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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

인문논총검색

Seoul National University the Journal of Humanites


  • - 주제 : 인문과학분야 > 기타(인문과학)
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-3021
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 4권 0호 (1979)

강유위(康有爲)의 경학사상고(經學思想考)

최완식 ( Wan Shik Choi )
5,900
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Kang-You-Wei who took the lead in the Wu-Xu political change at the close of Qing Dynasty had greatly contributed to ushering in a new epoch of Chinese modernization as a man of both political ideas and Confucianism. The purpose of this paper is to clarify his Confucian ideas through a comprehensive research of his predecessors who had influenced him in his theorization and his major publications. There are three scholars who had exercised a decisive influence upon his theorization. Zhu Ci-Qi laid the foundation of his theories and fosteied his graceful and virtuous personality. Liao Ping suggested the way for the development of his Confucian theories into political ideas, thus it might he said that his later publications are nothing but the systematization of Lao``s theories. Lastly, Zhang Yan-Qiu enlarged his acquaintance with the historical development of modern times and the issues of the day. Of his copious writings Xin-Xue-Wei-Jing-Kao and Kong-Zi-Gai-Zhi-Kao are the most important works. Through these two works lie presented his own theories for a new interpietation of the Classical Canon. He ranked Confucius as an absolute sage, and at the same time he maintained that the social institutions be reformed in accordance with the current of the times, as Cofucius did. Lang Qi-Chao, his disciple, compared him to a whirlwind, a volcanic eruption and an earthquake because of his notable contiibution to the academic world, while his theories were so dogmatic and absuid that the gicat impact on the orthodox Confucians led to their counterattacks. What is most important in interpreting his theories is from which angle they are viewed; he can be a great Confucian, a man of political ideas, a religionist or an anthropologist depending on one``s viewpoints. 1-lowever, it is obviously true that his theorization was not so much for the sake of Confucian study as for the reformation and idealization of human society. In other words, it was for the puipose of justfying his own political ideas that he had ipursued inquiries into the Classical Canon, which resulted in so dogmatic an interpretation of the Classical Canon and the absurd theorization.

Jane Austen 연구(硏究)

박희진 ( Hee Jin Park )
5,600
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Jane Austen wrote most of her novels when Wordsworth was emphasizing the value and dignity of ordinaiy experiences and simple language in poetry. She was the very novelist that was aware that a novelist``s duty is not to demonstrate a cei tam theory, nor to evoke the stereotyped emotional iesponses mechanically. She was horn a daughtei of a country clergyman and remained in the country all her life. Consequently her scope of knowledge is limited. She compared her work to a 2-inch- square ivory and this comparison is a proper one, The surface of the ivory was really small, hut the sculptor who worked on it is one of the greatest artists. Even today one needs professional literary training in order to appreciate her excellent merits properly, for one cannot grasp the thing beyond the surface without special training. Already at 15, in her Love and Fizendshzp, Austen showed how she was well aware of the folly of the sentimental novels. All through her life she saw through the ahsuidity, contradicitons and vain modifications which were prevalent in the novels of that period She managed to avoid these defects with care This fact can he said to be a revolution of the concept of the novelist``s duty. Miss Austen wrote the following six novels Not thanger Abbey(1797``-1803``---``1816), Sense and SenszbthtyQ797r.431 1), Pt ide and Ft egudzce (1796-.i 1812), and Mantjield Pa, k (1811``-4813), Emina(1814r.i1815), and Pet suasion(1815``-``1816). The matei ial dealt in the works is small in scope But if we consider how she dealt with the material artistically, we are not to be disappointed. From the viewpoint of plot, these novels can be said trivial, wherease the dramatic truth and the vivid characterization are almost equal to Shakespeare``s. Austen limited the scope of her works on purpose. She united the tradtion of poetic satire and sentimental novel in her works. She revealed in her woiks her interest in man and his actions as a dramatist. She intended to reveal her character by his or her words and actions. Analyzing the satire and various emotions, we come to perceive how dramatic Austcn``s characters`` conversations are. By ``dramatic,`` we mean that the uthor does not describe the ``character directly but let him or her reveal himself or herself. Austen``s satire depends on her sense of the character``s mutability and complexity. But her vision is not Proust``s relative one. Her sense of the mutabitity is full of vigor and well balanced by her positive belief in man. Trivial conversations are constantly illuminated by her excellent sense and her firm belief in the possibility that she can pass a sound judgment. Jane Austen analyzes man, a civilized monster, in her novels. As one critic pointed out, we can notice "contiolled hatred" in her attitude of the analysis. In other words we are shown that man clothed in grand constumes do so many unreasonable things. Through the analyses of these absurd hehaviois, sensitive individuals are revealed to struggle with various social conditions delicately and laboriously. Austen was satisfied with the fact that she was only a novelist, nothing less or moie. That is to say, she let the story stand on its own. She did not seek to justify the novel with grand themes and extravagant ethics. Austen``s balance, economy and self-control in her art made her perform the task of unifying all the materials of the woik marvellously. Her detachment is closely related to her balance. Keeping artistic distance lets hei describe her chaiacters more realistically. Thus she tried to let the readers see for themselves. In shis respect, she is one of the pioneers of modern novelists. Actually we do not go too far when we say that the socalled James``s "Mutual Irradiation" method is a highly developed form of Austen``s technique. All in all, Jane Austen is the writer who let us see the profound feelings beyond the surface,
5,800
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The first pait of this papei is to sketch the main line of what has been called the phenomenologists`` aesthctic doctrines Tle purpose of such a sketch is not simply to introduce them in chronological order, but to examine then basic assumptions and appropriate phenomenological methods, i e , the disinteiested aesthetic appreciation (M. Geiger), the natuie of the aesthetic object as purely intentional object (R. Ingarden), and the imaginative artistic creation (J.P Sartre). These examinations are intended to show that, however phenomenology has been applied to art, each of them appears to be made as if art could be explained in terms, respectively, of appreciation, work, and creation, and, thus, to be structurally limited. The second part of this paper is, therefore, to suggest the corrective to such misleading and narrowly defined approaches to art I think it may be suggested not by bieaking art into its constituent elements of appreciation, work, and creation, but by considering it as a whole process. If then, art process becomes a communication of some sort and naturally implicates a social hebaviour. That is, ait has to be explained in terms of an institutional means of some sort 1-Icre arises n difficulty for the undeistanding of the conception of art as an institution. This is mainly due to various old assumptioms that art is primarily an individual, imaginative expression, that artist must seperate himself from social contiols in order to achieve the aristic autonomy But these assumptions involve the fundamental mistake to suppose that there is no continuity between the organized responses of individuals and the formal customs of the general society. In oider to examine the concept of the continuity I turned to the phenomenology of lvi. Merleau-Ponty who wrote "phenomenolgy of perception" already prepared in his first work, "the structure of behaviour", dedicated to the metaphysical problem of mind-body interaction. lie gives such a wide interpretation to the notion of behaviour as to include the sheer physical reaction, and traces the evolution of human cultural activity through a dialectic of orders-physical, vital, and human-in which varous kinds of from-syncretre, mutable, andsynrholie-aie organized in the behaviour ofa living organism. The superiority of human behaviour is, however, that Ihe subject may transcend its purely physical and vital nature in the construction of a symbolic situation. And applying his revised gestaltism to the facts of perception, Merleau-Ponty concludes that an essence is but a conventional or arbitrary name tacked on to an already experienced from of behaviour. The first and pre-rational experienced from he calls a primary expiession, which he claims may be analyzed and resynthesized in any fashion whatsoever by a human subject in secondary expressions. Therefore, the totality of primary expressions constitutes real human history and forms the subject matter of written history which is also likewise a secondary expression as science and philosophy. Here he links primary expressions with the individual ``parole``, that is, individual assimilation of the living ``langue``, by appealing to Saussure``s general theory of linguistics. Thus, for him primary and seccndary expressions which may remind us of Croce``s distinction of intuitions and concepts interact in such a way to enrich or impoverish the established language. If then, there is no individual activity aside from the insignificant release of tensions within individual organism, just as there are no completely determined examples of socially controlled iasponse. That is, all human activity is more or less individual and at the same time more or less social. The final part of this paper is to indicate that for Merleau-Ponty ait assumes its role as a primaiy expression in this system, and that it is of institutional nature. What follows is then to take into account some problems which issue from this argument. First, we have to analyze the institutional nature of art in such a way as to isolate the special function played by that institution. In a general way this purpose may ha stated as the development of novel meanings for Merleau-Ponty and then art must be expounded in the general theoiy of knowledge for him. This suggests that there is another kind of knowledge, though pre-rational, and that art is likewise a from of cognitive activity os science though diffrant from each other in their nature. I think it is really a philosophical point in question whether such an argument can ha supported. But it is significant that, if it will be accepted as having a valid ground, a bright prospect would be promised for the foundation of philosophy of art. In comparision with it, it is worth noting that even the minimum ground has been difficult to be arranged for philosophy of art in Anglo- American philosophy, and that this philosophy has advanced philosophy of art criticism instead, though there is an aesthetician like Virgil C, Aldiich who has tiied to woik out a philosophical ground for the foundation of philosophy of nit with dililculty. Thus, we con now say as follows ait is a watarshed, and is offered as a hattie field, between two camps of philosophy. Secondly, what I have found inteiesting is that the notion of nit as an institution is also analyzed by G. Dickie, an analytical philosopher who put the definition of ait in terms of the art world suggested by A. Danto. Indeed., there are incompatible differences in many respects between Merleau-ponty``s and 0. Dickie``s notion of it, but I think we can easily discern a difference in that, whereas the former tries to expound how art with its institutional nature comes into being, the lattei tries to aigue for the existence of the ait world by desciibing a considerable amount of infoimation about it. Ileie we can find a ceitain relation between both of them. For, if Dickie``s conception of the institutional nature of alt is based on the existence of the empirical ait world and thus a possible giound of it has to be affirmed in any way whatsoever, Merleau-Ponty``s explication of art as an institution would be a philosophical ground for, and a point of contact with, that existence of the art world. Thirdly, since the argument that art is an institution implies in itself that it is a communication as a kind of social activity, alt may not ot can not be isolated from the other institutions of society,i. a., religious, political, and economic. Thus we have to take into account the effects of art upon the society. That is, these effects is not external to the nature of art, but is already implicit in the notion of art as a social institution of the communication of the novel meanings. So, the philosophy of art can be consummated only when it is extended to relate itself to the social psychology of ait. I thik that this new approach is to be pursued for the solution of the dilemma of contemporary aesthetics.

Schiller 의 비극(悲劇)《Maria Stuart》 연구(硏究)

윤세훈 ( Se Hun Yoon )
6,300
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((Maria Stuart)) 1st das klassische funfaktige Drama, das SchUler in seiner sp?ten Pei lode gesehaffen hat. Darin versucht Schiller, uber Kant und Goethe hinaus aufgiund seinet doppelten Befruchtung durch Shakespeare und die franzosische Buhne einen eigenen Stil der Tragodie zu finden. In diesem Werk verwiiklicht Schiller in der Dramatisieiung eines historisehen Stoffes eine ausgezeichnete Harmonic von Form und Inhalt Besonders hervor ragend 1st die Einheit von Bauplan und Poetisierung des Stoffes, sprachliehen Formen und Idee der Freiheit und des Erhabenen. Diese Einheit zeigt sich aber in Schillers spaten Dramen in vielfaltigen Abwandlungen, da die Werke in der Gestaltung der Stoffe jeweils einen eigenen Gharakter haben. In dieser Einheit zeigt sich auch dci besondere Stil Schillers sowie seine zur Abstraktion. tendieiende dichterische Fntwicklung. Die Tragodie ((Mana Stuart)) zeigt am starksten den Einflul3 des franzosischen Stils. In strenger ``geseblossener Form`` und sorgfaltig ausgewogenen und auf die beiden Koniginnen verteilten Akten wird die Tragodie aufgebaut. Das Geschehen und seine Vergeschichte werden mit Hilfe der ``Euripidischen Methode`` aufs auj9erste zusammen gedrangt. Fur die Form dieser Tragodie ist die Verwandlung historischer Elemente in dichterische Gestalt am wiehtigsten. So 1st die Spraehe sehr musikalisch, der Reim erscheint hauuIg innerhaib der Szene. Und diesei Reim durchzieht die ganze Rede der in Begeisterung spreehenden Personen. Besondeis Mortimers fromme Ergriffenheit und die sakrale Begehung der Beichte sind im Schillerisehen Sinn "poetisch", also em Element der Form. Maria ist die gefangene und zum Tode verurteilte 1-leldin. Alle Versuche, die Konigin zu retten sind vergeblich. Maria vollzieht in dem gro19en Gesprach mit Elisaheth den Durehbruch zum Erhabenen, als sic ihr Spiel um Leben und Krone endgultig verliert, aber mit dem freiwilligen Tod einen hoheren Sieg gewinnt. Tm metaphysischen Sinn erweist sich jedoeh Marias Tod als ihr Sieg uber sieh selbst. Indem sic ihn als Stiafe fur begangene Sunden annimmt, tibeiwindet sic die sinnliche Todesangst und gewinnt ihre sittliehe und geistige Freiheit zuruek. Ihr Tod ist Opfer und Suhne zugleich, Uberwindung der tragisehen Situation des Mensehen durch den "Ubertritt des Mensehen in Gott." So verwandelt sich die Geschichtstragodie in em Lauterungsdrama

공통인구어 모음연구에 관하여 -Laryngeal theory를 중심으로-

강인선 ( In Sun Kang )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  4권 0호, 1979 pp. 89-105 ( 총 17 pages)
5,700
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This is a brief survey of the studies of PIE vowel system. The traditionally desciibed and generally accepted system for PIE was Brugmann-Hirt-Meillet``s. De Saussure``s system is different from the others in positing two abstract phonemes, A,Q, in the system. These were deduced from the exhaustive investigations of the ahlaut phenomena, and were described as coefficients sonantiques like the syllabics r I I-Its insightful proposals, however, were not generally accepted until the Hittite documents were discovered and deciphered. The Hittite phonemes showed the regular correspondances to the A,Q. Then most of the IE comparativists devoted themselves to study the laryngeals. The laryngeal theory has been developed, the approaches to which have been three ways. First, some add certain results from the Hittite resources to the laryngeals as coefficients sonantiques. Second, others construct the theory only with reference to the Hittite. Third, others make phonological approaches to the laryngeals with parellel to the Hittite. The writer sketched out these approaches. Finally, according to Keiler(1970), some Hittite phonemes were interpreted as the reflexes of the TE laryngeals, appearing to be a natural consequenses of the kinds of distinctive features.
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