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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

영미문학페미니즘검색

Feminist Stidies in English Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-9689
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 6권 1호 (1998)

『 저택 』 : 포크너 여성상의 새로운 자리매김

강희(Hee Kang)
6,100
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This paper attempts to redefine the "radical" nature of Faulkner`s accomplishment in his configuration of Linda`s feminine- just how different, how unprecedented, and how revolutionary she is--within Southern cultural and contemporary theoretical contexts. Recently a feminist scholar like Minrose Gwin expresses the entrapment of feminine creativity within patriarchy in Faulkner`s fiction. This study moves beyond Gwin`s idea of the feminine entrapment to demonstrate the author`s construction of a radically creative and unprecedentedly modern feminine. Refusing to surrender herself as a victim of the patrarchy, Linda in her deaf voice defiantly breaks the "vault of silence," conceives her own seductive yet threatening feminine desire by interrogating men`s logic, and finally undoes and subverts the patriarchal authority, law, and language. Responding to the underlying historical flux of the new, modern South, Faulkner`s "last thoughts on the subject of women" have no shadow of the conventional patriarchal feminine images--commodified, objectified, mythologized, rehabilitated, and finally silenced. He departs radically from the views shown in his earlier female characters, especially Linda`s mother Eula Varner Snopes. In The Mansion, Faulkner through Linda changes the landscape of woman`s space in his fictional world, tracing a trajectory from the space of victimization, betrayal and death to a newly configured feminine space of desire, autonomy and freedom.

엘리엇의 절제된 여성문제 인식 : 『 애덤 비드 』 의 서술 전략

고영란(Young Ran Koh)
6,700
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This article illuminates why and how George Eliot has her feminist viewpoint restrained in her first novel, Adam Bede. The proposition of this article is that Eliot`s feminism is subtly contained within the main narration regarding the idealistic representation of the pastoral life. Many have criticized the story`s sudden change in focus from Hetty`s tragic romance to Adam`s `Bildungsroman,` the narrator`s contradictory attitude to Hetty, and Dinah`s sudden metamorphosis from a Methodist preacher to Adam`s wife. Recently the feminist critics, complaining about the unconvincing change of Dinah, suspected that Eliot forsook her feminist agenda only to compromise with male-centered convention. This seeming inconsistency, however, can be properly understood if Eliot`s urgent need to suppress her feminist viewpoint is taken into consideration. This article reveals Eliot`s keen consciousness of conservative readers has her feminism restrained. In order to prevent the possible resentment of readers against her feminism, Eliot creates the narrator who asserts to be similar to the readers in terms of conventional attitude. But, keeping distance from the narrator, she reveals the unnaturalness or unconvincingness of the narrator as well as of the development of the story. In doing so, she can still present her feminist perspective. In this respect, Adam Bede can be said to vividly exhibit the wonderful ability of Eliot to represent her deep awareness of feminism.

흑인 여성주의 비평에 대한 비평적 소고

김애주(Ae Ju Kim)
5,800
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When several positions of black feminists are taken into account, the genealogy of black feminist criticism seems to be in a dialectic process of two poles; race/gender-oriented interpretation and the neutral dominant theory. The critical position of the former focuses on the black female`s unique experience and character for correct and profound understanding of black women`s writings. On the other hand, the latter insists on using the dominant (white/male) theory in order to make black feminist criticism progress toward an academic field. Both approaches seem to conflict and the friction between them, i.e., a black female tradition and academic centrality has been rendered into an eclecticist position. This process is a political gesture of the marginalized to develop their critical status and enter into the dominant in the critical field, With a critical scrutinization of their positions and their arguments against each other, this paper shows that black feminist criticism is apt to work out double strategies, which are common not only in black and feminist literary criticism but also in gay and post-Colonial criticism. The strategies are found to throw their ideological inscription into relief by using the dominant theory constructed by white males. It would be rational to say that all minority critical discourses share "the same side of otherness" and that there are grounds for using the same strategy. Thus, it is moderately or highly probable that black feminism is classified under the rubric of postcolonialism. Hopefully, generalizing black feminist criticism from the perspective of postcolonialism, as this paper does, shall shed light on the prospect of black feminist criticism.

『 설득 』 에 나타난 도덕 개혁 : 후기식민주의적 일기

박상기(Sang Kee Park)
6,300
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Persuasion is a story about an educated gentlewoman. However, this is not simply about a woman`s life, but also about the social changes of early nineteenth-century Britain. An abused woman in the gentry, Anne reveals its social contradictions better than any other character in the novel. As a "mediator," she discloses the clash between the modern social discourse about equality and the feudal social discourse of aristocratic prestige. Austen presents Anne`s internal and caring morality as a remedy for the moral corruption in the gentry. However, because of her dependent social position as a woman, she cannot actively reform the corrupt gentry. For this reason, the moral reform of gentry society needs some other external forces. Through courtship as an educating process, Anne helps to make an ideal moral reformer out of Wentworth, a representative of the new naval force. Considered from a postcolonial perspective, especially in the historical context of the Napoleonic Wars, this moral reform has a new "national" meaning. At that time, the monarchy and aristocracy showed not only moral corruption, but also a predilection for the French style of life. For this reason, their moral corruption posed a threat to the whole nation beyond the limits of a social group. In this situation, the navy actively participated in the imperial conflict with France and laid a foundation for the British Empire by winning the war. Austen describes this victorious navy as a reforming force by adding their "domestic virtue" to their "national importance." As an outsider within the gentry, Anne ultimately shows the possibility of reforming that corrupt society with the aid of the naval force, particularly Wentworth`s reconciliation between traditional refined manners and democratic care for others.

『 황무지 』 : 에코페미니스트의 비젼을 기다리며

신양숙(Yang Sook Shin)
6,300
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The paramount social issue that was at stake around 1919, when Eliot is said to have begun to plan for The Waste Land, must have been the First World War just ended and the appalling reality of destruction it had resulted in. On top of it all, 1919 was the year in which hot discussion was being made, throughout the European society, concerning the Treaty of Versailles, whether it was to lead to another huge destruction, namely, the end of the Europian society as a whole. The fundamental pattern of the problem that Eliot saw under the circumstances, and dramatized in The Waste Land, was the "dominator mentality" of the people in power and the huge destruction of life as a result of it. In this particular point The Waste Land can be said to have been initiated by the same impulse that brought the ecofeminists into existence in the latter half of the twentieth centuty. For the dominator mentality of man and its dangerous tendency for destroying life is the main point of the criticism the ecofeminists have directed against the western patriarchal society for having brought the whole mankind to the brink of total ecodestruction. Further, the solution The Waste Land presents for the problem of life destroyed is to be found in some of the ancient human traditions -- another point the vision of The Waste Land merges, or rather seems to merge, with that of the ecofeminists. The ancient human traditions of the poem, the Nature Cults of primitive people, and more importantly, the "Grail romances" of the medieval period, however, are represented in such a fragmentary way as suggest their selective, not total, adoption on Eliot`s part. The solution of The Waste Land departs, at this point, from the pure desire of the primitive people for the state of life, and thereby, from that of the ecofeminists who argue for the necessity for the total reclamation of the ancient human traditions that exhibited the pure desire for the state of life.

H. D. 의 신화 수정작업으로서의 시쓰기

연점숙(Jeon Suk Yeon)
6,300
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In many poetry anthologies, H.D. is treated merely as a member of the Imagist who wrote a handful of short and intense poems. It is apparent that H.D. as a poet has been trivialized and omitted considering the importance and significance of her major works, Trilogy or Helen in Egypt. The male tradition usually dubbed her as an escapist poet whose Greece had no connection with the Greece of actuality. This criticism was not applied to other male poets, Keats, Matthew Arnold or Edgar Allan Poe in their Greece. It is noteworthy that her birth as a poet is related to a series of illustrious men like Ezra Pound, Aldington, D.H. Lawrence, Cecil Gray, and Kenneth Macpherson who functioned as "initiators." She often engaged in what literary critic DuPlessis called `romantic thralldom` with men. But what she took away from them was transformed into a revisionary mythology that reflected her lifelong effort to understand her identity as a woman and a poet. Her lyrics, "Helen," "Eurydice," and "Fragment Thirty-Six", (the Sappho poem) capture her personal sexual conflict and her conviction that these female characters were misrepresented in established literature. Hence H.D. unveils a distorted image of Helen of Troy by patriachal culture. On the other hand, Eurydice not Orpheus is given the voice to speak her side of perspective. A more fundamental female position is projected on her long poem Trilogy. Trilogy composed as a response to the disintegration of self and civilization in world War II argues that a world at war looses touch with the female forms of divinity, that the search for life amid death is inextricably linked with the recovery of the Goddess. The poet`s alchemical purification of language initiates the necessary revision of myth in occidental culture and restores Venus, whose name has come to stand for "venery," her original and ancient power. H.D. restored the Goddess, the "Lady" who resembles the madonna of Christian tradition, or powerful Isis of Egyptian religion embodying salvation and rebirth. But she appears without the Child, the male symbol of salvation. Instead, she carries a book of life whose pages are blank, waiting to be inscribed anew by the poet or the women poets, perhaps descendents of Woolf`s Judith Shakespeare.
6,500
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This article explores Korean university students` responses to Jane Eyre and compares their responses focussed on the gender consciousness in two courses: the "English and American Novel" course offered in 1995 to English major sophomore students and the "Gender in Literature" course offered in 1996 to students from any year and any major subject. In the "English and American Novel" course in 1995, Rochester`s materialistic proposal elicited the most contrasting responses from men and women students. Men students were sympathetic with Rochester`s gesture, while women students were not satisfied with it. This results from their dating experiences, influenced by the contemporary courtship culture in Korea. The most important impact of this course on students, especially women students, was the contemplation of their future jobs in Korean society and the recognition of the fundamental importance of women`s economic abilities, which would enable them to live as independent human beings. In the "Gender in Literature" course in 1996, students` responses varied according to their gender identity as well as the range of their autobiographical experience. The students` responses in this course were much more diversified than those in the English Studies course. Each student`s autobiographical experience was a more influential factor in changing their ways of thinking. It was very interesting that in this group, unlike the former groups of students, only men students paid attention to the economic inequality between Jane and Rochester and the crucial influence of the subversion in the ending. In looking at the relationship between Jane and Rochester, men students` perceptions imply they are more practical and realistic while women students are more emotional and sentimental. The students in the "Gender in Literature" course participated more actively in every programme, liberated from reading the foreign language text. Students` imaginations and responses in the "Gender in Literature" course were more directly connected to Korean social reality and influenced by its nature and structure. The most fascinating peculiarity in both courses emerges as the concurrent multiple dynamics of crossing over as well as deconstructung many kinds of boundaries. In particular, the collusion and the web of intrigue between gender identity boundaries are extremely exciting and remarkable, because they provide an imaginary map of gender formation and gender change in Korean cultural context.

『 베니스의 상인 』 : 포오샤를 중심으로 본 성 역할의 문제

이윤주(Yoon Joo Lee)
5,600
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The enormous economic and demographic as well as political changes experienced by early modern England were registered in the social fabric as acute anxiety about the breakdown of conventional hierarchies, especially female transgression against traditional gender roles. As gender was a significant way of representing social relations, the playwrights of early modern England dramatized unstable gender relations and explored assumptions about women in their plays. Shakespeare, in particular, examined patriarchal authority and its limits as well as the responses of women to this authority and their limits in his plays. This paper focuses on Portia`s transgression of the rigid divisions of gender roles. In The Merchant of Venice, Portia represents an androgynous ideal; she refuses to accept conventional stereotypes for female behaviour. Transvestite Portia proves herself a more potent man in the court scene than any of her masculine characters through her resourceful manipulation and legal argument. Her transvestism, attendance at the court, cuckoldry jokes and financial management all constitute much threat to the patriarchal order. However, Shakespeare apparently resolves the threat to the comic world that Portia herself embodies when she returns the ring to her husband in the end. Through her ability which was thought to belong to men only, we can conclude that gender roles are not fixed by nature but by culture and institution.
6,500
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As a Chinese American writer, Maxine Hong Kingston, has attempted to delineate the unique experience of Chinese immigrants in America, including their cultural backgrounds. In her first autobiographical novel, The Woman Warrior, she focuses in particular on the sexism which still lingers as part of the Asian legacy in Chinese America and the angry agony of American-born daughters who are still confined in that longstanding custom. The author describes the protagonist`s struggle for self-definition amid complex cultural and historical legacies. She, as a young girl, had a double-edged and contradictory feeling toward her mother who, on the one hand, enforced her to follow the suppressed model of traditional Asian women, but, on the other hand, induced her to seek a self-reliant life by telling her many legendary lives of independent women like the woman warrior, Fa Mu Lan. Accordingly, the protagonist projects her hatred toward her mother in the beginning of the book, and then gradually comes to reconcile with her mother. Forbidden by her mother to tell a secret, unable to read aloud in English while first attending American school, the protagonist eventually speaks with a vengeance through writing, that is, through a heroic act of self-expression. In China Men, Kingston shows her broadened concern into men, as she always says that, "I care about men as much as I care about women." In fact, Chinese American women may be sympathetic to but angry toward the men in their ethnic community. This work reveals the author`s double allegiance. First of all, Kingston depicts the similarities between China men`s and women`s suffering from the perspective of a repressed and marginalized ethnic group in the white-dominated society of the US. China men are also the Other, the silenced and oppressed in America. The protagonist, in the persona of an immigrant daughter, can communicate with the emotionally constrained father, who has concealed his story and history from his children under layers of rage and silence. Taciturn men like her father can speak indirectly through her of their deepest frustrations, and the protagonist can reconstruct their untold history, depending sometimes on her imagination and interpretation. The combination of the historically specific, such as the Chinese emigration to the United States, and the folkloric, such as the story of Tang Ao, characterize the core of this work. As Tang Ao symbolizes the emasculation of Chinese men by the dominant white culture, Chinese American men are urged to see parallels between their plight and that of Chinese American women. At the same time, the author identifies herself with Tang Ao, enters the realm of the other gender, and becomes "the kind of woman who loves men and tells their stories." Kingston`s attempt to understand and write about the opposite sex in China Men is perhaps a tacit call for mutual empathy between Chinese men and women. Although Kingston started her writing from the perspective of feminist, she shifted her concern into the realm of androgyne, which admits the differences between the sexes but urges each sex to supplement a want of the other for mutual development. Based on the idea of androgyne, Kingston is able to express much deeper affection toward human beings. Kingston`s attitude keeps her from being limited in being called a simple feminist writer.
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