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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

영미문학페미니즘검색

Feminist Stidies in English Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-9689
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 4권 0호 (1997)
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Slave naratives written by female writers have remained in obscurity for over a century. However, two very important works by black women writers have recently been discovered and their authenticity has been proved; Harriet Wilson`s Our Nig which is the first piece of fiction written by a black woman, and Harriet Jacobs`s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. These two autobiographical works share the generic traits of both the slave narrative and the domestic novel. At the same time they try to revise these genres in order to create a new literary style and space in which they can represent the unique experiences of black women as slaves and mothers. These two writers bring into light the tabooed subjects of sexual exploitation of black slave women by white masters and of interracial marriage between blacks and whites. In the process of writing, they deconstruct the racial and sexual discourse of the dominant whites. Although both Our Nig and Incidents are autobiographical, Our Nig is in a strict sense an autobiographical fiction and Incidents, an autobiography. Harriet Wilson blurs the boundary between fiction and autobiography in order to overcome the limitation of autobiography and creates a unique style. By transcending the generic distinction, she is free to assert her authorial control over her wok and distance herself from the memories of painful experiences. She then foresees the advancement of African-American fiction and connects the slave narrative to the genre of fiction. Jacobs also analyzes and predicts the problems that modern black women, like their slave ancestors of the last century, still have to face. She suggests very modern solutions to these issues such as female bonding to further social change; an alternative to marriage for women; and the politicization of personal experiences. These two women writers, who wrote to enlighten the public and bring about social change, are the pioneers to redirect both the African-American and the women`s literary tradition.

에코페미니즘의 철학적 기초

김욱동(Wook Dong Kim)
6,700
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Ecofeminism has emerged as one of the contemporary literary treories and environmental philosophies that show a desire to supplant the predominant Western anthropocentric environmental frameworks. One of the most promising discourses in Western intellectual life, it has developed from a variety of traditional feminist thoughts of liberal, Marxist, socialist, and radical orientations. In addition, ecofeminism has been indebted for its inspiration and nourishment to diverse environmental movements like Deep Ecology as expounded by Ame Naess and Murray Bookchin`s Social Ecology. Recently thinkers and theorists from these movements have focused their critiques on each other, and substantial differences have emerged. This essay explores some central aspects of this debate to ascertain that they are somewhat compatible despite their apparent differences. It further argues, however, that ecofeminism offers one of the most cogent theories, since it is neither anthropocentric nor biocentric, but eco-centric. Based on the assumption that there is an important link between the domination of women and the domination of nature, ecofeminism is a coherent framework for gender and ecological reconstruction. Ecofeminism presents itself as a "saving grace" for both human beings and nonhuman nature on this planet.
6,400
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The idea that art was, for a woman practitioner, `cursed` and `destructive` prevailed in the early and mid-nineteenth century but weakened greatly by its end This change was partly due to the rapidly increased number of women both as writers, especially in the form of novel and as readers, the consumers, of these `novel` products. However, women poets albeit their age old traditional act of writing poetry compared to the newer phenonenon of women novelists had been ignored or unnoticed in the midst of dominant male literary tradition The genre of poetry has been an area where conflict and fear of women writers permeated the artistic commune as a result of women`s being ignored, silenced and marginalized in the patriarchal literary tradition. Thus, quite a number of women poets in the early period expressed their emotional burdens in the act of writing as well as justifying their creative urge. The confession of Elizabeth Barrett Browning, "Where are the poetesses? I look everywhere for grandmothers and see none" was a clear testimony for a female literary tradition. This paper attempts to examine how women poets` writings themselves could have been manifestations and strategies for seeking their own grandmothers (the female literary tradition) through some chosen works of Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Christina Rossetti. The heroine in Browning`s masterpiece Aurora Leigh was thitherto an unprecedented character in terms of her vocation as a woman poet who had to justify passionately the act of a woman`s writing and its raison d`etre. In a period when the development of feminine gentility was considered as a woman`s utmost virtue, Aurora Leigh, who made a professional avowal: "I, too, have my vocation. . . work to do . . .most serious work" had to confront invisible ghosts of the adamant prejudices and conventions of the Victorian era. In the end Aurora Leigh as Barrett Browning`s own poetic persona established a position of literary grandmother in herself. On the other hand, "Goblin Market" by Christina Rossetti reveals an unconscious search for "grandmothers" through the two sisters` trial and final overcoming of symbolic patriarchal power. This could be read as a manifestation of the unconscious, imaginative Utopian realm of Christina Rossetti herself, the spinster woman writer who had always worked in the midst of male centered Pre-Raphaelite discourse. Whether the writer sought female literary tradition consciously like Elizabeth Barrett Browning or unconsciously like Christina Rossetti through their alter-egos, Marian, Aurora Leigh, Lizzie and Laura, the two women poets by becoming "grandmothers" themselves shed light on the way to establishing a female literary tradition within a milieu which even today is still to a great extent phallogocentric.
5,700
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This thesis is an analysis of one characteristic aspect of Fielding`s satire, that is, his serious social satire through the `beau` characters and cases of sex reversal. Sex reversal is apparently the primary device by which Fielding casts Joseph Andrews as yet another parody of Richardson`s Pamela after Shamela. He has Lady Booby in place of Mr. B and Joseph the footman in Pamela`s shoes, thus reversing the man/master v. woman/servant relationship in Pamela. He also renders an equally intriguing case of sex reversal towards the end of Book IV, in which `Beau` Didapper narrowly escapes rape by the formidable Slipslop, only because Parson Adams mistakes him for a `soft-skinned` woman. In neither case, however, is sex reversal simply a parodic or farcical device. Lady Booby and Beau Didapper, the woman displacing a man and the feminized man, both from the beau monde or high society, are the characters that best reveal Fielding`s concerned satire at the failure and impotency of contemporary patrician classes. Beau Didapper, along with his precursors Lord Dapper in The Historical Register for the Year 1736 and Eurydice Hissed and young Squire Booby in Shamela, typifies in burlesque the patricians who, preoccupied with gratifying private desires and self-interests, totally disregard what Fielding believed to be their public obligations in preserving good morals and culture of the age. Didapper`s characteristic action of admiring his own self in the looking glass betrays not just self-indulgent effeminacy but implicit sexual impotence, too, which Fielding renders representative of patricians` impotency at all levels, political, moral, or cultural. Likewise, it is significant that Fielding`s Lady Booby, especially from the opening of Book IV onwards, appears as a failed `Patroness`, a typical eighteenth-century absentee landowner, not simply an amorous middle-aged woman. Her take-over of the Booby estate aptly represents the `fatherless` world of Joseph Andrews where all fathers, except Parson Adams, are dead, missing, or neglectful, which is eventually the consequence of patrician classes` deserting their paternalist duties as it is embodied in Lady Booby. Both Lady Booby`s and Beau Didapper`s cases evidence that the gist of Fielding`s social satire, at its most intriguing, is cast in the language of sex reversal and sexual (im)potence.

허 난설헌과 에밀리 디킨슨의 시를 통해 본 시안의 문제

허혜정(Hye Jung Huh)
7,200
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The problem feminist studies face today is the tendency to avoid our own tradition of literary context. My paper examines oriental feminist literary theory and the concept of the `Poetic-Eye` which stems from the Chinese classic literary theory of Taoism Korean classic literary thought is a combination of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and many arguments of poetics have emerged from these philosophies and religions. The distinction between the eye of western context and the eye of eastern meaning should be carefully observed. This concept of the eye refers to the concept of the gaze. In this paper, the eastern eye/gaze does not relate to an outer eye but more closely to the inner eye. Taoism placed special meaning upon the word; however, the word cannot define truth and self yet suggests its presence. Therefore, the word itself and silence cannot be distinguished; one becomes the other. Words cannot express real meanings. The special point of the `Poetic-Eye` is found somewhere between emptiness and form; in other words, it is found within the dynamic field of text. The `Poetic-Eye` illustrates universal creative force, great sources of writing, and the core of fantasy which is connected with the reader`s apprehension. `Tao` means `the way to truth,` and the `Poetic-Eye` implies `the way to the truth of the text.` My paper analyzes Huh Nansulhun`s text and Emily Dickinson`s poetry by applying the concept of the `Poetic-Eye.` Both writers are unique and creative poets in the literary tradition of Korea and North America. Their poetry is often chaotic and rebellious because the poets rejected the myth of female inferiority and embraced androgynous manners and consciousness. In my study, I have found the poets` androgynous voices and codes that lead to a deconstructive literary fantasy. Their poetry functions as channels displaying the `Poetic-Eye` in various formats. I hope that feminists will also take a fresh look at our own tradition of literature.

베키 샾의 허구적 ' 성공 ' : 『 허영의 시장 』 의 고찰

김정매(Jung Mai Kim)
5,300
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This paper aims to read closely Becky Sharp`s character and its significance in relation to the total picture of the "Vanity Fair" as well as to Thackeray`s authorial intention. Although Thackeray subtitled Vanity Fair "A Novel Without Hero", most readers and critics agree that the unforgettable Becky Sharp is the heroine of the novel and plays the critical role in showing us the hypocrisy and vanity of the Victorian upper middle and high classes. Becky, in a sense classless because orphaned, is free to move between classes and is able to reach beyond her given social status by manipulating people`s vanity and self-interest. She struggles by witty, yet painful, strategies to obtain a suitable husband - one with wealth and a recognised position in society. Although traditionally she has been regarded only as an embodiment of evil and an example of sinful deceit and false virtue, we can admire her various artistic talents and social graces providing characters with great pleasure and joy even though for limited periods, especially if we separate virtue from chastity in evaluating her strengths. Language plays a vital role in her social success. Even though she is accomplished at piano and charade, the main tool of her social ascent is her witty talk Thackeray seriously doubted whether art and language could genuinely represent the true state of human life. If we view the nature and role of Becky from this point of view, we can infer that Thackeray staged Becky to show the false limitations of art and language in addition to his attempt to mirror the artifices of the upper Victorian society. Besides he seems to have attempted to satirize the equally narrow Victorian concept of "virtue".
6,000
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The characteristic appeal of cinema has mainly derived from its mode of production that combines the aesthetic with the real politik, weaving pleasurable images into the narrative which produces power and knowledge. The screen has allured the audience to become its accomplice by presenting them a unusual gift of radiant spectacle in which pleasure, power, and knowledge coexist. In other words, the audience get a surrogate satisfaction of desire as a small reward for their participation in the (re)production of the socio-cultural economy of which the film is an apparatus. Attending to feminist film theories, therefore, one may easily conclude that both the subject and the object of cinematic visual pleasure are overdetermined by the traditional gender ideology of patriarchy, for those films have been produced and circulated by the regimes of phallogocentric culture. However, any field of (re)production of hegemonic relations is potentially a field of subversion and revision as well, because of the internal contradictions in them. If there should be any good in an artistic practice, it would be in the creation of a fiction that goes beyond a simple, foundational re-presentation of historical relations of production, precipitating a change of them Playing with such a logic, one can consider the possibility of a film which is produced in the existing cinematic frame, but which does not operate in collusion with patriarchal economy -- a film that suggests an alternative to phallogocentrism. Reviewing Bigas Luna`s Jamon Jamon and La Teta y la Luna, this paper first discusses how male cinematic conventions reinforce patriarchy by channelling the destructive drives of the latter through the pleasure-power nexus of narrative films, and, second, attempts to find a cinematic possibility of female erotism as a radical alternative to the male cinematic conventions as well as to the closed circuit of what I call `the economy of the Same` of patriarchal capitalism.
5,800
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After his famous meeting with Nathaniel Hawthorne at a picnic on August 5, 1850, Melville rewrites and transforms Moby-Dick from an adventure story which mainly focuses on whaling activities, like his earlier narrative stories such as Typee, Omoo, Redburn, and White Jacket, into a more metaphysical story. Although there have been numerous and diverse interpretations by critics on the metaphysical concerns of Moby-Dick for many years, I would argue that partly this story tells of Melville`s own literary ambition and aspiration to become a writer comparable to such literary geniuses as Shakespeare and Hawthorne, both of whom he praised in "Hawthorne and His Mosses" (1850), an essay written immediately after his first meeting with Hawthorne and a kind of literary manifesto, which enables us to predict the directions of Melville`s post-1850 writings. I would also argue that Moby-Dick embodies Melville`s thoughts on his authorship, kinds of works he wants to write, and his ideal readership through characterization of Captain Ahab and lshmael as figures of an artist and an ideal reader. However, in Moby-Dick, as in "Hawthome and His Mosses," Melville excludes women or the feminine from the very heroic task of pursuing the "dark truth"--which can be detected not by the superficial mass audience doting on amusement but only by a few select; eagle-eyed elite--by defining the task as an act which can be performed only by a heroic and great masculine genius. This paper examines Melville`s binary gender notion revealed in Moby-Dick and its relationship with his idea of masculine authorship along with his family life as a writer at this time.
5,400
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The beginning of the American vision of Utopia seems to be rooted in the conception of America as the ideal Other to Europe. Thus, one of the most compelling questions permeating the American psyche is that of how America must seek to redeem the world. American history, however, reveals that building a "new" world in a new land was a mere repetition of patterns of the old civilization of which America desired to be purged In repressing what was considered inferior and undesirable, America was deceiving herself and distorting others. In so doing, a "true" history of American including, for example, the history of the Indians, remained unwritten or forgotten. Hawthorne views the American utopian vision as one based on the evasion of the truth and hence unable to provide the moral force necessary for creating a genuinely new social order. He indicates that to overcome the exclusion and the false consciousness perpetuated by self-deception, America must cultivate and maintain a sense of history that acknowledges the repressed. In The Blithedale Romance, Hawthorne attributes the failure of the American utopian vision to its inability to accept reality as it is. The dominant male voices, Coverdale and Hollingsworth respectively desire an unalienated life and a philanthropic ideal, but conitinue to oppress and negate the life-nurturing elements embodied in Zenobia. Because they fear of losing their hegemonic control over reality, they refuse to listen to their inner voices and fail to respond to Zenobia, hence nullifying the possibility of a new beginning. Hawthorne reveals how individual relationships repeat the power structures of society and asserts that a historical perspective is needed for rendering an American utopian vision free from self-evasion.

「 페넬로페 」 - 여성의 목소리와 여성적 글쓰기

안정숙(Jeong Sook Ahn)
5,800
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James Joyce has been regarded as one of male chauvinists amomg feminist critics. He seems to be a mysogynist to say "I hate women who know anything," when asked to acknowledge of his debt to Freud and Jung by Mary Colum. He presents an ignorant, sensual, and straightforward woman character, Molly Bloom, who resembles his wife, Nora Barnacle, in Ulysses. In the last episode of Ulysses, "Penelope," Joyce comes back home finishing his Ulysses of writing. He returns from a long journey of experiments in which he subverts all kinds of conventions of narrative. Admitting prestige neither of the author nor of the narrator, he claims there is no absolute consciousness that articulates the narrative. But in the end he returns to a single credible narrator, Molly. He finds out the possibility of subversion in woman`s voice. Woman`s narrative voice has characteristics like repetition, cycle, rhythm which stem from woman`s biological experience. Molly`s soliloquy has no correct structure, punctuation, and logic, in short, conventions of the language, law of father. Ulysses can be taken as an example of feminine writing which gives us jouissance as a semiotic text.
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