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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

인문논총검색

Seoul National University the Journal of Humanites


  • - 주제 : 인문과학분야 > 기타(인문과학)
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-3021
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 20권 0호 (1988)

인간(人間), 성(性) 그리고 자연(自然) -이효석론(李孝石論)-

이상옥 ( Sang Ok Lee )
6,800
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This paper proposes to delineate the idea Lee Hyo-sok is supposed to have entertained about the essence and function of sex in close reference to his view of man and nature. To him sex is more than anything else something liberating, anti-intellectual and taboo- busting, and sexual desire has affinity with nature insofar as it draws upon animal instinct. Sex, therefore, is essentially healthy and creative. Even voyeurism, a form of sexual perversity, is regarded by him as a harmless process of initiation into knowledge and growth. We should not forget, however, that in Lee Hyo-sok``s work sex is not always hailed as something salutary or redeeming, and the negative aspect of sex can be excruciatingly verified when we examine various cases of married life or sexual relation between man and woman in general. In some instances sex simply leads a married couple to a catastrophe and in others sex proves totally helpless in sustaining marital or extramarital relations. To Lee Hyo-sok sex in its primeval form is healthy and redeeming, but in real life sex is found more often than not to be negative and degrading, or at best it is powerless. Hence the ambivalence of his attitude toward sex.
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In the cannon of Wordsworth``s poetry, "Lucy Poems" take a very interesting place in their theme. All of the five poems except "I Travelled Among Unknown Men" were written in 1799, while Wordsworth and his sister, Dorothy, were in Germany and homesick. There has been diligent speculation about the identity of Luc9, but it remains speculation. H.M. Margolioth, for instance, speculates that Lucy is Margaret (Peggy) Hutchinson, sister of Mary and Sara Hutchinson. His theory, nontheless, remains one of the most probable speculations. What attracts our attention most here is that these poems are a series of love poems addressed to a dead girl. Because of this, these poems show the narrator``s desperate effort to resurrect Lucy in his memory. Since she is dead and gone now, he heavily relies on his memory to do this job. In the process Lucy``s presence as a living person is mediated through the narrator``s memory. Lucy``s presence, therefore, turns out to be hollow and empty in reality, and is preserved in memory only. She is preserved as a living person in these poems and the narrator``s mind, but her presence is no more than an epitaph on her tombstone. In this sense, her presence is just a trace of her presence. We can also. say that her presence is a variation on her absence, deferred and repeated in the narrator``s memory and preserved in the poems only. In "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal," however, a dramatic turn of event takes place: her absence takes on life through her union with the cosmic life of the universe. She has been absorbed into the cosmic cycle of the universe by becoming one with "rocks, and stones, and trees." Through her death she becomes alive. It is really paradoxical that she takes on the permanent aspect of the cosmic cycle and lives on as an absent/present person.

영국 르네상스 시 연구,시와 역사

이종숙 ( Jong Sook Lee )
6,000
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르네상스 시대의 문학이론가들이 가장 커다란 관심을 보였던 문제는 사실과 허구, 또는, 헌신세계와 문학이 이루는 세계간의 관계였다. 그들은 문학이 현실세계의 모습을 왜곡하여 모여준다는 공격에 대항하여, 문학적 허구란 현실세계를 그대로 모사한 것이 아니라 그의 이장화된 묘사라고 주장하는 한편, 문학이란 현실세계를 이상화하엿다는 의미에서는 허구 이지만, 사실 그 자체를 충실히 기록한다고 내세우는 역사보다 현실세계의 참된 모습을 더 잘 보여주며 따라서 더 커다란 교화적 힘을 지니게 된다고 강조하였다. 그리나 이리한 이론은 역사적 진실과 문학적 진실을 그 어느 때보다도 날카롭게 구별하면서도, 문학을 허구이 면서도 사실인 어떤 것, 시이면시도 동시에 역사인 어떤 것으로 규정하고 있다. 문학과 현실세계의 관계에 대한 이처럼 애매한 규정은 문학작품 속에서 어떻게 사실과 허구의 긴장관 계를 해소할 것인가라는 실제적 인 의 문을 필연적으로 불러 일으킬 수 밖에 없었다. 다시 말하여, 현실제계 와 문학이 이루는 세계간의 관계에 대한 르네상스의 이론은 그 시대의 시인으로 하여금 사실을 허구 속에 담는 것이 어떻게 가능할 것인가라는 문제에 어떤 형태로든 대 답하도록 만들었다는 이야기 이다. 벤 죤슨의 찬미시는 다음 몇 가지 이유때문에 앞서 말한 르네상스 시이론이 제기한 문제 와 그에 대한 가능한 해결책을 연구하기 위하여서는 거의 실험실적인 조건을 갖추고 있다, 첫째, 그가 활약했던 시대가 영국 역사상 가장 중요한 변동기에 속하였던 만큼 역사적 현 실이 문학행위에 미치는 압력 또한 극대화된 상태였으리라는 가청을 할 수 있으며, 두째, 죤슨 자신의 문학관이 사회와 문학간의 역학관계가 항상 의식의 표면에 머무를 것을 요구 하는 성격을 지니고 있고, 또, 셋째로는, 그가 쓴 시들이 대부분 실존하는 인물이나 실제 사건에 관한 것이기 때문이다. 찬미시에서 죤슨은 사실과 문학간의 긴장관계를 시를 통한 예찬이라는 문제로 바꾸어 놓고 있는데, 이 글은 죤슨이 어떠한 표현. 또는 찬미 전략을 사용하여 어떻게 사실을 시 속에 담을 것인가, 또는 사실을 찬미 속에 담을 것인가라는 문제를 해결하려 하는지를 구체적으로 살피는 데에 그 촛점을 두고 있다. 몇 몇 찬미시에시 죤슨은 자신의 찬미가 어디까지나 사실에 근거한 것임을 주장함과 동시에, 자신의 찬미 역시 허구정으로부티 자유롭지 못함을 인정하고 있다 (e. g."To My Muse," An Epistle to Master John Seldon"). 이러한 얼핏아 상호배제적인 발언은 작품의 발생과 텍스트 자체에 내재되어 있는 사실과 허구간의 긴장관계를 진면에 노출하여, 그 긴장을 시가 의미하는 바의 일부로 만드는 효과를 갖는다. ``그리나, 또 다른 찬미시들에서 죤슨은 자신의 허구적인 찬미가 이기적인 목적에서가 아니라 교화적인 의도에서 나왔음을 강조하는 것으로 문제를 해결하려할 뿐 아니라, 일련의 표현 또는 찬미전략을 통하여 해 결하려 하고있다. 이를테면, 대부분의 찬미시에서 죤슨이 사용하고 있는 수법으로 시인 자 신이 직접 찬미 대상자에게 말하는 지형식을 이용한다거나, "To Penshurst"에서 처럼 스스로를 시속에 등장하는 한 인물로 만든다거나, "On Lucy Countesse of Bedford"나 "To Thomas Lord Chancelor {Egerton}," 또는 "To Penshurst" 에서처럼, 자신의 과잉칭찬을 적나라한 과장법을 사용하여 행함으로써 오히려 그 허구성을 명백하게 드리낸다든지, 또는 "To Robert, Earl of salisbury" 에서처럼, 찬미 대장보다는 찬미행위 그 자체에 관심을 집 중함으로써 자신의 찬미시가 실제로 담고있는 고도로 이상화된 인간의 모습에 사실성과 특 정성의 인상을 부여하려 하고 있다. 이리한 표현 또는 찬미전략들은 셰익스피어의 죽음에 부친 시에서 죽은 찬미대상과 찬미자인 스스로를 동일시하는 데에서도 드러나듯, 죤슨의 작품 전반을 가로지르는 자기반영적 정격을 보여주고 있다. 또 죤슨이 그런 여러가지 방법을 사용하여 해결하려 노력하고 있는 찬미 자로서의 딜레마는 강한 리얼리스트적 성향을 지닌 휴머니스트 시인이 맞닥뜨려야 했던 보다 포괄적인 문제, 즉, 이상세계를 추구하면서도 사실세계를 떠나지 않는 것이 어떻게 가능할 것인가라는 문제의 파라다임이기도 하다.

프로스트의 종교(宗敎)

황동규 ( Hwang Tong Gyu )
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Religion in Frost``s poetry has been treated as a matter of secondary importance, because of the dominance of nature in his poems. But religion, or religious nature, of his poetry has steadily attracted attention since 1960``s. If we examine his works, however, we cannot find any definite evidence of the doctrine of Christianity or any doctrine of belief. The miracle, one of the most conspicuous features of religion, has no place in his work. Instead Neo-Platonism or Stoicism are the cores of his "religious" masques and "terrlble" poems. His tragic "homes" and unsatisfactory "vocations," however, form a basis of religion. And his unpenetrable "nature" is presented as a condition of religion. In this sense only he can be called an essentially "religious" poet.

몽떼뉴 교육론 연구(硏究)

원윤수 ( Yoon Soo Won )
5,500
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Nous nous sommcs propose d``etudier De t``institution des enfants dana les Essais de Montaigne, grand phulosophe et brillant artiste de la Renaissance francaise. Pour cela, nous avons jete un coup d`` œi1 star la vie de Montaigne, puisqu``il avait ecrit ≪Je suis moi-meme la matiere de mon livre≫. Ensuite, nous avons observe de pres son temps ou le contraste etait caractCristique, parce quo Ia France etait partagee entre deux camps hostiles et irreconciliables. En ce temps-la le fanatisme dominait le pays tout entier et les guerres de religion ravageaient corps et ame des Francais. Au commencement de son temps, c``etait la fervour, la generosite et la grandeur; mais on avait fini par le dogmatisme, la haine et la bassesse. Nous avons constate que l``autettr des Essais, nourri et eleve dans l``enthousiasme de la Renaissance francaise, avait assiste a sa degradation afihigeante. Nous avons remarque que pour remedier a cette tragedie, Moataigne ecrivait son uvre et que scs idees sur reducation etaient en quelgue sorte un remede efficace contre le fanatisme qui sevissait le pays, car enfin elles etaient destinCes aux enfiats, maitres du monde a l``avenir. Selon Montaigne le precepteur devrait avant tout former Jo jugement de son eleve. Montaigne s``etait oppose a l``optimisme do la generation rablesienne qui voulait tout savoir et tout apprendre; il s``etait refuse au pedantisme: le savoir par coeur, enfin ii avait critique sevCremeat la rhetorique ci la dialectique compliquees. Pour conclure, nous avons essaye d``en degager des lecons en vue d`` ameliorer l``en-seignement de noire pays.
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In diesem Aufsatz ist das Menschenbild in den Hauptwerken Walsers untersucht. Im ersten Kapitel sind der kurze Uberblick vom Lebenslauf Walsers und die allgemeinen Rezensionen und Kritiken uber die Werke Walsers angegeben. Die meisten Kritiker sind der Meinung, daß sich bei Walser der Zwiespalt zwischen Resignation und Aufichnung zeigt. Im aweiten Kapitel ist die Autorschaft Walsers untersucht. Walser ist ein politisch-gesellschaftlich Engagierter, der sich besonders S. Freud, K. Marx und F. Kafka als seinen geistigen Nahrboden ausgewahit hat. Bei Walser ist das Hauptproblem das bescha digte Selbstbewufltsein, das ihn vom Kindheitserlebnis her lebenslang gequalt hat, und daher muffle er das in semen ganzen Werken variiert behandeln. Im dritten Kapitel ist die aligememne Charakteristik des Menschenbildes Walsers festgestellt. Walsersche Figuren stammen fast alle aus dem mittleren und niederen Stand des Volkes. Sie sind keine große Leuto, die den Weltgang beeiaflußt, und sie sind weder kiug noch vorbildlich. Sie wissen nicht den richtigcn Bahn des Lebens zu befahren. Das fehlt auch bei Walser selbst, wie er sich einmal geauBert hat: "Ich will nicht den Anschein erwecken, daß ich oder mein Held es besser wuBte". Walser beschreibt weder seine Stadtebilder als Hintergrund noch seine Figuren realistisch. Er stellt sie allein nach dem seelischen Vorgang und der Bewußtseinsanderung dar. Im vierten Kapitel sind seine Menschenbilder untersucht, besonders in semen zwei Hauptwerken, namlich und findet em Entellektueller namens Gallistl aus einem handlungsunfahigen und isolierten Zustand eine neue Beziehung mit einem Kommunisten. Dennoch hat er sich die faule Lebensgewohnheit nicht geandert. Er scheut sich vor der Korperarbeit und ist nicht fahig zum Dienst der Gemeincshaft. Wegen seiner Selbstliebe und seines Egoismus sind seine Werke hart kritisiert worden. Marcel-Rcich-Ranicki hat cinmal folgenderweise uber cm Werk Walsers geaulßert: "Ein belangloser, em schlechter, ein miserabler Roman. Es lohnt sich nicht, auch nur em Kapitel, auch nur eine einzige Seite dieses Buches zu lesen." (In: Frankfurter Aug. Zeitung, 27, Mars 1967). Wir sind zu dem Schluß gekommen, daß ein Autor ohne das richtige Bewufltsein tiber das Leben und den richtigen Wertmaßstab niemals die schone Seele dcs Measchen trotz aller Not und Leid darstellen vermag. Obwohl Walser behauptet, daß seine Figuren immer sympathische und von Natur aus moralisch gut seien, und daß er nie einen schlechten Menschen zeichnen konne, finden wir leider unter semen Figuren außer paar Frauenbildern nicht em einziges Menschenbild, das man trots aller Pehier und Schulden lieb haben kann.

FVG의 기술문제

이병찬 ( Byong Tschan Rhie )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  20권 0호, 1988 pp. 127-150 ( 총 24 pages)
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In dieser Arbeit wurden zunachst die Kriterien der Funktionsverbgefuge moglicbst volistandig erfaßt und dann ihre Relcvanz der Aktionsart beschrieben. Dabei liandelte es sich um die Frage nach dem Wesen der FVG und um die FVG, in denen die Bezieh-ungen der Funlctionsverben untereinander erkennbar sind, die von verschiedener Art sind. Fur soiche Fragepunkte wurden verschiedene Lbsungsansatze diskutiert. Auf der Frage nach dem Wesen der FVG sind kritisch Beschreibungen fur die Kriterien der FVG von Heringer(1968) entnommen. Bei den Beziehungen der FVG mit den Aktions-arten erhebt sich jedoch die Frage, weiche Art uberhaupt angenommen werden konnen und weichen Status sie haben, ob sie sernantische oder grarnmatische Kategorien sind, oh die Abgrenzung der Aktionsarten gegen die Aspekte dabei auftauscht.

가르시아 로르까(GARCIA LORCA)의 시(詩)와 희곡(戱曲)에 나타난 죽음

김현창 ( Hyun Chang Kim )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  20권 0호, 1988 pp. 151-173 ( 총 23 pages)
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This thesis treats essentially with death, expressed in the poetry and plays of Garcia Lorca. To understand his poetry, one must pay attention to the poetic theory of "duende" of which Lorca says he is possessed. The conception of "duende" of Garcia Lorca corresponds to a certain form of fatalism and indigenous belief of Andalucia. Garcia Lorca has also prepared a festival of cante jondo in collaboration with Manual de Falla. When Lorca speaks of "duende," it is very human, and differs from "Musa" or "angel.`` This means that "duende" is a presupposition of death as a human being. From his first volume of verse "Libro de poemas" on, he mentions and chants death, but the works in which he starts speaking intensively of death are: "Cante jondo" and "Romancero gitano." In "Cante jondo" he treats of death as if he admires it. "Romancero gitano" is about the tragic destiny of the gipsies. Here we can find words as: knife, dagger, battle, death and persecution, especially persecution of the gipsies by the guardia civil (police). In "Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez Mejias," we can not only read about the blood and the inevitable death of the toreros (bull-fighters), but also about the victory of death by their courage and valour, and the nobility of their attitude. In the three poems of which "Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez Mejias" consists, death is not an abominable thing, but it is charming, warm, and embraces the human being as an affectionate mother does with her children. In these poems we can easily appreciate the estetics of death as seen by Garcia Lorca. Here death is conquered and transformed in immortality by the valour of a real man. In the poems "Poeta en Nueva York," Lorca pays attention to the negros, just as he did with the gipsies of Spain in his previous poetry. This poetry is the culmination of Lorca``s esoterism. He chants the tragic destiny of the negros, their poverty, misery, disdain of the white people and death. In one of the poems of this volume of verse: "Jntroduccion a la muerte" (Introduction to Death), we can easily observe his obsession of death and death among the negros. Among several plays, three tragedies are representative: "Boda de sangre," "Yerma" and "La casa de Bernarda Alba." In each of the plays, the protagonists have a tragic death, In the Greek tragedies, death results of external factors, but in Lorca`s tra g edies internal factors are the reason of death. To conclude we can say that Garcia Lorca chants death from the beginning of his poetical creation on, till his last work, in an intensive way. Death as Lorca sees it is not a definite death, but it is a part of his life. In one thousand years of Spanish liter-□uture, we can rarely find a poet who mentions death as intensively as Garcia Lorca did.
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Contrairetnent a ce qui fonde le point de depart de la theorie Psycomecanique du Langage de Gustave GUILLAUME, i.e., La position coexistencielle (bi-directionnel/heterogone) de ≪matiere(=notion)-forme≫, mise dans l``ordre de 1 a 2, nous voudrions proposer l``ordre 1 2 inverse de ≪forme-niatiere≫, pour les raisons suivantes: 1) la forme est par definition une entite fermee, limitee et anaiysee alors que la matiere est celle ouverte, illimitee et comme tel non analysabie;2) c``est a partir de la forme analysable que l``on pent arriver a analyser la matiere et non vice-versa. En se fondant sur cette constatation bien simple, cet article vise a preciser les coordon-nees de la theorie psychomecanique du langage dans le cadre unificateur suivant:1)la theorie ≪forme-mnteiere≫ que nous proposons ``dappeler la representation analytique formeile objective (=morphologique) et de representer comme: q(1Ti-``2T) (q=forme; (1T-``2T) =matiere); 2) le corollaire de la theorie 1), qui admet dans la theorie 3) ci-dessous, 1`` absence de la representation analytique formelle (=morphologique) de in theorie 1) et qui pent se representer comme: #(1T-2T)(#:l`absence de q(forme);(1T-2T); 3) Ia theorie ≪matiere-forme≫ que nous proposons d,appeler la representation non analy-tique lexicale subjective (=syntaxique) et qui insiste subjectivement sur son caractere analytique formel objectif (=morphologique) (=(1)) et confonde elle-meme (=3) avec (1), au lieu d``admettre l``absence de (1). Sa representation sera: T(q1-q2) (T==matiere; (q1-q2)=forme). Si la theorie psychomecanique demeure toujours dans (3), elic va continuer son analyse a l``infini dans le cadre syntaxique (=lexical) seulement; si elle vise a atteindre a la theorie morphologique(= (1)), laquelle est son but, die doit reevaluer ses resuitats obtenus de telle facon qu``ils soient conformes a la theorie morphologique(l).
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