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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

영미문학페미니즘검색

Feminist Stidies in English Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-9689
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 3권 0호 (1996)
6,800
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This paper aims to read Jean Rhys`s Wide Sargasso Sea from a deconstructivist viewpoint comparing it with Charlotte Bronte`s Jane Eyre, its host text. Although commonly considered as a British writer, Jean Rhys possesses a different perspective from those of the writers born and raised in Great Britain. Being Creole, she could provide us with a perspective of the third world, unlike those of British or Europeans. This difference in perspective stands out conspicuously in her fifth novel Wide Sargasso Sea. Reading Charlotte Bronte`s Jane Eyre, one of the 19th century British classics, she was disturbed with the characterization of Bertha, the Creole wife of Rochester. To Rhys, she was an "impossible character" representing only the British side of things, therefore a character to be rebuilt and humanly reformed. Rhys brought her out from behind the stage of Jane Eyre and gave her a voice to tell us her story. Rhys not only rebuilt the character of Bertha but also did other necessary changes in her novel. In a sense, she created a totally subversive discourse, giving voice to the `muted` and marginalized group in Jane Eyre. A product of deconstructive reading, it enacts the return of the repressed or recovery of female experience from the realm of `nonbeing.` Rhys renamed Bertha as Antoinette using her maiden name, implying that name is an important symbol representing one`s identity. In this sense, it is significant Rhys does not offer any name to the husband of Antoinette although she stages him as one of the narrators - one of the deconstructive strategies. Above all, the first-person narrator/heroine of the host text, Jane, never appears and there is no space whatever that suggests any sign of her presence in the guest text. As a symbiont, Wide Sargasso Sea succeeds to deconstruct the elements of Bronte`s Jane Eyre to create a territory of nightmarish atmosphere of anxiety and uncertainty, showing us the violent oppression of Antoinette/Bertha by the "Wide Sargasso Sea" from racism, imperialism and patriarchy. In short, Jean Rhys created a novel of postmodern psychology out of the Victorian romantic novel of realism.

" 토니 모리슨의 『 재즈 』- 미학적 페티시즘 "

김애주(Ae Ju Kim)
5,600
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The aim of this paper is to study Jazz by utilizing Kristeva`s concepts, negativity and aesthetic fetishism which are crucial in clarifying a genotext. Genotext is defined by Kristeva as a text which encompasses both unconscious and conscious processes in signification. In this paper, it will be shown that some prominent features of a genotext such as plurality, heterogeneity, and contradiction are pervasive in Jazz. Moreover, unlike other Black writers, Morrison`s Jazz does not so much refer to blackness, a representative form of jazz aesthetics as to genotext. An event called `Lenox Street Scandal` is repeated like the riff of jazz music in Jazz. Tracking the past experiences and psychological symptoms of three characters related to the scandal, we discover that it`s main motivation is a desire for the fulfillment of the primary detachment from the maternal body. It is the desire that Lacan names the unconscious and designates as a generative motivation of language. The desire - a precondition to fuse subject with object - is a force to blur the symbolic order which is supported by the binary oppositions. When it is erupted in the symbolic order, psychoanalysts outline it as fetishism or schizophrenia while it is categorized as aesthetic fetishism in literature. In the same light, Jazz can be said to be the aesthetic fetishism.
6,700
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Maxine Hong Kingston`s Woman Warrior is a text that illustrates many specific tendencies of women`s autobiographical writing which not only offers an alternative to the linear, self-referential mode of classical autobiography but also deconstructs the political economy of patriarchal culture. Unlike traditional autobiographers like St. Augustine or Rousseau who have the singular aim to mirror their authentic self by confessing the truth of their life, Kingston does not pretend to depict what Maxine Hong Kingston really is but seeks to construct her textual body as a writing subject, whose pleasure arises from the possibility of re-describing, rather than representing, what she considers as harmful and oppressive to the women of the world in which she now inhabits as well as of the world which she has inherited from her Chinese ancestors. Especially, by rewriting from her own American feminist consciousness the stories which her Chinese immigrant mother has told her, Kingston performs a cross-cultural redefinition of woman`s identity that resists the constraints of patriarchal discourse, and produces a political text that displaces the rigid boundary between the First and `Third worlds or between the mainstream and the marginal, minority existences. Also, the relay of "talk-stories" between Maxine and her mother establishes a Chodorovian mother-daughter continuum which creates, by means of the mother tongue expressed in an lrigarayan female language of "two lips," an aesthetic space of theatre and songs in which the erotic commence between selves and others takes place, facilitating fluid translations between them, while withholding the circuit of the economy of phallogocentrism which operates only for self-aggrandizement at the expense of others.

" 크리스테바의 『 지오토의 환희 』: 색에 드러난 욕망 "

신경원(Kyung Won Shin)
6,400
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Kristeva has successfully established psychoanalysis as an effective tool for analyzing not only individual artists` psyche but cultural practices of diverse kinds including literary texts and paintings. This paper examines how her crucial psychoanalytic concepts, those of the semiotic and the symbolic, are applied to the works of the avant-garde artists, mainly focusing on her analysis of Giotto`s Padua frescoes in her "Giotto`s Joy." The avant-garde literature, maintains Kristeva, creates `productive violence.` By destroying the fixed, homogeneous discourse, it practises a heterogeneous activity of expressing the instinctual, repressed drives into the symbolic code of signification. And this very heterogeneous process is, according to Kristeva, exactly what is happening in Giotto`s paintings when he uses color to erupt the semiotic. Kristeva`s primary concern in Giotto`s paintings is, however, not the narrative signified of the frescoes which delivers the orthodox Christian message but the space filled with color. According to Kristeva, Giotto uses color, particularly that of blue, as an ultimate strategy of transgressing the given norms and customs of his time including Christianity and the contemporary narrative and pictorical traditions. Giotto`s freedom in his pictorial practice also reveals the paradoxical process of liberation many artists go through; they seek freedom by traversing boundaries of the semiotic and the symbolic, but that freedom cannot be said a complete one but a relative escape from the symbolic order to the semiotic, the escape which can occur only within the realm of the symbolic. Due to her heavy reliance on Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis, many critics are quite unsparing in their critiques of Kristeva`s rather conservative attitude toward it This paper then examines to what extent Kristeva`s theory of the semiotic stays within the existing psychoanalytic framework by concentrating on her analysis of Giotto`s jouissance through color.
7,800
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Psychoanalysis and feminism has kept an awkward relation both as allies and enemies. In my paper, I will focus on the phenomena of the two fields` animosity agaist each other, by dealing with how `the theological fathers` such as Freud and Lacan exploit female patients` psyche in construction and maintenance of their own theoris on female hysteria and how the feminists react to their phallogocentric readings of the female patients. I showed mainly how a young girl named Dora by Freud suffers from Freud`s apptication of his main theory of overdetermination and Oedipus complex on her stories. Freud interprets words and behaviors, not to mention, her dreams as proving her desire for Mr. K and her father in an overdetermined way. For example, Freud interprets her physical illness of catarrh in four different ways, all pointing to her sexual desire for Mr. K In interpreting her symptoms in this overdetermined way, Freud burdens her with heavily sexual contents, such as fellatio, by accusing her of having the fantasy of fellatio which she imagines her father enjoying with Mrs. K On the other hand, Lacan who proclaims himself to be the true inheritor of Freud and his theological legacy further puts Dora in chains, by making her dependent on man to gain her own identity as a woman. While revising Freud`s view of Dora, Lacan defines Dora as somebody who needs to identify herself with man in order to gain her femininity. This view of Lacan can be explained in his own theological idea of "alienating vell". In Dora`s case, she is bound by the alienating vell, "subject or(vell) femininity". This means that if she chooses subject, her feminity is excluded by her choice and if she chooses femininity, she is not able to keep herself as a subject, either because she has to identify herself as a man for her pursuit of feminity or because her subject is exclued by her choice. The reaction to these patriarchal readings of Dora can be divided into the reading of "the dutiful daughters" and that of "resistant daughters." The former reading of Dora is represented by Jacqueline Rose who reads Dora in conforminty of Lacan`s alienating vell and the latter reading of Dora is represented by He´le`ne Cixous who regards Dora as confoundging the patrarchal system and shows her defiant spirit against Frued. Considering the two readings, it is proved that the latter reading is more constructive and healthy to feministic issues and the former reading produces no peculiar creative effect other than an update post-feminist reading which professes that we don`t no need definite female subjectivity for the purpose of feminism. In conclusion, this paper claims the need to take up the position of the defiant daughters to the patriarchal theorists in psychoanalysis and the need to produce a sister(companion) reading of Freud`s reading of Dora, by devling into Freud`s diaries and letters in the early 2000 years when the materials will be released from Frued`s archive and see why Freud read Dora in such an overdetermined and patriarahchal way.

" 『 율리시즈 』연구 : 바흐찐의 다성성과 여성의 목소리 "

안정숙(Jeong Sook Ahn)
6,400
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Joyce questions and challenges the suppositions of conventional literary realism by imitating a variety of discourse modes from daily life. He experiments with the styles of such non-literary discourses as journalism, advertising, pop songs, sentimental novels, proverbs, euphemisms, slangs. The narrative voice in Ulysses undergoes constant shifts and transformations from "Aeolus"(the 7th episode). In "Nausicaa"(the 13th episode), the reader encounters the split narrative voices parodying one another. Joyce sets his comic genius against the cliches and figurative language, highlighting their inappropriateness and suggesting the reality stands outside the descriptive range of ordinary or literary language. Gerty MacDowell in "Nausicaa" falls a victim to the contemporary ideologies through immersing herself in the prevailing discourses, but she fictionalizes her hopeless life to make it endurable one. Various discourse modes struggle for the privilege of representing the world in their own terms. By letting the different voices compete, Joyce demonstrates that there exists no absolute style, no single representational system with an exclusive claim on the right to organize the experiences of life.
6,200
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Most women writers of today have felt a moment of uneasiness when they realized that the literary tradition in which they received their educations is scarce of women writers-hence scarce of women`s consciousness and experiences. Some asserted that studying the traditional literary curriculum inhibited women`s drive for self-knowledge because that contained little trace of women`s consciousness of themselves. This paper is about the stnuggle and achievements of three women writers-Anne Sexton and Adrienne Rich-trying to break the hold of oppressive myths and to create their own voices as namers. For Anne Sexton, finding her own language through poetry was a literal release from a self-destructive drive as she was then undergoing an emotional breakdown due to inner conflict about accomplishing successfully the role of "happy American middle class housewife." Likewise, Sylvia Plath by way of presenting various types of persona renders the plight of people, especially women, who feel caught between nature and society, biology and intellect, and their own self-definition and the expectations of others. Her poems reify the human psyche which wants to put an end to the trapped situation in order to gain rebirth as an autonomous and transfigured self. While Sexton and Plath were unconsciously feminist poets, Rich was and is a very active conscious feminist poet. She underlines the necessity of women poets` naming power in female rather than in male terms in order to survive. She concludes that the (woman) poet should be "an instrument in the shape/of a woman trying to translate pulsations/into images for the relief of body/and the reconstruction of the mind."
6,600
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The Handmaid`s Tale visualizes the relationship between female sexuality and power structure in the present society, transforming it into the future tense in the SF novel. Criticizing the antifeminist messages by the New Right Fundamentalist in the 1980s America, Margaret Atwood, a famous Canadian woman writer, pictures in frightening detail just what might follow: the official enslavement of women, their transformation to mere biological function, to be silent as exchangeable and disposable commodities. Mainly dealing with the Handmaid`s work as a sexual slavery, this article shows how the patriarchal political regime officially allows the male possession of female sexuality, especially female fertility stamped as male property in a female body. The naming of the Handmaid is one of the good examples. In the Republic of Gilead, an imaginary theocracy established in the United States, the Handmaid is not existing as a human being but only as a womb, a biological sexual organ, forced to forget her self as an individual. This is the central motif of Atwood`s writing in The Handmaid`s Tale, where she illustrates the destruction of female identity under a master`s ownership.

『 솔로몬의 노래 』: 흑인여성의 숨겨진 내러티브

이승은(Seung Eun Lee)
6,500
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Toni Morrison`s Song of Solomon has been considered that it`s primary concerns lie in the racial discourse. It is not only because the Afro-American folk culture such as myth, storytelling, blues, rootworking, conjuring is deeply embedded in the text, but also because the novel deals with a black man, Milkman`s awareness of self and community, who abandons the white-centered and capitalistic values and accepts the more humanistic and communal Afro-American culture. In this novel, however, some aspects make it irrelevant to read the novel only in terms of the racial discourse. For instance, while the main plot depicts Milkman`s successful search for his past and culture as well as his identity, in the subplot are described the oppressed lives of black women and their failed search for selves. Therefore the black women`s narrative hidden in the subplot undercuts Milkman`s narrative and questions the validity of reading the novel affirmatively in the context of Milkman`s achievements. Morrison, above all, inscribes the woman-centered consciousness in the text by rewriting the white-centered traditional myths and the sexist Afro-American myth. Besides, the moral center of the novel is Pilot, the black woman who leads Milkman to return to his past and recognize his black identity. In this sense, the total meanings of Song of Solomon can be properly understood only when equal attention is paid to the hidden narrative of black women. Thus Morrison succeeds in revealing the forgotten or forcibly buried lives of black women. The narrative of black women shows that the narrow and frustrated lives of most black women and the discontinuity or absence of their female tradition are inseparably related to not only the patriarchal society but the crisis of the contemporary black community in general which assimilates the white middle class values and the ideology of post capitalism.

카릴 처칠의 『 펜 』( Caryl Churchill's Fen ) : 감시와 훈련 그리고 변화의 힘

이해영(Hai Young Lee)
5,900
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Churchill has been writing plays about women since 1950. Her constant concern has been about women and their situations in the society both in the past and the present. She digs up the past to shed light on the present situations of women. In her plays, Churchill emphasizes the helping relationships amongst women. This theme, under the name of sicialist-feminism, has been explored through Top Girls and Cloud Nine. Fen written in 1983 centers on Fenland in east Anglian farm in England. In 1630 Fen has been turned into a dry and fertile land after the forceful draining of the area. In this land, women has been toiling in the field packing onions, sorting out stones, and digging potatoes. Their work has repeated itself till it is imbedded in as a daily part of the human activities. Both a field supervisor Tewson and a Japaness businessman represent as the embodiment of the conventional tradition and capitalism. Under the surveillance the women workers perform disciplined manual labor in the field even when it is icy cold. Naturally Fenwomen--Val, Angela, Nell, and Shirley--despair at the situation; they long for an exit through romance, song and drink. They also resist against the oppression. In this respect, Nell becomes an advocate for other fellow workers by demanding their rightful due. Ivy also reminds them of the workers` collective movement of the past. Finally they attain the spiritual strength not to yield to the oppression, but to lead their own life independently. Though the newly gained strength is tenuous, it empowers Churchill`s stage with hope and light.
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