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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치

인문논총검색

Seoul National University the Journal of Humanites


  • - 주제 : 인문과학분야 > 기타(인문과학)
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-3021
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
논문제목
수록 범위 : 42권 0호 (1999)

한국어와 알타이제어의 의존용언 구문 연구 -한국어와 할하 몽골어를 대상으로-

권재일 ( Jae Il Kwon )
5,400
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In this paper we investigated the properties of auxiliary verb constructions in Korean and Khalkha Mongolian. And we looked at the similarities and differences between auxiliary verb constructions in the two languages. The results of this investigation will shed light not only on the properties of the auxiliary verb constructions in the two languages, but also on their genealogical and typological relationship. Most of the auxilianes in both Korean and Khalkha Mongolian are versatile in that they can be used both as auxiliaries and main verbs. In their auxiliary use, the meaning of main verbs are bleached. For example, peli- in Korean and orxiin Khalkha Mongolian mean ``to throw away`` when used as a main verb. However, as auxiliaries, they express completive aspect. Korean and Khalkha Mongolian have many connective endings but only a few of them are used in auxiliary verb constructions: -e, -ko, -ci, -key in Korean and -j, -aad, -n, -saar in Khalkha Mongolian. The endings -ko, -e in Korean and their rough equivalents -j, -aad in Khalkha Mongolian are most frequently used in auxiliary verb constructions. Auxiliary verb constructions in both Korean and Khalkha Mongolian are used to express a variety of grammatical functions, such as aspect and modality. In both languages, auxiliary verb constructions may express aspectual distinctions such as completive, progressive, and inchoative aspect. Modal distinctions such as the benefactive, trial, permission are also expressed through auxiliary verb constructions. While benefactive modality is expressed by the auxiliary verb construction -e cwu- ``-Conn give`` in Korean, Khalkha Mongolian distinguishes two types of benefactive constructions depending on whether the favor is conferred on the referent of the subject (-j av- ``-Conn take``), or that of the non-subject (-j og? ``-Conn give``). Another interesting difference between the two languages is lexical restrictions on auxiliary verb constructions of completive aspect. The -e iss- ``to be, exist`` construction in Korean imposes restrictions on verbs that can occur as main verbs, while the corresponding construction in Khalkha Mongolian, -aad bai- ``to be, exist``, does not. The situation in Khalkha Mongolian is similar to that found in Middle Korean. The process of grammaticalization is observed in both languages. Many auxiliary verbs in Khalkha Mongolian developed through the grammaticalization of lexical verbs. It is likely that auxiliary verb constructions in both languages will undergo further grammaticalization in the future.

셰익스피어의 초자연적 요서 -배경적 지식을 중심으로-

이경식 ( Kyung Shik Lee )
7,300
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It is difficult to think of any Shakespearean play which does not reflect one way or another popular beliefs and superstitions of his day regarding such supernatural elements as ghosts (spirits), fairies, and witches. But R3, MND, JC, Hamlet, Macbeth and Tempest are, among others, the plays whose supernatural elements play a very prominent part with their participation in and influence upon their plot and action. The present article aims at introducing spiritualism or popular superstitions, supernatural and astrological, that were current in the 16th and 17th centuries in general and in Elizabethan and Jacobean England in particular by way of providing a background knowledge of Shakespeare. For this purpose have been discussed somewhat in detail four representative source-books which include Lavater`s De Spectris (1572; R. H.`s English translation, Of Ghostes and Spirites Walking by Nyght, 1572), Scot`s Discouerie of Witchcraft (1584), Le Loyer`s IIII Livres de Spectres ou Apparitions et Visions d`Esprits (1586; Z. Jones`s English translation, A Treatise of Specters or straunge lights, Visions, and Apparitions appearing sensibly vnto men, 1605, includes BK I only), King James`s Daemonologie (1597) and ``Discourse vpon Diuels and Spirits`` added to Scot`s 1665 edition of The Discouerie of Witchcraft. Both books by Lavater and Le Loyer which represent respectively the then Protestant and Catholic views of ghosts together with the ``Discourse vpon Diuels and Spirits`` have much bearing on Shakespeare`s ghosts in general and King Hamlet`s ghost in particular, and both books by Scot and King James on Shakespeare`s witches and witchcraft in general and Macbeth`s witches in particular. In a nutshell, Catholic Church embraced the then ghost-belief that the ghost of the departed could return to earth from the Purgatory to visit his family and friends with various intents, whereas the Protestants who rejected the existence of the purgatory did not believe in such a ghost unless it was a devil which could assume whatever shape it pleased to do harm. Scot was sceptical about the existence of witches and witchcraft and therefore did not approve of the indiscriminate witch-hunting and severe punishment of witches, but King James was a firm believer not only in their existence but also their harmful ways and evil practices, and as a result he did what he could to arrest alleged witches and to punish them. Shakespeare was not the only playwright who utilized the supernatural elements and superstitious traditional beliefs for his plays, but the only one who made use of them in such a way that the supernatural elements like fairies, ghosts and witches played a very vital role and influenced the plot and action of the play. Hamlet without King Hamlet`s ghost, Macbeth without the Weird Sisters, and MND and Tempest without their fairies would simply be inconceivable. It is no wonder that his plays are often called rich source-books for folk-lore. In conclusion, Shakespeare`s creative use of the supernatural elements and traditional popular beliefs achieved the maximum dramatic effect, thus demonstrating Shakespeare`s excellence as a playwright.

워즈워스의 생태적 상상력

이정호 ( Chong Ho Lee )
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We live in an age when the concern for environment is uppermost in our mind. This state of affairs has been brought about as a result of the headstrong development of industry and technology for the last two centuries without any regard to what kind of consequence this kind of technological development would usher in. In the process of single-minded industrialization, nature has been exploited as a means to achieve the maximum level of production. In this respect, nature has simply been considered as something to be exploited without having its own intrinsic value. In reaction to this kind of reckless industrial development, there have emerged a group of people who think that this kind of nature-exploiting industrial and technological development is detrimental, not only to the well-being of human beings, but also to the environment as well. One of the pioneers in this kind of new thinking was Ernest Haekel, a German zoologist, who has first used the term, ecology, as "the investigation of the total relations of the animal both to its intrinsic and to its organic environment." Since Haekel has pointed out the importance of the environment to the animal world, his concept of ecology has caught on in the scientific community. Later in the 20th Century James E. Lovelock has come up with "a new insight into the inteactions between the living and the inorganic parts of the planet." Recent developments in ecological and environmental thinking have provided us with an opportunity to read Wordsworth`s poetry from a new perspective. Even though there is a group of critics who consider nature in Wordsworth`s poetry is not an end in itself but a means to reach something beyond, we should take into account the fact that Wordsworth considered nature as a living entity. He has thought that nature and human beings have very intimate relationship. In this respect, man is not alienated from nature, In his view, nature is always in the process of creation, that is, natura naturans. Furthermore, Wordsworth "gave a moral life/To every natural form." To Wordsworth, therefore, it is unthinkable to separate man from nature. This kind of Wordsworthian thinking should be valuable in considering Wordsworth as ecology-friendly and environment-minded poet. We see exmples of his ecological imagination very clearly in his poetry, especially "Goody Blake and Harry Gill" and The Prelude.

논항의 판별기준: 한국어의 동사성 복합어

홍기선 ( Ki Sun Hong )
5,400
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The head of a verbal compound is derived from a verb by affixation and its non-head element is interpreted as an argument of the head or a closely related adjunct. Within the framework of Argument Structure Theory, there has been much discussion on whether the verbal compound can be a test for argumenthood. Grimshaw(1990) has specifically proposed that this construction provides supporting evidence for the hierarchy of fine-grained thematic roles. In this paper, I attempt to figure out which elements can be the non-heads of verbal compounds in Korean by analyzing about 400 compounds in terms of thematic roles. Unlike the previous claims based on English data, the result shows that the fine-grained thematic hierarchy is not observed and that a prominent distinction exists only between the Agent and all the other thematic roles, Furthermore, we cannot find any significant difference between arguments and adjuncts in being incorporated as a non-head. Based on this empirical evidence, I argue that verbal compounds cannot be a test for argumenthood in Korean.

『연옥(Purgatory)』: 예이츠가 도달한 곳

황동규 ( Tong Gyu Hwang )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  42권 0호, 1999 pp. 105-116 ( 총 12 pages)
4,700
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Yeats`s chronologically penultimate play Purgatory in his posthumous Collected Plays of W. B. Yeats is difficult to put into a pigeon-hole. It is neither a traditional one like Cathleen ni Houlihan nor a No-type one like The Death of Cuchulain. which ends the book. In Last Poems arid Two Plays, the last book W. B. Yeats was preparing to publish just before his death, Purgatory occupies the last seat. The actual last play The Death of Cuchulain precedes it. Considering Yeats`s concerns in reordering his works when he published books the place of the play betrays a significance hard to overlook. Purgatory is a rather simple play, the shortest among the published plays he has ever written, with only two characters, an old man and his young son, on a simple symbolic set. The old man is a ``Yeatsian`` believer of ``re-living`` or ``dreaming-back`` after one dies a violent or passionate death. The old man kills his son in order to eliminate the ``re-living`` process of his dead mother. But his double murder (50 years ago he killed his father who violated the ``big house`` tradition) brings no deliverance from ``re-living`` for his dead mother because she cannot get rid of her human ``lust.`` Lust-life we find in Crazy Jane poems and other last poems manifests itself at the end of the play. The last work in Yeats`s ``last`` book shows us eloquently that the final choice he reached is filthy life over deliverance from life`s filth.

번역의 개념과 언어학적 번역론

김윤한 ( Youn Han Kim )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  42권 0호, 1999 pp. 117-136 ( 총 20 pages)
5,500
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Seit Jeher wurde ubersetzt und zwischen Angehorigen verschiedener Sprachgemeinschaften vermittelt. Fruhe Ubersetzer begrunden ihre Methode, doch es gelingt noch nicht, das Ubersetzen als eine spezifische Sprachverwendung theoretisch aufzufassen und wissenschaftlich zu beschreiben. Die am Ubersetzungsvorgang beteiligten Faktoren und Bedingungen sind der Text, die beteiligten Sprachen, der Prozess der Uberfuhrung des AS-Textes in einen ZS-Text, der kommunikativen Hindergrund von AS-Text und ZS-Text, der Ubersetzer, der Empfanger der Ubersetzung. Es interessiert hier nicht die philosophisch-hermeneutischen und asthetisch- literaturwissenschaftlichen Definitionen des Ubersetzungsprozess, das Ubersetzen einerseits als Verstehens-und Auslegunsprozess, anderseits als schbpferisch- kunsterischen, rein subjektiven Ubersetzungsvorgang zu bestimmen. Die Ubersetzungsdefinitionen sind in keinem Fall rein deskriptiv und sie erhalten immer ein normatives Element. Die normative Aspekt kommt in Begriff der Aquivalenz zum Ausdruck. Wenn Sprachen als direkten Ausdruck einer Kultur, einer nationalen Eigentumlichkeit gesehen werden, konnen fremde Texte immer nur annahemd ubersetzen werden. Eine ganz andere Ausgangsposition fur das Ubersetzen ergibt sich, wenn die Sprache nicht als eine Kraft(linguistische Relativitatsprinzip), die ein Weltbild muttersprachlich determiniert, sondem als Kommunikationsinstrument (universalistische Sprachtheorie) mit der Funktion, den Gedanken Ausdruck zu verleihen. Das Ubersetzen ist extrem schwierig, wenn nicht gar unmoglich, wenn man das Ubersetzen aus dem Prinzip des muttersprachen Weltbildes sieht. Wenn man umgekehrt mit Zeichentheorien und universalistischen Ubersetzungstheorien anfangt, sind alle Texte prinzipiell ubersetzbar. Die Sprache als Kommunikationsinstrument ist ein Zeichensystem, das logisch- grammatisch beschreiben werden kann, Auch die einzelnen Sprachzeichen sind analysierbar. Als Faustregel lehrte man langezeit bis heute: "so wortlich wie moglich und so frei wie notig ubersetzen". Die Ubersetzungstheorien werden formuliert, sobaid die Praxis nicht mehr reibungslos funtioniert und sich ein BewuBstsein uber die jeweilige Problematik entwickelt. Die linguistischen Ubersetzungtheorien sind die Grundlage des allen Uber- setzungstheorien. Sie sind aus einem Prozess kontinuierlicher Reflexion uber das Ubersetzen und Sprachwissenschaft erwachsen. Die Entwicklung fuhrte dabei von engeren Bereich einer Lexemanalyse uber Wortfeldstudie bis hin Textlinguistik, wobei ubersetzungsorientierte Fragestellungen die sprachwissenschaftlichen Erorterungen stets begleiten. Die textlinguistische Erweiterung der Ubersetzungswissenschaft hat das Augenmerk auf wertvolle Aspekte der Textkonstitution, Koharenz und Textgliederung gelenkt, die wissenschaftlich analysierbar sind. Mit ibrer Hilfe konnen ubersetzungspraktische Probleme eines Textes prazisiert und Charakteristika von Texttypen im konstrativen Vergleich beschrieben werden. Am Beginn sprachwissenschaftlichen Erorterungen stand eine textlinguistische Ubersetzungstheorie. Texte als jeweils Ganzes haben in sich eine umgreifende Gesamtheit, die die Einzelbedeutungen der Satze spezifisch relativiert und keineswegs nur aus der Aditlion dieser autonomen Satzbedeutungen besteht. Aus dieser Beobachtung ergab sich fur uns die Aufgabenstellung eines bilingualen Ubersetzungsvergleichs als Gegenuberstellung von Original und Ubersetzung bei gleichzeitiger Berucksichtigung textlinguistischer Aspekte. Die Grundlage des Ubersetzens ist das Verstehen. In einem Text wird immer mehr gemeint als gesagt ist. Die Textlinguistik sieht den Text als komplexes sprachliches Zeichen. Texte erhalten textinterne und textexterne Merkmale, die man mit linguistischen Methoden beschreiben und exklaren kann. Besondere Resonanz in der Ubersetzungswissenschaft hat die ubersetzungsrelevante Texttypologie bei Reiss gefunden. Reiss vertritt nun die Meinung, daB der Texttyp infolge seines je spezifischen Charakters uber die zu wahlende Ubersetzungsmethode entscheide. Das textbezogene Ubersetzungsverfahren wird verstanden als die Suche nach Aquivalenten fur ausgangsprachlichen Ubersetzungseinheiten der zeilsprachlichen Gestaltung. Dabei soll die Textfunktion erhalten bleiben. Beim Ubersetzen stellt es sich die Frage, wie man sprachlich operieren muB, um ausgangs- und zielsprachliche Textintegration zu gewahrleisten und interlinguale Strukturdivergenzen auf inhaltlich und stilistisch adaquate Weise zu neutralisieren. Fur eine wissenschaftliche Beschreibung der praktischen Losungen beim Ubergang von einer Sprache zur anderen angesichts der verschiedenen Entsprechungstypen in einem Sprachpaar ist der von Stylistique comparee vorwiegend in franzosischer Sprache entwickelte ubersetungstheoretische Ansatz grundlegend geworden Die sprachpaarbezogene Ubersetzungswissenschaft klassifiziert deskriptiv das Verhalten von Ubersetzern und verwendet die gewonnenen Kategorien dann praskriptiv fur die Ubersetungsdidaktik, Daher wind hier von einer Technik des Ubersetzens anhand der Oberflachenstrukturen auf der Textebene gesprochen im Sinne erlembarer Prozeduren zur Herstellung einer inhaltlich genauen Ubersetzung. Von der Stylistique comparee wurden folgende sieben ubersetzungsprozedurale Hauptklassen gebildet, von denen die ersten drei dem Bereich der wortlichen Ubersetzung (traduction directe) und vier der nichtwortlichen Ubersetzung (traduction oblique) zurechnen sind: 1) emprunt, 2) calque, 3) traduction litterale, 4) transposition, 5) modulation, 6) equivalence, 7) adaptation Anhand umfangreicher Beispieldiskussionen gelankt die Vertreter der Stylistique comparee zu dem Ergebnis, daB alles Ubersetzen unter sieben, oft in kombinierter Form auftretenden Hauptkategorien subsumierbar ist.

문학적 번역론

김효중 ( Hyo Joong Kim )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  42권 0호, 1999 pp. 137-155 ( 총 19 pages)
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Translation has much more complicated problems in itself than in general accepted. Translation is almost impossible and very difficult especially when it comes to translation of literary works. In 1984, the researchers who were involved for many years in the study of literary translation in Gottingen university, Germany, declared with determination that linguistic theories of translation cannot contribute to the translation of literary works basically. We can assume that literary translation is something really subtle and specific. The reason why it is difficult to translate literary works is because literary translation is not a transposition of linguistic cords but is deeply related to cultural factors. For two thousand years traditional(prescientific) translation theory was concerned only with outstanding literary works. The most influential concept in the history of translation is the dichotomy of word and sense, which traditional translation theory never managed to overcome, and which still besets translation theory today. It was Cicero in the first century BC who departed from the dogma that translation necessarily consisted of word-for-word rendering and so formulated the alternative: "Non ut interpres … sed ut orator". For the next two thousand years translation theory was mainly limited to a heated discussion of this dichotomy. Well over a thousand years later, in 1530, M. Luther was to fight a similar battle with the Church authorities of his time over the translation of the Bible into Germany. He defended the same basic principles as St. Jerome`s, but his words were a good deal more aggressive. The debate over the merits of the "faithful" and the "free" - the latter culminating in the "belles infideles" - continued to rage in Europe, and it found eloquent expression in Germany during the early years of the 19th century, when translation blossomed again with the romantic movement. After the announcement of Schleichermacher`s well known treatise "Ueber die verschiedenen Methoden des Ubersetzens(1813)" the emphasis has shifted from the category "not … but" to the more tolerant alternative "either … or", Schleichermacher makes it clear in his treatise that favours the Method of Verfremdung, or translation that is faithful to the original. Apart from the polarized approach represented in the dichotomy, translation theory also presented the means of differenciating and categorizing translation types. This approach was the one adopted by Dryden(1680). Here he distinguishes between metaphrase and imitation; between these two extremes is paraphrase. The two dominated methods in translation studies recently are those focused on primarily literary works, rejecting theoretical presuppositions, normative rules and linguistic method and those focused on linguistic matters, claiming a scientific approach and rejecting alogical solutions and subjective speculation. Naturally literary translation dismissed any scientific linguistic analysis; linguists dismissed non-scientific literary analysis. The Prague Structuralists viewed texts as incorporated within serniotic networks and languages as codes of complex language elements that are confined according to certain rule. Levy also incorporated the interpretive aspect into his translation theory, basing such deduction upon W. Quine`s hypothesis that translation meaning can be logically interpreted. With the establishment of the semiotic horizons which come into play in the course of translation, and with the posting of the interpretative component which enables the translator to grasp the meaning of the text in question, Levy was in a position to present his translation theory. Of primary importance in Levy`s model is that the literary quality of the works of art should not be lost. To ensure the transfer of "literariness", Levy foregrounds the particular communicative aspect of specific formal features of the original author`s style that gives the works of art its specific character. Levy bases this aspect of his translation theory on another of the founding members of the Prague linguistic circle, V. Mathesius. The formalist`s belief that poeticity was a formal quality, something that could be separated out of work, is crucial to understanding Levy`s translation theory. In "La theorie de l`expression et la traduction(1970)" Miko reports on his progress, defining what he calls the "expressive categories" of language which lend it its artistic quality. Popovic`s project begins where the work of Levy and Miko leaves off: he begins the comparative work of locating the conformities and the differences that occur when a literary work is translated and explain the relationship of the translated work to the original. Instead of prescribing a technique which eliminates, loses and smooths over changes, he accepts the fact that losses, gains, and changes are the necessary parts of the process because of inherent difference of intellectual and aesthetic values in the two cultures. He introduces a new term "shift of expression" to characterize this process. The scholars of the Manipulation School viewed translation studies as a branch of comparative literature. This school is centered round the Dutch-speaking area and is represented mainly by scholars such as Lefevere, Lambert, Hermans and some Israeli scholars such as Toury and Even-Zohar. According to Hermans all translations imply, from point of view of the target literature, a degree of manipulation of the source text for a certain purpose. Hence their starting-point is the exact opposite of that represented by the linguistically oriented school. The translation theory of this school is based on the concept of the literary polysystem going back to the Russian Formalists and the Prague Structuralists. Such a polysystem is not only characterized by constant shifts and changes, but also by internal oppositions, including between primary and secondary models and types. Such primary texts are the innovative ones, introducing into a literary polysystem new ideas, new methods, new ways of looking at literature and world. The secondary texts are the conservative ones which confirm and uphold the existing system. From this essentially target-oriented starting-point, the Manipulation scholars have developed their own tenets, methods and theoretical models. Their emphasis on the target text naturally leads to a primary descriptive approach. In this view, literary translation is seen as one of the elements participating in the constant struggle for survival and domination.

번역자의 편집인 역할

유영난
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번역의 손실과 보상

김윤진 ( Yoon Jin Kim )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  42권 0호, 1999 pp. 163-182 ( 총 20 pages)
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La perte ou l`entropie de la traduction et son corollaire, la compensation, sont les deux termes qu`on peut trouver facilement dans toutes les theories de la traduction. Mais la limite de Ia notion des mots reste assez floue que, sous ces noms, on peut designer toutes sortes de la difference entre le texte de depart et celui d`arrivee, tous les moyens de remplir le deficit de Ia traducion. Pour faciliter les traveaux du traducteur et pour mieux mesurer la qualite de la traduction, il faudrait d`abord delimiter le champ de la notion de la perte. Selon la definiton du dictionnaire, traduire, c`est faire ce qui etait enonce dans une langue le soit dans une autre, en tendant a l`equivalence semantique et expressive des deux enonces. De cette definition decoule le fait que l`objet de la traduction n`est pas la langue, systeme normatif du signe langagier, mais l`enonce realise dans le temps et l`espace concrets-que nous pourrion nommer le texte. Donc il est permis de penser qu`il y aurait deux sortes de pertes, l`une qui provient du cote de la difference des systemes langagiers, et l`autre du cote de la difference des normes de l`ecriture-que nous voulons considerer virtuellement comme texte-langue. En fait, nous employons diverses manieres de l`ecriture selon le type de texte et le but d`ecrire. L`usage du langage est regie par la visee de I`ecriture; Pour quoi on ecrit? et pour qui? ce sont les questions qui predisposent le comment ecrire. Si Ia visee du texte reside dans la transmission de l`information comme la revue scientifique, le journal, la difference d`entre deux langues ne presente aucune difficute de traduction, car l`essentiel, ce n`est pas l`identite ni la ressemblance du contenant -la structure linguistique- mais l`identite du contenu. Dans ce cas, on pourrait extraire le sens du texte en le deverbalisant et le reduisant au concept, et apres le reexprimer dans la langue d`arrivee conformement aux conventions de l`ecriture d`arrivee. Dans ce cas, on pourrait dire le niveau do langage est en grande partie soumise au niveau de Ia texte-langue. Mais le texte litteraire, ou le contenant et le contenu sont inseparablement unis, exige qu`on respecte la forme comme participant a la construction du sens. L`introduction de Ia notion de la texte-langue nous donne l`avantage de traiter d`un autre point de vue les difficutes de traduction que les traducteurs heurtent dans leur pratique. Ils n`auront plus de choisir entre deux manieres de traduire: traduire litteralement en risquant d`etre mal compris ou traduire librement en se voyant accuse d`avoir trahi le texte de depart. Parce qu`il est possible que Ia difference que I`on considere comme perte de traduction au niveau du langage ne le soit pas au niveau du texte. La perte de la traduction se produit au stade de la reexpression, si on articule le processus de Ia traduction en deux grandes parties:comprehension et reexpression. Si nous classons les cas ou se produit de la perte, ce serait le suivant: 1) quand on ne peut trouver aucun correspondant dans la LA au niveau de la langue: la distinction du passe compose et du passe simple du francais ne donne aucune valeur distinctive dans la langue coreenne. 2) quand la texte-langue de depart exige que la LA deforme sa structure syntaxique: la chaine de propositions relatives qu`on peut rencontrer dans le francais ne permet pas la meme chaine en coreen qui risque d`etre lourde. 3) quand les deux texte-langues se different entre deux langues: la rime, le strophe, la cesure etc. de la poesie francaise ne trouvent pas de correspondants dans la texte-langue poetique coreenne bien qu`il y ait des poemes reguliers coreenns. La compensation de Ia perte consistera en I`addition-comme la note, le paraphrase explicatif, la transposition au niveau syntaxique, et la modulationmoyen d`obtenir le meme effet dans le TA que dans le TD au niveau du texte. La traduction est une pratique necessairement ideologique: entre la langue de depart et la langue d`arrivee, entre I`auteur et le lecteur, on est contraint de choisir. La notion de la perte est aussi le resultat d`une choix ideologique. Mais si nous divisons la langue et la lague-texte, et que nous soumettons le niveau de la langue sous la celui du texte, les deux camps, les litteralistes et les traducteurs libres, qui menent jusqu`ici leur ancien combat, trouveront les moyens de coexister harmonieusement.
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