as evil, but also inspires them to affirm the female body as a source of pleasure and power. Serving as a muse for the arts, the image of Goddess is reclaimed as sacred iconography, and her revival in our culture lies at the core of an attempt to establish a new symbolic order for women. The paper also attempts at a contemporary reinterpretation of classical mythic goddesses by claiming that goddesses such as Artemis and Athena are representatives of independent and highly educated contemporary women.

현대 여성의 새로운 히스테리, 거식증: 여성의 몸과 욕망

박주영 ( Joo Young Park )
6,500
초록보기
This paper aims to explore how the emaciated body of the anorectic presents itself as a caricature of the contemporary ideal of hyper-slenderness for women, an ideal that has become the cultural norm for women today. First, this paper points out how anorexia can be described as the twentieth-century version of hysteria. This paper focuses on the characteristics of anorexia from psychoanalytic perspectives. Further, this paper examines how anorexia may provide a paradigm of one way in which potential resistance is not merely undercut but utilized in the maintenance and reproduction of existing power relations. Susie Orbach interprets anorexia as a species of unconscious feminist protest in a most articulate and forceful way. The anorectic is engaged in a "hunger strike," as Orbach calls it, stressing that this is a political discourse. Susan Bordo similarly argues that the anorectic is unaware that she is making a political statement. Through embodied rather than deliberate demonstration, she exposes and indicts those ideals, precisely by pursuing them to the point at which their destructive potential is revealed for all to see. Finally, while many feminist theorists read anorexia as protest or resistance against patriarchal power, this paper analyzes the problems of such feminist theoretical arguments, defending Sandra Lee Bartky`s notion of anorexia. Bartky analyzes how the anorectic becomes, just as surely as the inmate of the Foucauldian Panopticon, a self-policing subject, committed to a relentless self-surveillance. This self-surveillance is a form of obedience to patriarchy, conforming to the cultural messages that we inscribe upon our own bodies.

생태파괴 시대의 페미니즘

박혜영 ( Hye Young Park )
6,500
초록보기
Despite differences among feminists, feminism can be generally defined as a movement committed to the eradication of male-dominated power in all spheres of life. In theory and practice, it pursues the equal rights of women against patriarchal sexism and also promotes the liberation of women from all forms of social oppression. However, with the advent of neo-liberalism, the feminist movement has discovered new manifestations of patriarchal structures-new transformations of the patriarchal socioeconomic system in which male domination of women generates a more pervasive capitalist domination of third world Others and nature. As all oppressions are interrelated and reinforce one another, ecofeminism focuses its attention on the interconnections between the exploitation of women encompassing race, class, and nation, and the exploitation of nature. For this reason, ecofeminism can be defined as a wide-ranging counter-movement against Western society`s modernity and post-modernity, as it challenges all forms of domination that now extend beyond sex to nature. This paper examines the main arguments of ecofeminism on the timely and urgent matters of female subordination and nature degradation by exploring four central issues: the essentialist debate on sex/gender identity of women and nature; the hegemony of science and technology over women and nature; the increase in colonial exploitation of the South by the North; and lastly, the ecofeminist perspective on subsistence for the recovery of community. Ecofeminism proposes a new paradigm of feminism and subsistence in order to replace the destructive relations between humans and nature with one that respects the plurality and coexistence of human and nonhuman creatures on earth. This perspective can serve as a radical alternative to the current globalized industrial system and become a source of female empowerment and independence in battling systematized patriarchy and forging a more egalitarian society.

페미니즘과 노년차별: 페미니즘 안팎의 타자, 노년여성

연점숙 ( Jeom Suk Yeon )
6,300
초록보기
Today`s dominant cultural ideology indoctrinates people to believe that age-related changes can be avoided. Hence one who displays visible signs of aging is stigmatized and excluded as a result of ageism, but the ultimate truth of the human condition is that we cannot stop aging unless we die. In a sexist society, aging women suffer more from age issues and oppression because "youthfulness" in women is especially valuable symbolic capital. Feminism, like other social movements, has undertaken numerous strategies to reach its fundamental goal of a better life for women. Aging or older women, however, have been a largely ignored group. They have been the "Other" within feminism, not to mention outside of it. The gerontophobic nature of modern society provides one explanation for this exclusion. Another is the fact that many feminists themselves were young in the 1970s, a fact that is reflected in their emphasis upon their young age and social location at that time, since, "after all, the personal is political." In order to uncover the relationship between aging and feminism, this study explores three representative works on aging/ageism: The Coming of Age by Simone de Beauvoir, The Fountain of Age by Betty Friedan, and The Change: Women, Ageing and the Menopause by Germaine Greer. Though each work reveals some problems and limitations in regard to the complex interrelatedness of all forms of domination, these books nonetheless help to lay the foundations for feminist studies of ageism. They compel us to examine how to make the later years of life worthwhile and successful for today`s and tomorrow`s older women.
6,400
초록보기
This essay is an effort to critique the theoretical transition from feminism to queer theory and to examine overlapping as well as conflicting interests. The operative logic of this study is that feminism and queer theory are not mutually exclusive sets of ideas and practices. I attempt to show how queer theory marginalizes feminism in significant ways, even though it originated from a theoretical attempt to augment and improve feminist ideals, which is why the linkages and divergences between feminism and queer theory need to be critically reassessed. For this purpose, I focus on three prominent thinkers/writers whose works traverse the overlapping and yet divided fields of feminism, gender studies and queer theory: Teresa de Lauretis, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, and Judith Butler. Scrutinizing works by de Lauretis, Sedgwick, and Butler, I believe, will enable us to understand the ways in which gender studies and queer theory evolve from feminism. Queer theory largely comes from gay and lesbian studies, as part of gender studies; however, queer theory diverges from gay and lesbian studies, by turning "queer" into a cultural metaphor that vaguely defines itself against any normative discourses or practices. By closely examining the major arguments and theoretical positions of the three critics, I flesh out problems in shifting the central binary terms from "masculine vs. feminine," through "heterosexual vs. homosexual" finally to "queer and heteronormative." With this critical review of such differing yet by no means mutually exclusive positions, I hope to rediscover and redefine the ground upon which they can productively cooperate.

남성, 남성성, 페미니스트 이론

이명호 ( Myung Ho Lee )
6,700
초록보기
"Men`s crisis" has emerged as a major social problem in America since the 1980s, replacing the crisis of middle class women in the late 1960s described by Betty Friedan as the "unnameable disease." What needs to be noted is that the current men`s crisis is not just a by-product of the success of feminism but rather emerged concomitantly with the crisis of feminism itself. This concomitant crisis of men and women can be interpreted as a symptom of the gradual weakening of gender opposition in contemporary American society, causing feminism to seriously re-think "post-gender" or "postfeminist" social phenomena. In this changing gender environment, the binary opposition of man and woman, masculinity and femininity needs to be reconsidered from a more flexible perspective with a special attention to differences within each gender as well as between two genders. This paper attempts to read multiple forms of masculinity from normative masculinist to marginalized "feminine," found in representations of homosexual, black and Asian men. Masculinity and femininity as cultural constructs are dissociated from sex as naturally given, and freely adopted and appropriated by either gender. This paper argues that the phenomenon of gender swapping, i.e. the appropriation of femininity by men and of masculinity by women is not an uncritical acceptance of existing gender norms but rather a subversive "parody" of them, deconstructing fixed gender roles and resulting in more flexible and unstable gender models.

이주여성노동의 비가시화와 임파워먼트

이선주 ( Seon Ju Lee )
6,600
키워드보기
초록보기
Whereas migrant women`s labor is often invisible in the official imaginary of globalized capitalism, the big cities` finance industries, hotels, sweatshops and homes in America function every day because of migrant women`s labor. This paper discusses both how migrant women`s labor is constantly rendered invisible and how migrant female laborers negotiate to empower themselves. The tremendous demand for low-paid and irregular labor as a result of American economic restructuring has caused the ceaseless tide of migration. Historically, women`s labor has been regarded as housewife`s leisure activity or at most a dependent`s side job. In addition to sexual discrimination, racial discrimination becomes a further appendage to migrant women`s labor. This paper shows how the mechanism of gender bondage which excluded unpaid domestic labor beyond the scope of the civil rights acts reduces even paid domestic labor to private care, not formal labor. This mechanism of gender bondage enables American women to transfer their own domestic labor onto migrant women. This transnational transference of domestic labor further deteriorates the devaluation of domestic labor and deepens economic unequality. This paper which attempts an economic and cultural analysis of migrant women`s exploitation also makes allowance for their empowerment as social subjects despite overwhelming oppression. The solidarity among migrant women who share commonalities that go beyond national boundaries has grown and discourses that theorize their citizenship and agency as social subjects have begun to engage and render visible the role of migrant female labor in the global economy.

트랜스내셔널 장에서의 페미니스트 주체형성과 연대의 정치학

이소희 ( So Hee Lee )
6,800
초록보기
This paper explores the politics of feminist subjectivity and feminist solidarity in transnational space, theoretically grounding its main argument on Chandra Talpade Mohanty`s Feminism without Borders and Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt`s Multitude. In a global environment in which capitals, commodities and people moved rapidly and widely across national borders, migration of women has become a conspicuous issue as a significant number of women migrate to pursue economic and social interests. Within Global Capitalism and New Liberalism, Mohanty suggests the importance of the politics of feminist subjectivity and feminist solidarity in transnational space, and the networking of various forms of feminist activism in different glocal points. To achieve this, I adopt the notions of Negri`s "Multitude" subjectivity and Autonomia Movement, through which women`s collectives and feminist organizations can establish forms and operation principles that can raise and expand the creativity and potentiality of women.

레비나스, 타자 윤리학, 페미니즘

이희원 ( Hee Won Lee )
7,200
초록보기
This article aims to explore the fruitful possibilities of dialogue between Levinas` ethics and feminism, by examining the two different approaches to Levinas` ethical project in feminist circles-Irigaray`s critical response and Guenther`s apologetic appropriation. With these connections in mind, this article first introduces some of the main themes of Levinas` ethical thought, such as the Other, Infinity, the face-to-face, responsibility, and then traces the concepts of the feminine, eros, fecundity, and the maternal in his philosophy. I then convey the rich and intricate texture of Irigaray`s critical discussion of Levinas. Irigaray attacks both Levinas` patriarchal view of eros and his concept of the feminine as means to reinforce traditional stereotypes. I closely examine Guenther`s feminist re-reading of Levinas` concept of responsibility. Unlike Irigaray, Guenther reads Levinas as a feminist ally. Guenther rewrites Levinas` ethical concepts through a feminist reading of two central figures in his work: hospitality and maternity. According to Guenther, Levinasian hospitality is the action of welcoming the stranger in one`s home without asking why he/she deserves it or what one will get in return. Guenther also shows that to be responsible is not only to welcome the stranger into one`s home, but to bear him/her in the flesh, despite the tremendous pain that one`s bearing might bring. Guenther`s reading of Levinas is in accordance with Levinas` framework of asymmetry in the human relationship, which rejects the traditional exchange of "give and take." After addressing the most contentious issues regarding Levinas` importance for contemporary feminism, I turn to Please Take Care of Mom, by Shin Kyung Sook, a Korean feminist novelist, in an attempt to move beyond Guenther`s feminist reading of Levinas and suggest a creative way of responding to the Other, namely through writing.
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