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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

영미문학페미니즘검색

Feminist Stidies in English Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-9689
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 22권 2호 (2014)
6,300
초록보기
Gautam Malkani’s debut novel, Londonstani, revolves around a group of 19-year-old South Asian rudeboys based in Hounslow: Hardjit, Ravi, and Amit, along with Jas, who joins the group to become a “ hard m an” and who narrate s the novel. While Malkani’s entertaining novel is successful in portraying the “bling bling” urban youth culture, the masculinist and fashion-forward lifestyle of the rudeboys, maintained by misogyny and homophobia and enhanced by their hiphop ethnic identities, remains highly problematic. This essay has two goals. First, it investigates the relationship between the “bling bling economics,” a term for luxury consumption, and the “cool” creative masculinities invented and performed by Hardjit’s lot. Despite Malkani’s liberatory notion that identities and masculinities are a “cut-and-paste” invention, the masculine bravado embodied in Hardjit’s rudeboy group, made up of violence, abusive slang, and designer brands, has little to do with a thoughtful critique of gender division. Rather, what Londonstani reveals vividly is the extent to which gender identity ― becoming masculine -is now defined by the consumption of “masculine” commodities, such as a Porsche 911 GT3, Gillette Mach 3 blades, and a Dolce & Gabana suit. The latter part of the essay hones in on Jas’s “choice,” which leads the white Jason to live a life of an Indian rudeboy, speaking Hinglish and mimicking Hardjit’s machismo behaviors. Borrowing from Irvine Welsh and Philip Goodchild, I argue that Jas’s “choice,” albeit seemingly voluntary and independent, is an illusion fabricated by consumerist society. This is because in a late-capitalist society where real political oppositions are no longer possible, an endless catalogue of commodities with seemingly diverse yet highly limited options (size, color, and so on) concocts an illusion of “freedom of choice.” This freedom of choice, however, assumes an oppressive perimeter of choices given by global corporations and does not allow for real creative choices outside that perimeter.
7,000
초록보기
This paper examines how Tennessee Williams shows male characters in the South during the 1950s troubled with the absurdities of American masculinity and the conservatism of the family ideology through the play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. As a homosexual who was excluded from society his whole life, Williams resisted the confinements of masculinity and projected his antagonism through his plays as an attempt to deconstruct binary gender roles of men and women. Brick Pollitt in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, a latent homosexual, is homophobic. Brick’s fear of social prejudice drives his friend Skipper to suicide. At the same time, his unacceptable masculinity makes him flee into enervation and refuse any relationship with his wife Maggie. His strict and absolute father, Big Daddy, embodies the consummate patriarch, but Big Daddy’s expected death from cancer depicts a price for hypocrisy, repression of family members, and misogyny, or a sacrifice for his performance as a strong man. In addition, Brick and Big Daddy’s changed character and happy ending in the Hollywood film version of this play show the difficulty of homosexuality and its inevitable compromise with the society. Based on this paper’s examination of the play’s male characters, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof can be interpreted as the writer’s social critique of American masculinity in the South during the 1950s, questioning concepts of masculinity itself, describing the gender role as no more than a masquerade forced by the society.
6,500
초록보기
Doris Lessing’s novel The Diary of a Good Neighbor is very meaningful in that it spotlights an older woman over ninety, Maudie Fowler. The heroine and successful career woman, Jane Somers, happens to meet Maudie, becomes her friend, and finally completes a journey of self-discovery. In Barbara Frey Waxman’s terminology, this work belongs to the genre of Reifungsroman, as it is a novel of ripening maturity, focusing on a middle-aged heroine’s spiritual growth. But this paper highlights the life of Maudie who represents “older women,” an expression that emphasizes not the distinction, but the relationship between different age groups, in comparison with that of “old women.” Showing the poor life of Maudie, Lessing insists that family, society, and social welfare systems should cooperate to take care of older women. Furthermore, she believes that society should treat other minority groups, such as immigrants and low-waged female workers, including social welfare workers and nurses, without discrimination. Lessing also connects Jane’s experience of having taken care of Maudie with the nurturing of her sister’s difficult teenage daughter, which is one of main themes of Lessing’s next work, If the Old Could . . . . Through these two novels, Lessing suggests that we should see old age in terms of intergenerational relations, and consider the relationship between the young and the old not as a binary opposition but as part of a bigger picture and a continuum of a reciprocal relationship.

“생각하는 일이 나의 싸움이다”: 버지니아 울프의사유, 사물, 언어

손영주 ( Yong Joo Son )
7,200
초록보기
When Virginia Woolf writes, "thinking is my fighting" in her diary in 1940, her assertion of thinking as a kind of action is not a metaphor or a hasty negation of the distinction between thinking and action. Rather, it derives from a daunting reconceptualization of the questions of reality and possibility, anticipating Giorgio Agamben``s philosophy of potentiality. Challenging the age-old prioritization of actuality over possibility in Western philosophy, Agamben seeks to redefine the latter as something that exceeds and survives historical realization by locating language, thing, Being as well as thinking itself in the realm of potentiality. At the heart of Woolf``s feminist, pacifist, and anti-totalitarian politics lies such a radical rethinking of potentiality-a way of thinking that brings the contingent into view. The seemingly apolitical stories and essays, such as "The Mark on the Wall," "Solid Objects," "Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown," and "Craftsmanship," demonstrate that Woolf``s feminism embodied in her famous expression "Shakespeare``s sister" is profoundly entwined with her insight into beings and things in terms of potentiality. Woolf``s thinking is a kind of action in that it constantly seeks to think the possible into existence while being wary of its own process, which is ironically in danger of subordinating itself to its own object in its tendency to privilege the actual over the possible.

메어리 셸리의 초자연적 단편에 나타난 신체와젠더의 문제

오봉희 ( Bong Hee Oh )
6,900
초록보기
This paper explores the interconnection between supernatural events, the body, and gender in Shelley’s “Transformation” and “The Mortal Immortal.” In “Transformation,” the supernatural event in which Guido, the main character of this story, exchanges his body for a dwarf’s body and wealth forces him to experience what it is like to be a person whose life is defined and confined by the body. This experience leads him to repent of his past follies caused by his masculine pride and reform himself. But Guido’s paler cheek and little bent body, the reminder of the fatal fight between Guido and the dwarf, continue to draw attention to the violence of the hierarchical gender relations. In “The Mortal Immortal,” the supernatural event-through which Winzy, the main character of this story, gains immortality-brings out the stark contrast between Winzy’s immortal male body and Bertha’s vulnerable female body. At a glance, this contrast seems to show the triumph of the masculine over the feminine. But his everlasting youth forces them to move to a foreign country, which entails emotional suffering. Winzy loses all that binds him to humanity when Bertha, his beloved wife, dies. Moreover, his immortal body turns into a cage for his soul, which makes him weary of himself. His weariness and thirst for freedom imply that the masculine becomes trapped when it loses the connection with the feminine.

대항문화에 대항하기: 바라티 무커지의 『내게 맡겨』

이선진 ( Sun Jin Lee )
7,100
초록보기
This paper examines the ways in which Bharati Mukherjee’s mythical writing of Leave It to Me critically engages with and deconstructs the myths of the 60s counterculture as part of her larger project of redefining America and its history. Drawing upon the Hindu myth of the warrior goddess Devi and the Greek myth of Electra as interpretive frames of the novel, Mukherjee transforms the protagonist-narrator Debby/Devi’s journey to San Francisco in search of her origin and identity into a critical reinterpretation of the counterculture’s liberalism and its engagement with Asia in reaction to the nation’s exertion of its state sovereignty beyond its territory onto the foreign shores of Vietnam. As Devi finds out more about her mother and observes her peers in the counterculture, she increasingly develops a critical eye on the darker side of the countercultural young people, including their self-indulgence, irresponsibility, and their quick move into the consumer-capitalist “Establishment.” Mukherjee extends her demythologizing take on the counterculture’s mystification and manipulation of the Indian religious culture to justify its hedonist lifestyle with a suggestion that it is the other side of the same mirror of America’s Orientalism that demonizes its Vietnamese others by representing them as essentially different from whatever is American. Rejecting a celebration of America as a home of progress and liberation, Mukherjee exposes the counterculture’s rebellion against mainstream America gone awry by debunking the nostalgic, romanticized myths of the sixties counterculture dominant in popular imagination.

쿠션과 우산:「작은 아씨들」에 나타난 젠더 역할

이수진 ( Su Jin Lee )
6,600
초록보기
One of the most popular domestic novels, Little Women, has shown the fundamental value of family and family love through attractive Tomboy Jo’s growth and her life. Surrounded by her beloved sisters and her mother dear Marmee, Jo knows the importance of family and home as a refuge in a troubled world. She wants to live as an independent person or as “the man of the family,” saying, “I can’t get over my disappointment in not being a boy.” Jo, who has a strong desire to be a writer and live by her own will, avoids Laurie’s love and runs away to the wider world, New York, where s he may “ see and hear new thing s, g et new ideas.” Leaving Laurie and home behind, Jo seems to fall into an unfamiliar isolated situation. Fortunately, she works as a governess in Mrs. Kirke’s safe domestic environment and has a chance to write her “sensational stories” in the newspaper. Two objects are used in the novel to represent Jo’s state of mind and the relationship between Laurie and Professor Bhaer. One is a pillow called the “sausage,” which signals that Jo’s temporal and spatial sphere is not to be interrupted, and “being used as a weapon of defence, a barricade,” especially against Laurie, it is a sign not to approach Jo. Jo uses this “sausage” to protect her immature, innocent, and unstable world from potential collapse. The other is the “umbrella,” which Professor Bhaer has and uses to shelter Jo before his proposal. Jo, who forg ets to b ring her own “little umbrella,” already under the influence of Professor Bhaer’s harsh but sincere advice about her “sensational stories,” rushes under “his” umbrella and accepts the proposal of marriage. The “sausage” can be interpreted as a tool for Jo to keep her own will and freedom. Even though young Jo’s desire to be a writer and an independent person is an immature and imperfect one, she tries to keep it with her full heart. However, “the umbrella” means, unlike the case of the “sausage,” that Jo gives up her independent life. By standing together with Professor Bhaer under his umbrella, permanently losing her “so crumpled and underscored” manuscripts, which she had once written for the paper, attractive Tomboy Jo returns to the nineteenth century’s traditional value for “women” as “Mother Bhaer.“
7,700
초록보기
This article aims to reveal the feminist Lorraine Hansberry “unidealized, unsimplified, in her fullest complexity” (Rich 22) by deconstructing the canonization of A Raisin in the Sun in anthologies and books, and then by excavating the hidden picture from the surface story of an American black family, a feminist picture that can be drawn from the housewife Ruth Younger’s management of home economics, her attitude towards money, and her wish to move to the house in Clybourne Park. The first part of this article looks both at the anthologies in which A Raisin in the Sun is included and at the books about Lorraine Hansberry and A Raisin in the Sun to reveal how the position of the play has changed in the pedagogical or academic institutions. The play has been read and taught, I argue, first as a black American drama or a representative of American drama, then as a black American feminist drama or an American feminist drama, recently as feminist philosophy, and then finally as American feminist literature. This critical survey of the anthologies and the books informs us that the play has conveyed “the changing interests and beliefs of those people whose place in the cultural hierarchy empowers them” (Tompkins 37) and thus opens the way for a discovery of the values and interests suppressed by their critical endeavors. The latter part of this article attempts to unmask the play by looking at the trifles to uncover the hidden values and interests. For this purpose, this article concentrates on the issues of money and house that the play raises and does so from the perspective of Ruth, who neither plays an important role in the plot development nor raises her own voice, and thus has been concealed even from the eyes of the feminist critics. This article argues that Ruth’s special economic attitude and practice can be an alternative to the capitalistic principle and practice, and that her concept of house as her own space of freedom redefines Lena Younger’s spiritual and Walter Lee Younger’s political concepts of house. Yet, this article does not ignore the fact that Ruth not only upholds the basic principles of the capitalistic system by willingly accepting the roles of a housewife and a maid, but also supports the patriarchal system by dreaming of happiness in an American middle-class nuclear family. By showing the complexities in both Ruth’s economic life and her wish to have her own space, this article shows a way of discovering Ruth, a woman “unidealized, unsimplified.”

죽어가는 여성의 몸의 수행성:『위트』

정문영 ( Moon Young Chung )
6,600
초록보기
This essay aims to read Margaret Edson’s W;t as a new academic, medical, and feminist drama in the age of technoscience by focusing on the performativity of a female professor’s body dying of advanced ovarian cancer in a university hospital. In this technoscientific age, the issues of females, especially their disabled dying bodies, are taken up as things related not just to sexual politics but to technoscientific biopolitics. Thus, this paper explores subversive possibilities of the perfomativity of a medicalized female body under the control of technoscientific biopolitics in the institutional spaces of the hospital and the university. W;t foregrounds the dying woman Vivian Bearing’s dramatic performance of commenting ironically on the performativity of her body in her own language of literary “wit” to fight against the medical “wit” of Dr. Harvey Kelekian and his student Jason Posner and against the suffering and fear of her impending death. But gradually this play reveals that the witless nurse, Susie Monahan, the most marginalized character, i.e., a “minor” character, is the hero of the play. Susie is Vivian’s most needed company as she lies dying, and she can help Vivian find a line of flight from the closed system of biopolitical control over her dying body and a line of light towards redemption and grace. Thus W;t can be regarded as a new feminist academic medical drama, a minor literature.
6,700
초록보기
The object of this paper is to examine resistance against the ruling ideology as a means of true survival in the novel Cat’s Eye by the iconic Canadian writer Margaret Atwood. Canada was a British colony and has long been an economically weak country relative to its southern neighbor, the USA. For the Canadian people who have suffered traumas due to various kinds of suppressive elements, bare living has been survival. Cat’s Eye focuses on all kinds of power relationships between people: parents and children, man and woman and, especially, same-sex friends. Those power relationships are often unfair and potentially violent. Focusing on Elaine Risley, the heroine in Cat’s Eye, this paper examines her as a victim of the contemporary power system and analyzes the process of her overcoming the system and achieving a new i dentity in Canada. Elaine is exposed to the gaze of her age group and bound to their rules, but she learns to expose herself to the world to cure her traumas from power relationships through her paintings and as a result, she restores a feminine subjectivity. Moreover, Elaine refuses to be stuck within Canada’s social and historical boundaries, as she attempts to recognize and estimate her limitations. This attempt leads her to positive situations in which she create arts. In addition, Elaine’s paintings show that various views and interpretations are possible. In this way, Atwood revises the pessimistic features of Canadian literature that she has criticized toward new, more positive features.
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