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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

영미문학페미니즘검색

Feminist Stidies in English Literature


  • - 주제 : 어문학분야 > 영문학
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 연3회
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1226-9689
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 8권 1호 (2000)
6,800
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This paper examines Caryl Churchill`s feminist politics manifested in her 1985 play, A Mouthful of Birds. In this work, Churchill demonstrates a strong postmodern impulse not only in her revision of historical materials like The Bacchae and the biography of Herculine Barbin but also in her practice of Irigarayan mimicry. Churchill`s theater in the 1980s has consistently shown the political significance of decentering unitary notions of identities like gender, race, and sexuality. In this regard, one particular theoretical strand in poststructuralist feminist discourse, Judith Butler`s "performativity," which has recently enjoyed wide currency in performance studies, proves useful in discussing Churchill`s feminist politics. Churchill`s major plays, including Cloud Nine and Top Girls, represent gender identities as performative, as effects of the compulsory repetition of gender norms, thus deconstructing their ontological claim to essence and truth. In A Mouthful of Birds, Churchill takes this deconstructive stance one step further as she seeks to proffer possibilities for rerouting the disciplinary performative structure to a liberating performance of desires that have been excluded and rendered invisible in the existing power structure. Collaborating with Lan, an anthropologist, Churchill achieves in this play a unique combination of Butler`s regulatory performativity and the transgressive performance conceptualized by Richard Schechner and Victor Turner, and suggests that the regulatory regime can be effectively resisted by performances of a variety of hidden desires that are released during possessions by spirits. Characters` possession performances mimic the performative structure, but they effect changes in the social structure as well as individual identities. Thus, Churchill`s writing presents itself as a feminist performance that repeats the socio-historical context in order to re-formulate it.

여성주체의 재현과 그 전략 - 마가렛 캐븐디쉬의 『 빛나는 세계 』

박경운(Kyung Woon Park)
6,700
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Margaret Cavendish crossed the 17th Century`s literary convention and gender line by challenging a Utopian narrative and publications which had long been prohibited against women writers. Although the methods such as imperialism, patriarchy, and heterosexuality applied in the text, The Blazing World (1666), seemed quite paradoxical in the feministic perspective, the double strategies that she used should be an effective way to represent female subject under the repressive and male-centered English cultural milieu of that age. Thus, the "self-effacing mask" that she wore covers her resistant discourse and subversive ideas in the fictional world of Utopia, where women protagonists build worlds of their own based upon their own rights, desires, and ambitions without any obstacles. This paper argues that Cavendish`s "eccentricity" asserted in the text mainly implies two major points: 1) it represents woman`s unique world which is not necessarily identified with man`s. In order to represent her female self, Cavendish kept seeking to earn recognition and fame through her own particular public action and merit in her fictional world as well as in her real life; 2) it includes lesbianism and basically asserts separation from marriage and patriarchy as an institution and supports women`s independence, freedom, and autonomy against the patriarchical system. Lesbianism is, in nature, involved in politics because women in the phallo-centric world are regarded as sexual objects under hetero-sexualism as a dominant institution. Duchess of New Castle, the alter ego of the writer would never stop searching for her own right, identity, and ambition in the text. The loving companionship between the two women shows a kind of possibility to proclaim and recover women`s power by supporting and sharing each other`s need. In addition, they show that women just like men also have ambition to plan and govern the world by their own idea politically as well as culturally. Even though this argument may lead to a separatism which may bring another dualism, the bottom line of the argument is that she greatly needed to show and represent women subjects in the conservative society even by using both her masking and revealing strategies.

남성의 시선 , 여성의 몸 - 포크너와 몸의 정치

박정오(Jung Oh Park)
5,600
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It is not difficult to find the desirous male gaze observing the female body in the universe of William Faulkner. The study on the relation between male gaze and female body will shed light on Faulkner`s obscure view regarding women. The body within the dominant Western intellectual tradition seems to have been regarded as the site of unruly passions that might disrupt the pursuit of truth. Also, the identification of women with the body is a familiar idea. While the eye or gaze is deeply related with the mind and spirit, body or touching is constantly associated with the feminine. What has mattered to feminism is the cultural take-up of the mind/body split, and the enduring association of the devalued term with the feminine. Feminists such as Irigaray insist that rather the multiplicity and fluidity of the female body can subvert male discourse and patriarchal structure. The male-subject / female-object dichotomy relatively outstands in Faulkner`s early period but gradually female characters connected with running water or blood flow throughout the texts. The agonizing faun, a recurring autobiographic figure in Faulkner`s poems, just watches the attractive body of the nymph without the fulfillment of his desire. Also, this pattern is repeated in Faulkner`s early novels through the agonizing male characters observing the `epicene` girls. But different from these early faun-like characters, many voyeurs of Faulkner - Quentin Compson, Horace Benbow, Darl Bundren etc. - do not accord with the author himself. Faulkner reveals that their views on women have serious problems and these flaws result from Southern patriarchy. Moreover, Faulkner sometimes succeeds in creating female subjects who, in powerful and creative ways, disrupt patriarchal structures. Addie in As 1 Lay Dying and Charlotte in The Wild Palms are powerful and ubiquitous presences throughout the texts. At the same time, enormous flooding is so dominant that flooding and femininity, we presume, may merge in both works. Flooding deeply related to the fluidity of female body or female desire has in itself the subversive power to exceed boundaries of patriarchal order and Western culture based on the superiority of the mind and logic. Faulkner`s male gaze as a writer gains maturity to the extent of melting totally into the fluidity of the female subjects.

숭엄론의 남성중심주의

손현(Hyun Sohn)
6,300
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The purpose of this study is to read three texts on the sublime in terms of male ideology and to uncover the ways aesthetic discourses work to construct discriminating values and customs of gender in each society. The Greek text by Longinus did the leading role in gendering the sublime as masculine with its "tumescent metaphors" like "uplift[ing]," "exaltation," and "vaunting." By focusing on the distortion involved in his homogenizing understanding of Sappho and Homer as good examples of the masculine sublime I discuss how Longinus employs a violence of unity to establish the sublime as the only masculine norm of art to the exclusion of its feminine mode. It was Burke who founded the misogynist dichotomy of the sublime and the beautiful on the basis of commonly held preconceptions about the innateness and universality of sexual difference. I read a cluster of binary oppositions Burke assembles to ensure the masculine superiority of the sublime and find out instead the logical leap by which a self-professed `philosophical enquiry` and common prejudices interact to naturalize each other. What calls special attention in the Burkean text is that the beautiful is not only opposed but also objectified as a ground on which the sublime can exert its importance as a cure of the evils caused by the former. Thus we witness here the structural fixation of feminine inferiority. Though not so avowedly as Burke, Kant produces another male-centered discourse of the sublime. According to him, while the beautiful consists in the form of the object, the sublime is to be found in an object devoid of form with a hint of limitlessness converging to totality. Only reason, the faculty of mind transcending the standard of sense, ensures the sublime moment in so far as imagination fails to understand the total magnitude of sensual things. Kant means that the inability of the imagination to attain to the Absolute Idea awakens a feeling of a supersensible faculty within us. This so-called "gender specific scapegoating mechanism" is even worsened when Kant presupposes the voluntary act of the imagination to deprive itself of its freedom and so embellishes its sacrifice, which became the romantic strategy of appropriation. By comparing the texts, we see how the aesthetic discourses on the sublime functioned to subjugate the feminine otherness in different ways, but for the same cause.

데리다의 하이멘 경제와 이리가라이의 ' 타자의 타자 '

신경원(Kyung Won Shin)
6,800
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While Irigaray`s Marine Lover of Friedrich Nietzsche is an evident counterpart to Nietzsche, we witness, in a careful reading of it, not only the inversion of Nietzschean ideas but also those of Derrida`s, particularly those expounded in his Spurs. Derrida in Spurs criticizes Lacan`s phallogocentrism and tries to undo the oppositional logic of castration and anti-castration in Nietzsche. In this deconstructive project woman appears as the main trope, and during the process, woman`s body is exploited as an object to dissect. Derrida particularly chooses the hymen and the vagina as tropes for the undecidability of truth, the untruth of truth. Despite his proclamation that deconstruction means to debunk those concepts such as essence, identity, and the hierarchies and oppositions of the phallogocentric metaphysics, Derrida, through exploiting woman and woman`s body for the tropes figuring diffe´rance, does violence to woman. Irigaray mimes Derrida to criticize his dissemination without insemination. Arguing that all genealogy based on the hymeneal logic is a specular auto-gamy, she asserts that the Western metaphysical tradition has constantly tried to displace, transpose, transfer, metaphorize the hystera, the origin of life, to the end of life, the telos. In spite of his decontructive attempts to destabilize identity through diffe´rance and resist both transposition and the teleological tendency in metaphysics, Derrida appears very often chained up in/by this transposition of the hystera. The purpose of Irigaray`s strategic essentialism and mimesis in The Marine Lover of Friedrich Nietzsche as well as in her earlier works is not simply to deconstruct phallogocentrism as Derrida does. The ultimate goal of her project is to construct a female subject-position as the other of the other, not as the other of the same who still remains within the phallic economy. In order to construct a female subject-position, lrigaray risks the charge of being an essentialist by taking an extreme and opposite position, and in this tightly woven phallogocentric system, there is no alternative move but this.

『 딕테 』에 나타난 탈식민적 언어와 파편적 구조

이귀우(Gui Woo Lee)
5,900
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Dicte´e by Teresa Hak Kyung Cha has received relatively little critical attention mainly because the text resists the expectations of representation commonly associated with Asian American literature. It is an experimental work, which combines fragments of citations and captionless photographs and images. It is also a collage of genres, voices, cultures, languages. The text, however, includes many aspects of Cha`s life and her Korean heritage. The critics of Dicte´e are divided into two groups: one group focuses on Cha`s Korean references, and the other group explores the affinities between Dicte´e and other postmodern texts. This paper attempts to show that the seemingly contradictory elements of postmodern and autobiographical work together to produce an intense critique of colonial language. I focus on the relationship between the fragments in the ten parts of Dicte´e, and its creative use of the nine Muses. It is true that each fragment is juxtaposed with the next for collision rather than linkage. The fragments, however, are related by the theme of language. Cha shows that language can be very powerful in uncovering suppressed voices and providing new visions. At the same time, she also shows that language is not transparent but opaque, that it can be used as an ideological apparatus, and that it can be dislocated and fossilized because it is subject to time. Cha`s experience as immigrant and exile gave her different perception and orientation toward language. In Dicte´e, the reader is central in that s/he is the activator of the work. Its fragmented structure invites the readers to produce multiple dimensions to the work by multiple interpretations.

텍스트 『 술라 』에 대한 한국 대학생들의 독자반응연구 - 상호 문화적 성차를 중심으로

이소희(So Hee Lee),이성호(Sung Ho Lee)
7,800
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This paper explores Korean university students` responses to the Afro-American text, Sula, focussing on cross-cultural gender differences. For this research, two kinds of questionnaires are used with two groups of students (undergraduates and graduates), who were all unfamiliar with Sula as a literary text. Firstly, the response preference questionnaire originally designed by Alan C. Purves was used to investigate Korean university students` ways of reading. Its categorizations are Engagement-Involvement, Perception, Interpretation, and Evaluation. Superficially, the two groups responded to the text in similar ways, preferring Perception, Engagement-Involvement, Interpretation, and Evaluation in that order. However, the sub-categories they chose show that the undergraduate students preferred to get objective knowledge from the text, while graduate students gained more enjoyment from the reader`s freedom to fill in the gaps in the text. Secondly, a thematic questionnaire was used to investigate gender differences among the readers. In both groups, women students responded to nine questions from a gender sensitive perspective, while men students responded from a gender neutral perspective. The individual reader`s distance from the text was more visible in the responses of men students than in those of women. Moreover, the response pattern was also different according to gender. Men students paid more attention to facts or episodes in the text, while women students paid more attention to the human relationships or the development of the story.

T. S. 엘리엇의 운문극 다시 보기 - 『 비서 』와 『 원로 정치인 』

정문영(Moon Young Chung)
7,300
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The Confidential Clerk and The Elder Statesman are Eliot`s last two works which conclude a series of verse drama written during his life time. He had insisted that the bonds of woman have to be dissolved for the salvation of the protagonist`s soul because she embodied the danger of man`s own sensory desire. But in the last two plays, especially the final play Eliot surprisingly presents a new view of woman which is very different from the denial of the love of women in his first verse drama of Sweeny Agonistes. This seemingly abrupt change which is neither sudden nor inexplicable makes us re-view Eliot`s verse drama. Eliot and his critics have consciously tried to reduce his play to the Oedipal scenario by disregarding the gaps within the texts which lead to the another stage of anti-Oedipal scenario, i.e., the "Other Scene" of the unconscious of the text. But Eliot in his last plays comes to bring back the repressed women in his life and in his texts on the stage, while re-viewing his accomplishments of verse drama. The critical reviews on the two plays are divided into the two extremely opposite evaluations according to ways to handle the gaps within the texts. we can find the appropriate perspective of evaluating two plays and the whole accomplishments of Eliot`s verse drama by focusing on and analyzing the gaps, instead of compromising and assimilating them into the Oedipal scenario. For this perspective which can see the gaps within the text, Deleuze and Gattari`s familism and anti-Oedipus and Lacan`s reading of Hamlet can be appropriated. From this perspective The two plays can be regarded as parodies of both verse drama and prose drama. Eliot appropriates certain aspects of the high-comedy (prose drama) tradition (the plot of the foundling child), and he also appropriates conventions of classical verse drama, for example, the adequate use of ritual and myth as a paradigm for his theatre which anticipates a postmodern experimental theatre. In this light, we can evaluate Eliot`s verse drama in terms of the history of modern theatre, by Finding out techniques and themes that foreshadow those of our contemporary leading dramatists.

여성과 이산의 미학 - 탈식민주의 페미니즘의 지형도

태혜숙(Hea Sook Tae)
6,200
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The aim of this paper is to present a map of Postcolonial Feminisms which are generated by the critical consciousness of the imperialist racism of Western Feminisms. Postcolonial Feminisms are classified into Black Feminism, Third World Feminism, and Global Feminism. While exploring the difference among these three streams, this paper proposes an aesthetics of diaspora as a common ground of mapping them. This map would locate the critical meanings of sporadic literary criticisms on the english literature from the perspective of postcolonial women. Black Feminism illuminates both the racism of white men and women and the sexism of black men by focusing on the cultural politics of race and gender through the diasporic experiences of deracination and slavery. As a means of recovering black femininity, some Afro-American feminists pay attention to black women`s literature which provides new configurations of black women. This approach, however, tends to overlook the imperialistic mechanisms of the `racialized` capitalism. Third World Feminism emphasizes the locality of third world women as a site of resistance to the imperialistic capitalism. Here, the issue of how to represent the native woman exposed to the cultural discourses of third world nationalism and western imperialism is crucial. She is not pure but corrupted. This means she is already diasporic. Against the localized resistance, Global Feminism insists on the global frame of resistance and solidarity among women communities of various diasporic minorities, which makes us comprehensively recognize the literature of diaspora. To intersect globality, locality, and ethnicity from the perspective of the third world women would be a fruitful way of decolonizing.

여성 시인과 상호텍스테성 - 마리안느 무어의 『 결혼 』을 중심으로

한은원(Eun Won Han)
6,000
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In poststructuralist theory, a text is not a work of an author, but an anonymous and impersonal linguistic process of crossing the various quotations from canonical/non-canonical utterances. This poststructuralist concept of intertexuality can enlarge the hegemonic litetary canon; it can be criticized in that it neglects historically specific social factors of a text. Minor groups, including feminists, who cannot jettison the development of alternative subjectivity to challenge the hegemonic ideology, are especially complicated by the problem of influence and intertexuality. Moore`s long poem "Marriage" provides an example of the dynamics of influence and intertexuality of a woman poet writing in the phallocentric literary canon. Moore displays the authorial agency through responding to major authors in the literary canon; she employs an intertexual subversion to make the literary canon only a small part of a rich cultural intertext through the various quotations from canonical/non-canonical utterances. Her handling of various quotations erodes even the authority of Milton`s Paradise Lost. It is treated not only as a literary treasure but as a raw material with its hegemonic biases. Moore`s marginal subjectivity as a woman poet of recognizing the repressed under the established powers and dispersing the hegemonic biases can be compared with Eliot`s possessive subjectivity of appropriating the canonical ideal.
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