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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

인문논총검색

Seoul National University the Journal of Humanites


  • - 주제 : 인문과학분야 > 기타(인문과학)
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-3021
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 25권 0호 (1991)

포스트모더니즘 -새로운 구원인가 아니면 또 다른 비합리성인가

허창운 ( Tschang Un Hur )
5,900
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Diese Studie ist em Versuch, die neue, fast in die Mode gekommene Sammelbezeichnung "Postmodernismus" fur eine Fulle von kulturellen Erscheinungen der zweiten Halfte des 20. Jahrhunderts begrifflich zu differenzieren und dem allgemeinen Verstandnis zuganglich zu machen. Gegenuber der manchmal angeprangerten antirationalen Zweideutigkeit des sogenannten Postmodernismus verteidigt unter anderen A. Wellmer die Perspektive einer radikalisierten Aufklarung. Nach seiner Auffassung ist der Begriff "Postmodernismus" dialektisch als ein Vexierbild zu charakterisieren. Je nach der Blickrichtung kann das Bild des Postmodernismus anders beleuchtet und variiert verstanden werden. In diesem Sinne ist das Lebenspotential der Moderne noch nicht ausgeschopft, und darin sieht eben A. Wellmer eine Chance fur Mehrdimensionalisierung der Moderne. Deswegen verteidigt er namlich im AnschluΒ an die philosophischen Argumentationen von Habermas die potentiale Selbstreflexivitat der Aufklarung einerseits, durch die die mehrstrahlige Vernunftigkeit zur Geltung gebracht werden kann. Und andererseits setzt er in kritischer Anknupfung an Adorno die genannte Perspektive zu zentralen Impulsen der modernen Kunst in Beziehung. "Hierin liegt zugleich ein Anknupfungspunkt an die Rationalitatskritik der Postmodernisten: fur diese ebenso wie fur Adorno steht die moderne Kunst im Zeichen einer Kritik der Rationaltatsform der Moderne: in beiden Fallen wird sie zum Schlussel einer Kritik der diskursiven, der instrumentellen, der ``totalisierenden`` Vernunft. Fur Adorno zielt diese Kritik auf eine Selbstuberschreitung der Aufklarung, und hierin bleibt er-im Gegensatz zu den Postmodernisten-unzweideutig ein Aufklarer." Man kann freilich gegen Adorno einwenden, daΒ die Kunst nur um den Preis einer Re-Theologisierung der Geschichte als Ort einer ``hoheren`` Rationalitat, als Vorschein von Versohnung zu interpretieren ist: die Kunst ist nicht das Paradigma einer hoheren Rationalitatsform, sondern das Medium einer Entgrenzung unseres Rationalitatsverstandnisses; sie steht nicht fur das Ganze einer anderen, besseren Vernunft, sondern fur die Moglichkeit einer Erweiterung von Subjekt-, Kommunikations- und Erfahrungsgrenzen." In diesem Sinne soll man in der mehrstrahlig ausgedeuteten Vernunftigkeit der Aufklarung eher eine Rettung der von der instrumentalen Vernunft bedrohten Natur und Menschheit sehen, als einen Terror der menschlichen Selbstuberschatzung, deren oft Postmodernisten die Moderne zu bezichtigen tendieren.

엘리어트와 포스트모더니즘 -《황무지 The Waste Land》의 포스트모던성을 중심으로

이정호 ( Chong Ho Lee )
6,800
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The Waste Land is generally considered to be a quintessentially modernistic poem written by a representative modernistic poet, T.S. Eliot. Or is it? Even though the poem was written during the so-called modernistic period by one of the most typical modernistic poets, it does not necessarily follow that it is or should be a modernistic poem. This poem defies this kind of easy categorization and stands on its own peculiar characteristics. This is the main reason why critics have not so far reached a consensus on how to deal with it. In this respect, we can try to read it from a perspective different from the one conventionally practised so far. Concepts like postmodernism and postmodernity, then, can serve us very well for this purpose. Especially the period-neutral concept like postmodernity will be a very useful tool in reading this poem. What makes this poem different from other modernistic poems is that it does not have a narrative, or a story, to tell. This means that it does not seem to have a unified organizing principle, generally understood as telos, because it is wholly composed of fragments. In this sense, this poem demands a new reading strategy. Of all things, the feature of seeming purposelessness of this poem makes it very posmodernistic, because postmodernity (and postmodernism, too) literally thrive on the meaninglessness and fragmentariness of the world in general and of the work of art itself in particular. This aspect of meaninglessness, then, leads us to note the decentered nature of the poem. The Waste Land, a mere "heap of broken images," does not have a center in its structure in the conventional sense of the term. We cannot, therefore, say for sure who the original author/authors is/are: Eliot/Pound/ the writers of the quoted fragments! and/or the reader of the text as the poem. The original writer/writers can and/or cannot be either one of these and, at the same time, all/none of these. In this confused state of affairs, not a single definite meaning can be fixed on this text as to its story-line, because the text itself is connected with other texts ad infinitum. In this regard, even though The Waste Land is written in the so-called modernistic period by a well-known modernistic poet, it definitely demands to be read as a postmodernistic text.

보르헤스와 포스트모더니즘

김춘진
6,500
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Pretendemos examinar en este trabajo algunos factores peculiares de los escritos de Borges con el fin de verificar su intima relacion con el llamado "postmodernism". Partimos del concepto de un "escepticismo esencial" con que Borges define su postura filosofica fundamental en sus escritos. En el "escepticismo esencial" esta implicita su pretension de negar las verdades filosoficas poniendolas en tela de juicio, sobre todo, en la dimension epistemologica. Borges pretende reinterpretar, a lo largo de sus escrites, los sistemas filosoficos y teologicos por nuevos paradigmas esteticos, de modo que las doctrinas no le interesan por sus valores filosoficos sino por sus maravillas singulares. Segun Borges, la paradoja de Zenon, que le proporciona Ia ocasion de probar la falacia del racionalismo filosofico, esta apuntando a la borrosidad de la diferencia abismal entre realidad e irrealidad, lo cual esta vedado a la razon humana tan bien arraigada, desde Socrates, en todo el sistema del pensamiento teleologico sobre la verdad. Uno de los temas preferentemente explorados por Borges es el de "Everything and Nothing", un mecanismo logico que se repite en la refiexion metafisica tanto del Oriente como del Occidente. La teologia cristiana ha venido desde su etapa primitiva esforzandose por definir el dios, ese "Alguien" que era uno "concreto" como Jeova, y su concepto posterior va amplificandose para convertirse en "nadie", un "respetuoso caos de superlativos" de "omnisciente", "omnipotente", "omnipresente, etc". En fin, el mecanismo logico de alcanzar lo Absoluto falla siempre, ya que el mundo es "indeterminado", "desordenado", y mas casual que logico como se piensa en el racionalismo empirico. El salto logico de identificar "Everything" y "Nothing", como queda dogmatizado ya en el budismo, prueba la imposibilidad de alcanzar el sentido de lo "Absoluto." A nuestro modo de ver, tal mecanismo logico pone de manifiesto "la ruptura abismal entre el significante y el significado". Esta reflexion muy original de Borges, que fragmenta los tradicionales conceptos como "Totalidad", "Origen", o "Causalidad", se proyecta a traves de sus escritos que llamariamos auto-reflexivas, cuya manifestacion ejemplar podemos observar en "La Escritura del Dios." J. Alazraki denomina "oximoronica" la estructura logica de las ficciones de Borges, en la cual podemos identificar, a su vez, una alegoria del laberinto linguistico, como se demuestra en su ensayo, "De Alquien a Nadie", y en el magnifico cuento, "La Escritura del Dios." En este cuento, el protagonista, que esperaba la revelacion del dios, apenas llega a conseguir su ultimo proposito de unirse con dios, cuando entiende el sin-sentido de todo el ser para perder la identidad de su propio ser. Asi, el modo de pensar y escribir de Borges que, segun suponemos, se fundamenta en un "escepticismo esencial", se muestra evidentemente "postmodernista." Sin embargo, Borges parece ser victima de su propio laberinto linguistico, de modo que Borges se convierte en un tregico que no pueda negar ni afirmar su escepticismo "inflinitamente" ironico. Borges puede ser ironico ante la filosofia, la teologia y todos los pensamientos metafisicos, pero su ironia tampoco puede estar libre de la misma ironia. Esto no nos plantea una neuva forma del humanismo? Cuando no rechazamos que el postmodernismo no es el fin del humanismo sino su replanteamiento dramatico, podriamos decir que la manifestacion "postmodernista" de Borges queda doblemente confirmada.

앙리 미쇼, 폭력의 시와 인간의 기형성

오생근 ( Saeng Keun Oh )
5,600
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La poesie de Michaux revet la plus grande diversite de formes: du reportage a l`aphorisme, du realisme au fantastique, de l`ironie a la cruaute et de la prose scientifique au plus violent elan lyrique. A travers ces voix multiples et contradictoires, il s`efforce de creer ses propres formes, particulierement efficaces puisqu`elles obeissent a l`elan de la voix du poete, tantot chant ample et soutenu, tantot murmure melancolique, tantot saccades de cris dechires. Dans une large mesure, Michaux nous montre un monde a lui, se refusant a accepter le monde tel qu`il est. Ainsi son langage n`imite pas le monde mais le rompe plutot et le desarticule pour le vaincre. Dans son univers, l`homme apparait souvent comme une entite composite imparfaite et fragile en voie de desagregation. L`etre decrit par Michaux se fait des images d`une sorte de morcellement physique et psychique. Il n`est plus une personne, mais n`importe qui, ramene a l`anonymat. Nous decouvrons l`homme selon Michaux dans sa faiblesse, dans la solitude on l`enferme sa conscience pleine de honte, dans l`horreur de n`etre soutenu par personne ni par rien. Mais il ne persiste pas dans le desespoir, il ne se soumet pas, il s`insurge avec colere, en depit de sa faiblesse et de la honte d`etre celui qu`il est.

포스트모더니즘과 현대 미국시

신정현
13,200
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The main stream of criticism on postmodernism in Korea has attacked it as a cultural logic of the post-industrial Western society, confusing "postmodernity" with "postmodernism," and trying to answer the question "Does the so-called postmodernism have some intrinsic values?" Another stream has focused its concern on the authorial origin of the cultural phenomenon, or its relationship to modernism and post-structuralism. But to understand it more properly, we should question "What is postmodernism?" rather than "Is postmodernism valuable to us?" or "Who started the movement?" The postmodern culture which has developed since around 1945 in the Western hemisphere illustrated many negative aspects of a life-denying culture, despite its material prosperity. Its most unbearable attributes are sterile homogeneity, uncertainty, absurdity, mercantile ethic, absence of moral values, irrationality, innocent victim, entropy in history, exhaustion, overwhelming mechanical forces, mer cantilization of knowledge and language, and so on. These may be defined as the negative side of "postmodernity," which has been nourished by logocentricism in the postmodern culture, and embodied as mass culture, media society, the society of spectacles, the bureaucratic society of controlled consumption, postindustrial society, and the highly industrial society. Postmodernism is a dominant attitude toward the postmodern maimed, logocentric culture. Postmodernists, whose potent progenitor is Nietzsche, were at odds with the predominant values of the postmodern age, and rocked the very metaphysical footings of the postmodern culture by the roots. They "deconstructed" such concepts of the "subject," "logos," "history," "rationality," "truth," "representation," "mimesis," "structuralistic language," "transcendental idea," and so on, as the very source of values in the metaphysical and symbolic "system" of logocentricism. They probed another sources of values in the primitiveness and the peripheral side of the human mind and character, and in the elementary laws of the universe. Postmodernism in literature shared the deconstructive spirit of the postmodernists in other areas. Postmodernist writers tried to tear away all the masks of "rational" ideals and explored the ways in which human beings made and believed in such masks. They accepted, like postmodernist philosophers, psychologists, and historians, the "peripheral," "non-rational" side of human nature as important and noble as the rational characteristics. They pursued the liberation of the ecstasy and wisdom of the "unreason," which has been confined by the various kinds of "systems" of logocentricism. They valued the positive function of instincts and desires in human life, and thought that limiting human activity to strictly rational behavior is impoverishing human life and experience. Or, at least, they waged a fierce struggle to embrace the genetic absurdity of existence itself, recognizing that life is at the mercy of "chance" rather than "causality." As a flow of postmodernist criticism against mechanical rationality as the major contributory element to the decadence of Western culture, postmodern American poetry called in question the basic tenets of "logopoeia," an Apollonian poetics which emphasizes art as "machine" representing reality rather than art as life. It denied decadent symbolic poetry, transcendental design drawn from the omniscient point of view, aesthetic distance, representation, closed form, mastering purpose, transcendental logos. Rather, it preferred metonymic verse, playfulness subject to chance, pure subjectivity, immediacy, open form, silencing dispersal, absence of truth. It was the poetry of resistance groping for "melopoeia," a Dionysian poetics which emphasizes openness, tangentialization, untotalization, nakedness, minimalism, immediacy, the raw, anti-system, and primitiveness. It was not an ego-building process by means of negation of nature, but an enlarging of the temple of life by means of purgation of the ego-ridden self.
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