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논문검색은 역시 페이퍼서치


Seoul National University the Journal of Humanites

  • - 주제 : 인문과학분야 > 기타(인문과학)
  • - 성격 : 학술지
  • - 간기: 계간
  • - 국내 등재 : KCI 등재
  • - 해외 등재 : -
  • - ISSN : 1598-3021
  • - 간행물명 변경 사항 :
수록 범위 : 48권 0호 (2003)

번역과 텍스트기능

김윤한 ( Youn Han Kim )
Translation is a work of finding what is expressed in a text and inducing what is meant from the expression. To induce what is meant from what is expressed means to understand the text. However, the problem with this process, i.e., the difficulty of translation lies in the fact that a translator understands a text through his subjective judgement and that it is very hard to establish objective categories for analyzing texts in which situational, historical, individual, and incidental aspects are implied. Recently, lots of translation scholars, including Reiss, Vermeer, Paepcke, Koller, Stolze, Nord, and Honig, have been making efforts to establish a particular translation theory based on text types and linguistic categories. In other words, they are seeking a translation method for objectification of text comprehension, text types, and text analysis. Currently, linguistics-oriented translation theory of the 1970s is gradually giving way to functional translation theory. Thus, translation scholars should pay attention to the interaction among different cultures. A translated text provides actual and specific situation of acculturation, not a assumed one. In a word, translation is intercultural communication. The fundamental question of translation is how to overcome cultural barriers. In the process of translation, translators should always remember that different methods and structures of information transfer are applied to different cultures. With a presupposition that extratextual aspects play the most important role in the process of translation, I had thus far been analyzing, criticizing, and systematizing those aspects that will ensure optimal translation, and came to the following conclusion: 1) Current analytic/empirical methods cannot objectively analyze extratextual aspects. However, lots of translation scholars have been recently trying to provide a theoretical foundation for analyzing the extratextual aspects with the help of linguistic categories. Therefore, it will only be a matter of time before an acceptable methodology is established. 2) Quality of functional translation is closely related to ability to understand texts. Because text comprehension does not depend on objective methods but on translators` subjective judgement, interdisciplinary research with hermeneutics is essential. After all, whether a translation succeeds or not depends on translation competence of translators. 3) Different text types should be handled differently in the process of culture-oriented translation. Translation scholars should pay more attention to typification and characteristics of text types. As mentioned above, I tried to establish an optimal translation theory on the basis of text theory. However, this conclusion is still in doubt as to how useful it will be in regards to the actual process of translation, because functional translation theory requires the consideration of too many extralinguistic aspects.

불,한 형용사 어휘 대조 연구 서설 -관계형용사의 경우를 중심으로-

홍재성 ( Chai Song Hong )
Dans le present article, nous nous proposons de decrire divers aspects de la correspondance entre les adjectifs dits de relation en francais et leurs equivalents coreens, dans le cadre de Ia lexicologie contrastive. Etant donne que Ia langue coreene ne possede pas la classe d`adjectifs en question, ce travail constitue un exemple de la mise en contraste, dans deux langues, d`une sous-classe lexicale "dissymetrique," c`est-a-dire celle qui existe dans la langue source, mais qui est totalement absente dans la langue cible. Pour ce faire, nous avons tout d`abord mis en evidence les proprietes contrastives de la categorie adjectivale en francais et en coreen dans la perspective de la typologie des parties du discours: le francais est une langue a adjectifs "nominaux," tandis que le coreen est une langue a adjectifs "verbaux." Apres avoir rappele les points essentiels de Ia problematique dans l`etude des adjectifs relationnels francais(AR), nous avons ensuite examine de maniere succincte les principaux types des equivalents coreens des adjectifs francais. En vue d`analyser les expressions coreennes qui correspondent aux AR, nous avons essaye d`etablir un classement des syntagmes nominaux francais comportant un adjectif de cc type: N1+AR et ce, en recourant aux parametres suivants: la predicativite du nom tete N1 et les relations semantiques entre N1+AR A la suite de l`examen des expressions equivalentes coreennes des syntagmes nominaux en question, nous pouvons faire, entre autres, les observations suivantes. (1) les AR ne correspondent en aucun cas aux adjectifs en coreen. (2) les AR ont divers types d`equivalents careens: nom, racine, constituant de mot compose, prefixe, et syntagme constitue d`un nom et d`une postposition genitive. (3) les expressions coreennes equivalentes a Ia suite N1+AR constituent, pour la plupart, les formes complexes fortement lexicalisees. Ces observations justifient notre demarche consistant a recenser, en nous recourant au systeme de classification des suites N1+AR, le plus possible de paires d`equivalence etablies dans cette etude. Le resultat des descriptions contrastives de ce type prendra la forme d`un sous-lexique electronique bilingue francais-coreen des adjectives.
본 논고를 통해 필자는 프랑스의 아방가르드 작가인 Phillipe sollers(Phillipe Joyaux의 필명, 1936~)에 대한 Roland Barthes의 짧은 평론, Sollers Ecrivain (l979)의 영역본 출판이 Barthes의 사후에 이루어질 정도로 긴 시간이 걸린 이유에 대해서 고찰해보고자 한다. 아울러 이 문제와 관련하여 본 논고에서는 H (l984), Parαdise I(1981), Parαdise Ⅱ(1986)와 같이 l`ecriture percurrent (percurrent writing : 비종결 형식의 글쓰기) 형식으로 쓰여진 Sollers의 작품들에 대한 영역 작업이 아직 이루어지지 못하고 있는 이유에 대한 논의도 이루어질 것이다. 언급한 논제들에 대한 답변을 위해서는 영역 작업이 이루어진 몇 안되는 Sollers의 작품들-The Challenge(1957/66), A Strange Solitude(1956/61), The Park (1961/68), Women(1983/90), Watteau in Venice(1991/94)-의 문학적 수용에 대한 고찰과 그의 후기 아방가르드 텍스트들에 대한 영역이 아직 이루어지지 않은 이유에 대한 설명이 필요할 것으로 판단된다. 이 두 논제들에 대한 답변을 제시하는 과정에서의 필자의 목적은 세 가지로 나누어 볼 수 있다. 첫째로 Sollers의 아방가르드 작품들에 대한 비평적 관점을 제시하고자 하며, 두 번째로 구쳬적 의미를 내포하지 않는 과격한 ``비종결 형식의 글쓰기``로 쓰여진 Sollers의 텍스트를 다루는 데 있어 필요한 독법을 고찰해보고자 하며, 그리고 마지막으로 Sollers의 작품들을 번역하는 과정에서 직면하게 되는 여러 문제들에 대한 주의를 환기시키고자 한다. Sollers의 아방가르드 텍스트를 비평적 관점에서 살펴보았을 때 그의 ``비종결 형식의 글쓰기`` 는 ``시각적`` 구두점의 생략과 엄격하게 반복되는 운율이라는 두가지 원리를 특징으로 한다. ``비종결 형식의 글쓰기``는 무의식적 글쓰기, 단어의 분리, 자장가 운율, 에피퍼니, 수사적 기교, 생략, 운율적 설화법, 언어의 성징(性徵), 격언 사용, 눈에 띄지 않게 하기, 철학적 빙백 및 공상적 전환 등과 같은 형태의 여러 작문법이 혼합된 형태로 Sollers 자신이 ``강화된 발화법`` 라고 부르는 형태의 글쓰기이다. Sollers의 작품 읽기와 관련된 필자의 입장은 반발적이거나 쉽게 흥분하지 않을 수 있는 대담한 독자들만이 그의 텍스트를 기꺼이 받아들일 수 있다는 것이다. Sollers의 자유로운 글쓰기는 즉각적인 의식적 효과를 기대하는 형태의 독법은 거부하고 있기 때문이다. 본 논고는 ``비종결 형식의 글쓰기``에 따른 Sollers의 텍스트를 영어로 옮기려는 번역가들이 직면할 수 있는 딜레마에 대한 논의로 마무리된다. 논의의 요점은 번역가들은 이 경우 뚜렷한 선택의 문제를 대하게 되는데, 이는 해당 텍스트의 의미와 구문 형태 다시 말해, 텍스트의 넌센스적인 부분과 비정상 적인 구문형태를 피역(被譯) 언어의 텍스트로 재생하는 의미론적 번역 방식을 따를 것인가, 아니면 최종 번역 텍스트가 그 언어로 제대로 읽혀질 수 있느냐에 중점을 두는 의사 소통 중심의 번역 방식을 따를 것인가의 문제이다.

판타지로서의 시: 『황무지』의 정신분석학적 읽기

이정호 ( Chong Ho Lee )
One of the cogent reasons why we can read The Waste Land is provided by no other than Eliot himself. Refuting many critics` claim that it is a "criticism of the contemporary world", Eliot said that the poem was simply written as "the relief of a personal and wholly insignificant grouse against life." Even though we do not really know how the poem was written, we can not deny the claim that a psychoanalytical reading of the poem is a very valid approach to it. One very convincing piece of evidence that we are on the right track in reading this poem from a psychoanalytic point of view can be found in the many expressions evincing ambivalent attitude toward life and death. The fact that the poem begins with a very impressive image of the Sybil who shows an ambivalent attitude toward life undeniably constitutes a firm basis for this argument. In the poem we come across a semantically very bizarre phrase: The corpse you planted last year in your garden, /Has it begun to sprout? This expression shows the mixture of libido and thanatos lurking in the unconscious of T. S. Eliot himself. Tiresias himself can be seen as another very interesting repre sentation of Eliot`s unconscious ambivalence toward his sexual identity. Read from a psychoanalytical point of view, the poem clearly shows Eliot`s private fantasy deep in his unconscious. As psychoanalysts say, this poem clearly shows how Eliot`s repressed desire comes to the surface of consciousness in a bizarre and twisted manner.

비교언어학 및 유전학적 방법에 의한 한국어 기원의 탐구

이상억 ( Sang Oak Lee ) , 이정빈 ( Jung Bin Lee ) , 김선영 ( Sun Young Kim ) , 천종식 ( Jong Sik Chun )
서울대학교 인문학연구원|인문논총  48권 0호, 2003 pp. 109-145 ( 총 37 pages)
In exploring the origins of the Korean language, there are three windows through which we may penetrate the mysteries of this difficult question: archaeological, genetic/ genomic, and linguistic. In this paper I will try to answer this question by looking mainly through the latter two windows. As many linguists have attempted to place the Korean language into the proper language family according to linguistic affinity, I also want to classifly the Korean language with linguistically related languages, mainly the Altaic languages. The so-called Altaic linguistics is very unstable compared with the more rigorously documented Indo-European linguistics. The lack of sufficient evidence, such as a common indigenous lexicon, has made it difficult to ascertain the genetic relationships and origins of languages such as Korean, Japanese, ManchuTungusic (Man, Gold(i), Oroqen, Ewenke, Lamut, Nanay, etc.), Mongolian (Khalkha, Chakhar, Urat, Khorchin, Ordos, Buriat, Oirat, Kalmyk, Da(g)ur, Monguor, Yellow Uighur. etc.) and Turkish (Turkish, Turkmen(ian), Azerbaidjani, Uighur, Uzbek, Kumyk, Tatar, Kazakh, Kirg(h)iz, Yakut, Altai, and chuvash, etc.), which are typically classified as Altaic. Recently Starostin (1991) claimed that Proto-Altaic had disappeared around the sixth century B.C. Other measures are needed to evaluate this hypothesis, though, since the intra-linguistic debate has not provided any clear evidence or breakthroughs. That is why we turn to genetics as an approach and incorporate the results to shed new light on the origins of the Korean language. It has been shown that analysis of mitochondrial DNA, transmitted through maternal lineage, can be used to test this kind of hypothesis. After collecting data from such ethnic groups as Korean, Japanese, Ewenke, Nanay, Khalkha, Buriat, and Turkish, we have investigated information on mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA). While we do not use the popular STR markers on Y chromosomes (namely, DYS19, DYS3891, etc.) in this study, we will type a number of Korean, Tungusic and Mongolian populations on Y chromosomes, and other nuclear markers such as the gene encoding cytochrome B will be isolated by the polymerase chain reaction, as in the next study,. In reality, it was rather difficult to extract genes from hair-roots and saliva, especially when there were not many samples available for serious study. Yet, we could fill the void for Koreans in the map that shows the mitochondrial DNA types in Africans, Australian Aborigines, Caucasians, East Asians, Native Americans and New Guineas. The nucleotide sequences were determined through phylogenetic analysis. If we can position the sequences from Koreans in the currently available genealogical tree based on mitochondrial DNA, we may be able to reassess the existing hypotheses on linguistic genealogy. However, because primordial remains or ancient fragments of linguistic evidence are not readily available in Korea due to special geo-political situations, the position of the Korean language has been left unattested in the genealogical tree based on languages. Nonetheless, there are some examples similar to the Altaic languages that are estimated to have been used in Korea, and using these we may draw the linguistic tree shown below. Turkic Mongolian Manchu-Tungusic Korean Japanese On the other hand, our investigation through which maternal lineage alone has well established a biological lineage can be reported as follows. Turkic Korean/Japanese Mongolian Tungusic Korean is not isolated from Japanese, and the sisterhood with Turkic is also strange because the similarity between Korean and Manchu-Tungusic is more convincing according to linguistic evidences. It looks to be difficult to conclude anything at this stage of research. However, we know the genetic methods are quite scientific, while the comparative linguistic study often relies on abstract reconstruction.