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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

인문논총검색

Seoul National University the Journal of Humanites


  • - 주제 : 인문과학분야 > 기타(인문과학)
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-3021
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 1권 0호 (1976)
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This paper is aimed to clarify what the typical frame is in Korean fiction by analyzing the background of the structure of fiction. The past studies on Korean fiction have analyzed it by the external literary facteis rather than at the standpoint of the literary principles such as ideological, historical and social background. Therefore these methods depend only on the synchronical background and the way how novelists own fundermental elements vary has been ignored. Moreover, since historical method emphasize too much the relation ship between the society and the novel or the period and the novel, the aesthetic system of fiction tend to be ignored. In order to make up for this defect the piinciple of the background should be applied. And the typical frame of Korean fiction is to be clarified in this essay. As a result the followings are produced. Q The classification of the background is not subsidiary means helping to make certain the character and the behavior. While the background appeared in the novels of 19th century played a subsidiary role, in modern fiction the background constructs the metaphorical world as spiritual setting and moreover has its own meaning. ? Time appeared in the fackground can be perceived as the artificial world of consciousness, that is, artificial time. The past novels emphasized the ordering of natural time, but the modern novels include phylosophical meaning of time more strongly by implying the world of consciousness. ? Space appeared in the background, which was subsidiary means, has the side corresponding with the symbolism of the character and the events as a stage meaningful in itself. As a example the symbolism of the cities in ruins shown in the post-war novels can be taken. In conclusion the typical frame in Korean fiction, which is explained through the conception of "time and space" becomes significant in post Korean-war fiction as a gradual development of artificial time and symbolic space.
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프로이드의 정신분석학이 어떠한 과정을 거쳐서 그 기반을 굳혔는가를 단계적으로 고찰하고 이렇게 자리를 잡은 정신분석학이 구체적으로 의미하는바의 것 즉 정신분석학의 중요한 내용들을(무의식의 작용, 본능 억압론, 性역활의 중요성 그리고 웨디퍼스 콤플렉스)분석연구했다. 다음단계 에서는 프로이드가 주로 그의 저서 「文明과 不滿들」 에서 정신분석 학의 중요한 내용들 하나하나를 文明의 槪念과 연관지어 고찰해 나간것을 연구했다. 프로이드에 의하면 종교, 도덕, 사회 그리 고 예술 모두가 웨디퍼스 콤플렉스에 그 기원을 두고 있고 또 이 콤플렉스가 온갖 종류의 신경질환의 핵심을 이룬다. 그리하여 그는 그의 저서에서 인간 문명의 냉혹한 요구들과 그의 정신분석 과정에저 발견한 사실들을 대조지켜 고찰하고 그의 소위" 현실 원칙" 과 "쾌락의 원칙"을 적용시켜 신경질환은 문명이 인간에게 부당하게 강요하는 여러가지 본능의 억압에서 비롯되는 것으로 진단을 내린다. 결과적으로 그는 문명이인간이 인생을 즐길 수 있는 量을 캄소시켜서 인간을 불행하게 만들고 있다고 선언한다. 그 치료 책으로서는 본능의 억제를 가능한한 감소시키고 불가피한 약간의 제약은 다른 방법으로 보장하도록 해야 한다고 갈파하고 있다.

현실표현(現實表現)의 문제(問題)

이상옥 ( Sang Gok Lee )
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This paper presupposes that, despite the enormous critical achievements during the last two decades following the Conrad revival of the early ``fifties, there has never been any thoroughgoing effort to make an overall survey of Conrad``s idea of reality and to define the problems deriving from his artistic attempt to represent it in fiction. The present writer examines, discusses, and evaluates various primary sources with a view to formulating by an inductive method theories concerning the representation of reality. The materials used consist of Conrad``s personal letters, prefaces to the collected works, critical writings, autobiographical reminiscences, and in some instances even passages from his fictional writings. In the first section Conrad``s idea of truth, history, and fiction is discussed, while the second section deals with various artistic difficulties that Conrad had to solve in the course of his efforts to grapple with elusive reality. A discussion in the third section of the fundamentally romantic nature of Conrad``s reality leads to the conclusion of the fourth and last section that the ultimate purpose enterained by Conrad the novelist was to represent the truth beyond the surface of reality.

《Le Rouse et Le Noir》소고(小考)

오현우
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자연주의(自然主義)와 결정론(決定論)

정명환 ( Myong Hwan Jung )
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Malgre tant de controverses sur les particularites du Naturalisme, il pourrait se definir comme une theorie tributaire du Realisme, qui a ete formulee surtout par Zola et qui veut appliquer, d``une maniere toute consciente, le determinisme scientifique a I``explication des phenomenes humains et sociaux. Pourtant, beaucoup de specialistes zoliens sont d``accord pour dire que sa theorie trop etriquee se voit heureusement trahie par ses oeuvres romanesques pleines de souffles poetiques, le determinisme n``ayant pas grand-chose a voir avec ses activites creatrices. Cette opinion largement repandue s``avere, nous.semble-t-il, peu defendable une fois qu``on examine de plus pres le Roman experimental, dans lequel nous croyons trouver non seulement Ia theorie a l``etat pur, mais aussi certaines indications qui puissent nous faire comprendie a quel degre elle se rattache aux secrets de Ia composition et de Ia vision romanesque de Zola. Dans Ic Roman experimental, Zola semble avoir fidelement suivi les pensees scientifiques de Claude Bernard avancees dans son Introduction a Ia Medecine explrimentale, en en faisant les siennes pour faire solidement asseoir Ia-dessus sa theorie litteraire. Mais ce qui est a remarquer tout de suite, c``est que Ia decouverte de l``Introduction par Zola a donne lieu, non pas tant a une metamorphose de ses idees litteraires, qu``a des refiexions pour les ordonner qui restaient jusqu``alors peu systematisees. Ces travaux de systematisation se portent sur les trois points que voici: 1) Il s``agit tout d``abord do concept de determinisme. En depit des apparences, c``est la que Zola differe foncierement de Bernard. Chcz celut-ci, Ic determirnsme des phenomCnes naturels est un postulat transcendant qui est necessaire pour fonder Ia possibilite des experiences scientifiques, mais qui ne peut etre prouve en aucone maniere. Or, ce caractere du determinisme n`a pas ete bien compris ou plutet a ete neglige par Zola, qui s`obstine a le considerer comme un fait deja etabli inebranlablement, ce qui reste a faire etant d`expliquer les phenomenes humains suivant certaines lois qui en decoulent, soit I`heredite et Ic milieu. Mais cette conception nthve ne devrait pas nous empecher de reconnaitre que Zola n`est nullement materiahste, ni pessimiste. A plusieures reprises, le Roman experimental insiste que l`homme n`est pas seulement un element determine par les deux forces qui lui sont poui ainsi dire exterieures, mais encore ii fonctionne comme un element determinant sur d`autres hommes, Cela veut dire qu`il est integre dans le circulus social, dsns lequel les enchainements des causes et des effets sont multiples et tres complexes, prenant les directions tantot descendantes (La Curee, Nana, Pot-Bouille), tantot ascendantes (Son Excellence Eugene Rougon, Au Bonheur des Dames, L`Argent), ou bien les deux en meme temps(La Terre, Le Debacle). C`est justement en ce sens-Ia qu`on pourrait qualifier son determinisme de dynamique ou de dialectique. 2) Des sa Theorie des Ecrans, Zola etait dechire entre le desir de representer la realite telle qu`elle est et la reconnaissance que ce desir resterait sterile, etant donnee l`inevitable subjectivite de celui qui voit et par cet acte meme refracte Ia realite. Or, l`affirmation par Bernard de Ia necessite de l`idee preconcue comme une condition indispensable pour bien mener les experiences, etait pour Zola comme une revelation. Maintenant, s`appuyant sur l`autorite de Bernard, ii rappelle tout haut que le mimesis n`est pas autre chose qu`"un coin de Ia nature vu a travers le temperament." Mais cela entraine a son tour deux questions: (j) Comment confirmer l`existence objective de ce qu`un sujet a vu a travers son temperament, d`autant que, dans Ia litterature, le processus de l`experience qui a pour but cette confirmation ne peut se derouler en dehors de I`experimentateur? (2) Le determinisme qu`il a pris pour un fait certain n`est-il pas lui-meme une vision subjective? 3) A vrai dire, les reponses que le Roman experimental tente de presenter devant ces deux questions sont peu convaincantes. Au contraire, Zola est amene a constater que la science, surtout Ia science physiologique, est encore trop jeune pour expliquer fond tous les phenomenes naturels, et qu`a plus forte raison, Ia litterature dont Ia mission serait d`explorer les cetes psychologiques et sociaux des activites humaines en s`inspirant des decouvertes scientifiques, ne peut rien dire de decisif en face de tant d`inconnus. D`ou Ia necessite, pour le moment clu moms, "d`accepter le systeme philosophique qui s`adapte le mieux a l`etat actuel des sciences" et qui est pour liii le transformisme. II nous semble que ces trois aspects (determinisme, subjectivite, transformisme) demon- tres dans le Roman experimental, ne sont pas sans rapport avec Ia creation romanesque chez Zola. Pour le moms, Ia totalite des Rougon-Mac quart pourrait se comprendre mieux, si l`on essaie de les exphquer non pas d`apres un de ces aspects, mais en se referant simultanement a l`ensemble des trois qui sont etroitement lies entre eux. le transformisme dote le determinisme d`un caractere dialectique, tout en necessitant une vision subjective. Peut-etre faudrait-il essayer de re-definir le naturalisme zolien en disant qu`il est un choix a Ia fois philosophique et operant en vue d`integrer Ia science dans le cadre de I`imagination creatrice.

La Princesse de Cleves 에 관(關)한 고찰(考察)

홍승오
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  1권 0호, 1976 pp. 103-118 ( 총 16 pages)
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Peter Handke의 연극론(演劇論)

송동준 ( Dong Zun Song )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  1권 0호, 1976 pp. 121-140 ( 총 20 pages)
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In der Einleitung habe ich den Ausgang der Handkeschen Dramatik beschrieben. Handkes Dramatik lalβt sich im wesentlichen auf die moderne Dramatik sowie Kunst 2uruckfl.ihren. Die Sprachtheorie Wittgensteins, der V-Effekt Brechts, Pop art, Happenings, Beatles, Konkrete Poesie, Formalismus wie auch Struktualismus haben auf die Dramatik Handkes entscheidenden Einfluiβ geubt. Dieser Ausgang seiner Dramatik konnte in semen Stucken den Charakter der blinken Modernitat ausprdgen. Im Hauptteil habe ich Handkes Dramatik in drei Aspekten betrachtet: Antibeschreibungsdramatik, Sprache als das zentrale Thema, und Kritik am Mechanismus von Bewufltsein und Benehmen. In der babe ich Handkes Gegenposition gegen die engagierte Dramatik der Neuen Realisten beschrieben. Sie weist auf, daB die Literatur bzw. Dramatik kein Mittel zur Vermittlung, sondern das Ziel selbst ist und ihre Aufgabe in der Funktion besteht, bewuBter und genauer zu machen. Handke sagt ausdrucklich, eine enga gierte Literatur sd cm Widerspruch in sich, well die Literatur formal bestimmt sei, wahrend das Engagement materielle Bestimmung abgebe. Darum stelit die Buhne fur I-Iandke keinen Bedeutungsraum, sondern einen Spielraum dar, wo Spiele von Formen ermoglicht werden konnen Er lehnt alle Methoden der Beschreibungsdramatik ab. Im Sprechstuck Publikumsbeschimpfung werden alle Methoden der tradierten Dramatik negiert: keine Auftritte, keine Dialoge, kein Buhnenbild, keine Pausen, kein Erlebnis, keine Illusion von Wirklichkeit, keine Handlung, keine Dramenzeit, kein Gegenuber von Akteuren und Publikum, keine Intrige und keine Hintertur. In der (Sprache als das zentrale Thema> bin ich von der Sprachtheorie von L. Wittgenstein ausgegangen und habe die Sprache seitens deren autornomer Funktion betrachtet, urn ihre Pioblernatik festzustellen. Die Problernatik der Sprache liegt in deren unbewulβten Aufnahrne dureh Gewohnung an ihr. Denn dadureh ergibt sich, daB sich der Spraehge braucher nieht der Sprache bedient, sondern, umgekehrt, sie sieb seiner bedient. Da die Spraehe mit ihier autonomer Funktion auf das Denken und Handeln des Mensehen unmittelbar bezogen ist, komrnt er mit dern Erlernen der Sprache gleichzeitig unter ihier Maeht zu stehen. Die Drarnatik Handkes will diese Funktion der Sprache bewuflt machen, urn die Automatisierung des BewuBtseins zu verhrndern. Sie steilt einen, Karnpf gegen die Verhexung unseres Verstandes dureh die Mittel unserer Sprache" dar. Anhand des Stuekes Kaspar babe ich diese Funktion der Sprache demonstriert, indem ich aufzeigte, wie das Spraeherlernen Kaspars vor sich geht und zugleieh sein BewuBtsein duich die erlernte Spraehe beheirseht und autornatisiert wird. In der (Kntik am Mechanismus von BewuBtsein und Benehmen) babe ich aufgewiesen, wie die Automatismen bei der BewuBtseinsabwesenheit zur Wirkung kommen konnen. Da die Gewohnung an der Funktion der schablonenhaften Ausdrucke sowie Methoden, die Handke ,,FlieBbanderzeugnisse des Bewulβtseins" nennt, die Antomatisierung des BewuBtseins und des Benehmens bewirkt, soIl man solche Ausdrucke und Methoden nicht einmal verwenden. Der Mechanismus von BewuBtsein und Benehmen tritt sowohl in seiner glatten Funktion als auch in seiner Storung auf. In der letzten Funktion hat die Wirkung die des Brechtschen V-Effekts. Diesen Mechanismus babe ich an den Beispielen aus dem Stuck Der Ritt uber den ]βodensee gezeigt. Im Schlufβ babe ich die Modernitat der Handkeschen Dramatik aufgrund der bisherigen Betrachtung noch einmal resurniert.
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예술(藝術)의 개념(槪念)과 정의(定義)의 문제(問題)

오병남 ( Byung Nam Oh )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  1권 0호, 1976 pp. 161-179 ( 총 19 pages)
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This paper intended to show the main views against the possibility of the definition of art under discussion (19491958), and, then, to explain the counter argument by G. Dickie. However, as it seems necessary to add the required backgroud of such ways of thinking in aesthetics, brief historical contexts were described ahead. As is well known, the core notion around these discussions was ``family resemblances`` which was raised by and in the post-Tractatus Wittgenstein. M.Weitz applied this notion to the analyses of traditional aesthetic theories, most of which have attempted to define the essential nature of art in general. This finally led him to say that ``art`` was an open concept refusing to be defined even in classificatory sense. But G.Dickie opposed to him and suggested a possibility of defining art in terms of a certain social institution (the artworld) if we must not focus narrowly on the definition alone. Thus, he comes to the idea that ``art`` can be closed by the necessary and sufficient conditions of artifactuality and conferred status, and that ``a work of art`` is an object with the properties of artifactuality, whether it be conferred on or worked on, and the status conferred by a person acting on behalf of the artworld. At first sight, his theory seems strange but by a close examination the formulation of it is not so different from what traditional art theories have availed. For it will be noticed that both properties are relational ones like those of representational feature in imitation theory (work``s relation to its subject.matter outside it) and of expiessive feature in expression theory (work``s relation to its creator). In this sense, his institutional theory of art is an effort to overcome the limitations of traditional theories, keeping in mind the practices of the artworld, especially of the developments of the twentieth century in art such as dadaism, pop art, and happenings. If we accept the institutional nature of art in every works of art as he informs it to us, it will be obvious that the notion of the aesthetic object of the so called aesthetic attitude can hardly be maintained. According to him, aesthetic attitude is the notion which was founded on individual powers derived from bodily (or mental) structnres instead of social powers derived from social structures. Furthermore, it has been pointed out in various ways that the notion is a kind of myth or a phantom in the sense that it is empirically unbelievable. The significant notion, ``aesthetic attitude``, contributed to establishing the notion of the peculiar aesthetic experience with its own identity has, therefore, no place in his theory. In short, what he intended is that it must be discarded as irrelevant. Taking this position, he wished to develope an institutional theory of aesthetic object by examining M.C. Beardsley``s notion of it. Our intention of introducing Dickie here is to discuss not the truth of his theory, but the motives with which he had to suggest the institutional theory of art. It was by pointing out and trying to overcome the structural limitations of traditional art theories that he came to the theory, but it seems to us that his way of thinking is not the .only one to overcome the limitations. The more detailed analysis of the referents and philosophical presuppositions, by which traditional art theories became structurally limited, will show that the concept of performance could be the locus of a new aesthetic theory. For performance, in my opinion, can be explained as an activity with the moment into which work of art, perceiver and artist are to be integrated.
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