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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

인문논총검색

Seoul National University the Journal of Humanites


  • - 주제 : 인문과학분야 > 기타(인문과학)
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-3021
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 10권 0호 (1983)

Dostoevsky의 문학과 죄의 문제

고석구 ( Suk Koo Koh )
5,200
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Dostoevsky once wrote in his ``Diary of Writers``: "Suppose one denies the existence of Jesus Christ, anything would happen in your life" ``The Devil`` was written for the purpose of showing the horrible fact. Stavrosin is a brilliant, attractive, but emotionally sterile young nobleman, afflicted with a genuine spiritual nihilism portrayed in the book. He has engaged in revolutionary activities and debauchery with a number of women including Lebyadikin, the crippled, weak-minded woman whom he married to show his mocking Contempt for social conventions, and Marya Shatov, who is carrying his child.

복수(復讐) 대(對) 자비(慈悲)

전제옥 ( Che Ok Chun )
6,000
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The Merchant of Venice was the first play of Shakespere for me to read in 1937 when I was a sophomore of a college in Japan.It distracted me because I was a young college student learning English literature when Korea was governed by the Japanese colonial policy. Of course I didn``t favor for Shylock who cared nothiog but money for which he was ready to sacrifice his daughter. Some two decades later when I visited London I had a chance to attend the - Old Vic Production of The Merchant of Venice. I forgot the actor who enacted Shylock hanging more than a dozen of locks in front of his black robe that was enough to cause a disgusting feeling against the usurer Jew. However my feeling and impression of the play has been changed a lot since I taught the play several times since 1957, finding out the sources of the plots of bond story and casket story were originated from an ancient story of Judea being translated into Italian and English. The author has been impartial about the plot taking no sides. Especially the extant trend of the Elizabethan period was well reflected by this play. Portia, a symbol of the Providence as an angel persuading evil, egocentric Jew with the quality of Mercy. It is true she didn``t expect him to be friendly with Antonio against whom he bore a deeply-rooted hatred and antagonism. But eventually mercy could prevail over the justice which is manipulated by human device. Also I was highly impressed by Goethe``s remark that Shakespeare was not only a playwright but a psychologist. He could so thoroughly analysed the hearts of the main chatcters, such as Shylock, Portia, Antonio and Bassanio. So remarkable is the fact that this play is maintaining the popularity only second to Hamlet. It is so desirable that any reader trying to appreciate this play must beforehand get rid of any prejudice or preconcept against Christian or Jews.

Dryden의 종교관과 문학관

송낙헌 ( Nak Hun Song )
4,500
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Dryden is probably one of the major English poets most unloved both for his poetry and his way of life. His poetry is held to be mere versification of prose, and his inconsistency in religion and politics is looked down on as a consequence of his worldly ambition. This short paper intends to suggest that Dryden``s attitude to religio-political ideas is closely related to the neoclassical concept of poetry.From the modern point of view the most obvious fault of Dryden``s poetry is its lack of suggestiveness. His poetry is "the poetry of statement" and states no more than what it says expressly, while the idea of the modern reader is that meaning of a poem is not explicitly stated but indirectly suggested by its form and style. The meaning and style, or the content and form is one, and cannot be separated; the same thing cannot be expressed in different forms.But the neoclassical period recognized the division between the content and the style and held that any subject could be made magnificent by embellishment of words. Moreover, of this divisible two aspects of poetry, a poet``s duty had more to do with the style than the content, more with how than what to say. What a poet said was not his invention; it was mostly traditional and official. As the artist of language, the poet devoted himself to the refinement of style, and he was exempted from having to be original in the content, or the ideas on politics, faith, or morality. Such a concept of a poet``s role was naturally conducive to the flexibility and a lack of seriousness in his political and religious views- This seems to account for many of spurious Christian images employed as metaphors in Dryden``s poems at the risk of commtting blasphemy.

아르투르 슈니쯜러의 희비극 「말」의 해석시론

허창운 ( Tschang Un Hur )
6,500
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Schnitzlers Sprachskepsis, die in der Tragikomodie "Das Wort" thematisch behandelt wird, ist eine der typischen literarischen Erscheinungen der modernen Zeit. In dieser Studie wird zuerst versucht, den Zusammenhang der sprachskeptischen Auffassung und der sprachhiclien Ubertragungsfunktion des Wirklichen aus seinem philosophischen und kulturkritischen Hintergrund her u beleuchten und darzustellen.Da diese Problematik in dem Werk im Sprachverhalten des sogenannten Literaten als Typus gestaltet und dargeboten wird, einem Menschen, der den echten Bezug zur Wirklichkeit verloren zu haben scheint, unterzieht sich die EigentUmlichkeit dieses Typus anhand seiner Sprachverwendung (z.B. von Treuenhof, Gleissner oder Rapp) elner naheren Analyse. Der Scheinexistenz entsprechend, die auf ein?r ihrem Wesen entfremdeten Sprache beruht, nimmt der Literat das Leben nicht ernst und wird sellst im Leben nicht ernst genommen. Gerade in dieser Haltung des ohnmiichtig von der sprachlichenFragwUrdigkeit und Unzulanglichkeit Wissenden konnte das tragische Moment eingebettet sein.Demgegenuber ist die Sprachauffassung von Hofrat Winkler realistisch. Worauf er in seiner praktischen Sprachhaltung das Gewicht legt, ist vor allem die Funktion der Sprache als Mitteilungsmittel. Er anerkennt und akzeptiert die Notwendigkeit der Sprache im sozialen Bereich. Eine grundlegende Funktion des Wortes im zwischenmenschlichen Bezug stelit sich nun als weisende Maclit im Leben dar. 111cr wieder vertritt aber Treuenhof die Gegenposition, die ungeachtet der sprachuichen Wilikurund Vergewaltigung die Grenre der Ausdrucksmoglichkeit nicht einmal anerkennen will.Jm Grunde besteht das Unaussprechuiche der Realitat vornehmlich in euler komplizierten inneren Situation der mensclilichen Psyche, deren Komplexitat die Spreche als ordnende Funktion des denkenden Erfassens nicht gerecht werden kann.Mit dieser Problematik der Sprache als unpr?zisem Ausdrucksmittel ist eben em psychologischer Aspekt eng verknupft. Und daraus ergibt sich namlich der ethische Charakter des sprachlichen Verhaltens, der schuieβlich mit dem tragischen Moment von Willis Selbst mord korrespondiert. Durcb diese inhaitliche Disposition wird der nioralische Gehalt der realistisch-skeptischen Sprachaufiassung von Winkler im Gegensatz zu Treuenhofs Sprachverhalten positiv bewertet und unterstrichen.Was wir bei dem psychologischen Ansatzpunkt des sprachlichen Verhaltens freilich nicht vergessen durfen, ist jedoch das Phanomen, daß Schnitzler in erster Linie Dichter ist und daB seine Sprachskepsis im Grunde em dichterisches Gestaltungsproblem darsteilt. So ware das fragmentarische Schicksal dieses Werkes schlieBlich auf den tuodelihaften Versuchscharakter der dichterischen Phantasie von Schnitzler zuruckzufuhren, abgesehen von seiner ambivalenten Bespiegelung tier biographischen Bestandteile.

M. Heidegger의 <존재(存在)와 시간(時間)>에 관한 연구(硏究) (상(上)-1)

안상진 ( Sang Jin Ahn )
6,300
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Heideggers Philosophie stellt im Unterschied zur Existenzphilosophie eine neue Ontologie dar. Er destruiert die Uberlieferte Metaphysik durch seine eigene ``ontologische Differenz`` und erhellt den Sinn des Seins selbst. Auf der Suche nach dem Scm muffle er sich mit der Fundamentalontologie befassen, die nach dem Seinssinn des menschlichen Daseins fragt. Denn dieses Dasein allein ist der Leitfaden f?r die Sinnerhellung des Seins Uberaupt. Diese Abhandlung behandelt die Einleitung und den ersten Abschnitt(bis zur Sorge als der Seinsganzheit des Daseins) des ersten Teils in Scm end Zeit. Die Lehre vom Urteil im Psychologismus (1914). Diese Dissertation Heideggers setzt sich kritisch vom Standpunkt des Logismus aus mit der Urteilslehre der Psychologisten wie W. Wundt, H. Maier, F. Brentano. A. Marty und T. Lipps auseinander Die Kategorien-und Bedeuttsngslehre des Dens Scotus(1915). Diese Habilitationsschrift Heideggers versucht die Schrift des Duns Scotus, Grammatica speculativa modi significandi als Dedeutungslehre aufzufassen. Um die Bedeutungslehre zu erhellen, befaßt sich Heideg-ger zuerst mit der Kategorienlehre. Darum wird im ersten Teil die Rategorienlebre auf Grund der Trans cendentalien dargestelit. Und im zweiten Teil wird die Bedeutungslehre dargesteilt, in der sowohl der "Modus significandi activus" als subjektiver Aspekt des Sinns als auch der "Modus significandi passivus" als objektiver Aspekt des Sinns behandelt werden.Der Zeitbegriff in der Geschichtswissenschaft (1915). Diese Schrift ist die Probevorlesung Heideggers, die 1915 in Freiburg gebalten wurde. In dieser Schrift wird die physikalische Zeit a``s Mittel zur Messung der Messung der materiellen Bewegungen und die geschichtliche Zeit als die Verdichtung-Kristallisation-einer in der Geschichte gegebenen Lebensobjektivation erklart.Der Schluβ von der Kategorien-und Bedeutungslehre des Duns Scotus (1916). Dieser Schluß ist der erweitert zugefugte Teil der Habilitationsschrift von. Heidegger. Diese Sebrift stellt den Annahrungsversuch zn den ursprUnglichen Kategorien dar, wahrend all die vorherigen Schriften auf dem erkenntnistheoretischen logischen Standpunkt des Neukantianers beruhen. Sic weist schon auf die Ontologie des sp?teren Heidegger hin. Heideggers Fundamentalontologie ist die phanomenologisehe hermeneutische. Sowohl Phanomenologie als auch Hermeneutik sind ein methodischer Begriff, und Ontologie ein gegenstandlicher Begriff. Heideggers Hauptwerk Sein und Zeit weist den Einfluß der Ph?nomenologie Husserls und den der Hermeneutik Dikheys auf. In Sein und Zeit versucht Heidegger den Sinns des Seins uberhaupt durch die existenziale ontologische Analytik des Daseins zu erhellen. Aber er blieb darin nur bei der Analytik. Er verandert das methodisehe Verfaliren, von der Existenz zum Sein zu erreichen und versucht vorn Seinm her die Existenz zu erhellen. Wir nennen diese methodische Veran-derung die "Kehre". Diese Kehre stellt keine Standpunktsveranderung seines fruheren Denkens dat, sondern in ihr wird dieses Denken vielmehr vertieft.In Sein und Zeit wurde die phanomenologische Methode angewendet. Die Phanomenologie besagt "apophainestihai ta phainoniena" d.h. "das was sich zegt, so wie es sich von ihm selbst her zeigt, von ihm selbst her sehen lassen". Die Bezeichnung "Phiinomenolgie" gibt nut den. Aufschluß uber "das Wie der Aufweisung und Behandlungsart dessen, was in dieser Wissenschaft abgehandelt werden soil." Ihr Gegenstand ist das Sein des Selenden.

인문과학에 있어서의 과학적 설명

김여수 ( Yer Su Kim )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  10권 0호, 1983 pp. 105-125 ( 총 21 pages)
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This paper is an attempt to throw light on the role and status of scientific explanation within the system of the humanistic disciplines. The main arguments revolve around a critical examination of positivistic monism which sees in the nomological-deductive model of explanation (interpreted broadly so as to include the probabilistic) the sole legitimate mode of explanation in all systematic cognitive endeavors. Science is an intellectual activity that aims at knowledge of a given realm of phenomena. Such a knowledge, when systematized into a body of statements which explain the phenomena in question, constitutes a particular branch of science, whether it is a natural, social or humanistic one. Explanation is both the method of arriving at, as well as the systematic expression of such a knowledge. Explanation as the method is closely connected with the character and structure of the objects to be explained. If the phenomena are of essentially the same character and structure despite their apparent differences, the one single mode of explanantion would suffice for the construction of knowledge. If on the other hand they are fundamentally different character and structure, modes of explanation cannot but be diverse. The positivistic tradition in the philosophy of science is the prime example of methodological monism. Whether in natural, social or humanistic sciences, the aim of inquiry is the same, namely, explanation and prediction. This aim is to be achieved by subsuming individual phenomena under general laws. Thus the aim of all inquiry is to establish those nomological universal statements which can serve as the premisses in the deductive explanation and prediction. The methodological monism is buttressed by the phenomenalistic theory of meaning. According to this view, a system of scientific statements consists soley of observation sentences which record the experientially given and their logical constructions. All other statements, when not analytic, are devoid of literal significance. The statements of the social and humanistic sciences are meaningful in so fas as they can be translated into behavioristic or physicalistic terms. Those "objects" -such as values, transcendent objects such as gods and substances- which cannot be translated into those terms, are not objects of legitimate scientific inquiry. Bifurcation of fact and value, thematized for the first time by Max Weber, becomes absolute in logical positivism. Our intellectual tradition sees the world as consisting of three distinct realms: nature, man and society, and values. Natural, social and humanistic sciences deal with these realms respectively. Those disciplines which constitute the core of the humanistic sciences- philosophy, history and literature-have been characterized by the thematization of the most fundamental concerns of human life-life and death, pleasre and pain, duty and rights, fate and freedom. These primordial experiences of man are inextricably bound up with the questions of value. The values which constitute the basic concern of the humanistic sciences are those which serve as the basis for guiding and controlling the affairs of men both as individuals and groups. Does the discontinuity between fact and value made absolute by logical positivism entail a denial of the possibity of the humanistic disciplines as systematic cognitive endeavors? Is the discontinuity in the cognitive character of the natural sciences and the humanistic sciences acceptable in the form presented by the positivistic tradition? Our analysis of the logical structure of methodolgical monism reveals the fact that the system of explanations in the natural sciences presupposes an "explanation space" that consists of innumerable interests and value assumptions. The system contains, as an essential component a series of value statements, describing intentions, interests and presuppositions of the inquiry. They together serve to render a given system of knowledge relevant and perspicuous. Interdependence of fact and value thus established however leads to the difficult problems of relativism, the foremost among them being that relativism is incapable of distinguishing between "true" and "thinking it true". If no such distinction is possible, then an act of asserting and that of making noise become indistinguishable. A view of knowledge which cannot make this distinction forfeits all claim to serious consideration. An anlysis of realtivism in fact shows it to be self-refuting. All systems of knowledge, including those of the humanistic disciplines, must be based on some notion of objectivity, in so far as they can be understood and communicated. The fact that we do in fact speak of truth and falsity is an indication that we accept them as the preconditions for knowing and thinking about the world. Truth in this view is a regulative idea in the Kantian sense. All scientific statcment is a response to the question "why" a certain action, phenomenon or event has taken place. In fact, the character of response to the "why" question is not always uniform. It can take the form of a nomological-deductive explanation, a what-explanation, a purposive explanation, or a reason-giving explanation. We accept these explanations as appropriate in relation to a given explanation space. Our analysis has shown that any system of knowledge, in order to be relevant and perspicuous, must make use of different modes of explanation. Thus, if we accept objective truth as the aim of inquiry, then the humanistic disciplines must attempt to incorporate into their system of knowledge as much of the type of explanation paradigmatically used in the natural sciences. Our analysis also shows that the system of knowledge in the natural sciences must make use of those explanations which deal with values and intentions. "Relativity" of the natural sciences and "objectivity" of the humanistic disciplines are merely two different aspects of the cognitive situation of man.

언어학(言語學)에 있어서의 과학적(科學的) 설명(說明)

이정민 ( Chung Min Lee )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  10권 0호, 1983 pp. 129-147 ( 총 19 pages)
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The theory of generative grammar in linguistics is pursuing scientific explanation by setting up phrase structure rules to derive deep structure strings which are transformed into surface structure utterences. The whole process involves the deductive-nomological model. There are two approaches to semantic analysis for explanation: logical and psychological. The logical position of semantics aims at the characterization of the notions of truth of a sentence relative to a model and of entailment between sentences. It is concerned with formal precision, consistency and elegance, not with psychological processes. The psychological position, on the other hand, tries to treat meaning in terms of all aspects of cognition. For the most satisfactory explanation of semantic phenomena, both positions are necessary and must be synthesized or integrated. Major areas of linguistic meaning involve both logical and psychological investigations. The treatment of durational expressions with the universal quantifier is insufficient and there must be consideration of how we perceive the reality and of the perceived relevant psychological time. Presupposition is an area in which psychological investigation challenged the two-valued logic and made the notion of truth-value gap possible. Emotives are stronger in factive presupposition than epistemic verbs such as ``discover,`` ``realize``. In Korean the verb ``al`` (=know) is used with or without factive presupposition of the complement depending on whether the complement is followed by the object marker (then presupposed) or the directional marker. Different degrees of presupposition cannot be ignored in semantic investigation. The intensions of basic lexical items are assumed as givens in Montague``s semantic rules. But the meaning of a lexical item crucially involves the psycholoical process of categorization. Even Putnam proposes the notion of a ``steredtype`` of a natural kind term. Rosch``s investigation shows that categories, particularly basic level categories, are not arbitrary and ate ihternally structured by gradients of representativenss``. In logical semantics, meaning postulates are used to show implication between nonlogical lexical items. Catnap originally did not think of cross-linguistic concepts involved in atomic predicates of meaning postulates and did not consider factual knowledge. However, for the meaning postulate method to be useful, it must have an empirical basis and take into account the psychological process of categorization. The problem of propositional attitude sentences also calls for psychological explanation. Formal semantics has not been quite successful in determining the truth conditions of propositional attitude sentences. There are some recent approaches to this problem and they involve certain psychological aspects. Psychological constraints are needed to characterize the semantic theory of human languages. Linguistic semantics as an empirical science calls for scientific explanation, not just a self-contained formal system. The ``mentalism`` advocated by generative grammarians purports to get interested in theory and explanation rather than in discovery procedures and taxonomy. It is not the mentalism in the dualistic sense of the term.
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